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Etudes Cliniques

Les résumés sont présentés ci-dessous pour des études cliniques sur Red Saunders.

  • Nom Botanique: Pterocarpus Santalinus

  • Nom Sanscrit: Rakta Chandana

  • Nom Standardisé: Red Saunders

Pterocarpus Santalinus

Profile Phytonutriment de Plante


1: Phytother Res. 2007 Feb;21(2):190/​3.

Pterocarpus santalinus: an In Vitro study on its anti/​Helicobacter pylori
effect.

Narayan S, Veeraraghavan M, Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600
025, India. shoba_narayan@rediffmail.com

The anti/​H. pylori activity of Pterocarpus santalinus (PS), a traditional herb,
has been assessed and compared with that of bismuth subcitrate, through in vitro
studies employing rat gastric epithelial cell cultures and H. pylori isolates
from gastric mucosal biopsy patients. The MIC of PS was found to be 20
microg/mL. H. pylori was co/​cultivated with rat gastric epithelial cells in the
presence/absence of PS at its MIC. A reduction in the activity of urease, a
normal appearance of the epithelial cells on electron microscopic examination, a
decrease in lipid peroxidation and lactate dehydrogenase suggests the possible
anti/​H. pylori activity of PS. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17128431 [PubMed /​ in process]

2: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1/​2):229/​34. Epub 2005 Dec 2.

Methanolic extract of Pterocarpus santalinus induces apoptosis in HeLa cells.

Kwon HJ, Hong YK, Kim KH, Han CH, Cho SH, Choi JS, Kim BW.

Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Science,
Dongeui University, Busan 614/​714, Republic of Korea.

Ptercarpus santalinus (Fabaceae) has been used as a folk remedy in Korea, and it
has been shown to exhibit antiinflammations, antiulcers and anticancer effects.
In this study, therefore, we report the cytotoxic activity and the mechanism of
cell death exhibited by the methanol extract of Ptercarpus santalinus (MEPS)
against human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line, HeLa. Treatment of HeLa cells
with various concentrations of MEPS resulted in growth inhibition and induction
of apoptosis in a dose/​dependent manner as determined by cell viability,
chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and sub/​G1 phase accumulation. In
Western blot analysis, apoptosis in the HeLa cells was associated with the
release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol, activation of
caspases/​3, /​8, /​9 and proteolytic cleavage of PARP. These results suggest that
MEPS exhibits antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells via apoptosis, and it may
be a potential candidate in field of anticancer drug discovery.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16326057 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Phytother Res. 2005 Nov;19(11):958/​62.

Pterocarpus santalinus: a traditional herbal drug as a protectant against
ibuprofen induced gastric ulcers.

Narayan S, Devi RS, Srinivasan P, Shyamala Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, India
600 025.

The ethanol extract of Pterocarpus santalinus (PS) was evaluated for
gastroprotection in rats using ibuprofen as the induction model. Rats treated
with PS (100/​400 mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in gastric lesions. PS at
a dose of 200 mg/kg was found to be the minimum effective dose and hence further
studies with that dose were carried out. PS treatment increased the LDH activity
and decreased the lipid peroxidation levels. The extract had the ability to
increase the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GPx when compared with the
untreated but induced rats. The membrane bound ATPases /​ H(+)K(+)ATPase,
Na(+)K(+)ATPase and Ca(2+)ATPases were increased upon the induction with
ulcerogen. The treated group showed a decrease in the activities of these
enzymes and also had the ability to restore the sodium and potassium ion
concentrations to near normal levels, which were altered by ibuprofen mediated
acid stimulation. The results suggest that the antiulcer properties of PS could
traced to its acid inhibiting potential, antioxidant activity and the ability to
maintain functional integrity of the cell membranes.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16317653 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2003 Mar;2(1):25/​39.

Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

Biswas TK, Mukherjee B.

Department of Sharira Kriya, J. B. Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College and
Hospital.

Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical
sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural
resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of
medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in
the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most
of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been
screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in
different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains
unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some
Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon,
Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa,
Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica,
Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental
models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic
medicine.

PMID: 15866825 [PubMed]

5: Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2004 Dec;3(4):227/​32.

The clinical evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Ointment on lower
extremity wounds/​/​a preliminary report.

Biswas TK, Maity LN, Mukherjee B.

Department of Sharira Kriya, J. B. Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College and
Hospital, Kolkata, India.

Pterocarpus santalinus is described in the Ayurveda for its wide spectrum of
medicinal properties including wound healing. Previously the authors reported
animal studies that demonstrated that an ointment made from the bark of this
tree was effective without any toxic effects. They used the same ointment in 6
cases of lower extremity wounds. Healing was observed in all wounds. The study
was not controlled, the findings are presented here as case studies. Further
studies are planned to develop a wound healing ointment from a locally available
and inexpensive plant.

PMID: 15866819 [PubMed]

6: Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2004 Sep;3(3):143/​50.

Wound healing potential of Pterocarpus santalinus linn: a pharmacological
evaluation.

Biswas TK, Maity LN, Mukherjee B.

Department of Sharira Kriya, J. B. Roy State Ayurvedic Medical College and
Hospital, Kolkata, India.

The need for new therapeutics for wound healing has encouraged the drive to
examine the nature and value of plant products. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional
system of medicine, mentions the values of medicinal plants for wound healing.
One of these is Pterocarpus santalinus. This article describes a pharmacological
study to evaluate its toxicity as well as wound/​healing potential in animal
studies. Powder made from the wood of the P. santalinus tree was used to make up
an ointment in a petroleum jelly base. No toxic effects were observed in 72
hours. Studies were done on punch and burn wound models on normal and diabetic
rats using the test ointment, untreated and vehicle controls, and standard
therapy. Physical and biochemical measurements were made. The test
ointment/​treated wounds healed significantly faster. On healing, collagenesis
and biochemical measurements yielded supportive data. These studies permit the
conclusion that the P. santalinus ointment is safe and effective in treating
acute wounds in animal models.

PMID: 15866805 [PubMed]

7: Phytochemistry. 2004 Dec;65(23):3125/​9.

Two aurone glycosides from heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus.

Kesari AN, Gupta RK, Watal G.

Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India.
achyut_nar@yahoo.com

Two new aurone glycosides, 6 hydroxy 5 methyl 3',4',5' trimethoxy aurone
4/​O/​alpha/​L/​rhamnopyranoside and 6,4' dihydroxy aurone 4/​O/​rutinoside have been
isolated from the ethanolic extract of the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Their
structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis
(UV, IR, EIMS, (1)H and (13)C NMR).

PMID: 15541741 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Fitoterapia. 2000 Feb;71(1):10/​3.

A new triterpene from callus of Pterocarpus santalinus.

Krishnaveni KS, Srinivasa Rao JV.

Department of Botany, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Sri Venkateswara
University, Tirupati 517 502, India. kvrao5i@hotmail.com

A new pentacyclic triterpene was isolated from the callus induced from the stem
cuttings of Pterocarpus santalinus. Based on spectral methods, the structure of
the new compound was elucidated as 3/​ketooleanane (1).

PMID: 11449463 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Indian J Exp Biol. 2000 Dec;38(12):1270/​3.

Influence of growth regulators and explant type on in vitro shoot propagation
and rooting of red sandal wood (Pterocarpus santalinus L.).

Arockiasamy S, Ignacimuthu S, Melchias G.

Entomology Research Institute, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034, India.

In vitro shoot regeneration in Pterocarpus santalinus L. was achieved when
detached cotyledons from in vitro germinated seedlings were cultured on MS
medium containing NAA (0.1 mg/L), BA (1 mg/L) and kinetin (1 mg/L). The
regenerated shoots rooted on 1/4 strength MS medium with IAA (1 mg/L) and the
fully developed plantlets were successfully established in the soil.

PMID: 11411054 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

10: J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2000;2(3):219/​23.

A new isoflavone glucoside from Pterocarpus santalinus.

Krishnaveni KS, Srinivasa Rao JV.

Department of Botany, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Sri Venkateswara
University, Tirupati, India. kvrao51@hotmail.com

A new isoflavone glucoside (1) together with the known santal has been isolated
from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Based on spectral methods, the
structure of the new compound was elucidated as 4',5/​dihydroxy 7/​O/​methyl
isoflavone 3'/​O/​beta/​D/​glucoside.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11256696 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

11: Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Feb;24(2):167/​71.

Savinin, a lignan from Pterocarpus santalinus inhibits tumor necrosis
factor/​alpha production and T cell proliferation.

Cho JY, Park J, Kim PS, Yoo ES, Baik KU, Park MH.

R & D Center, Daewooang Pharmaceutical Co.. Ltd., Sungnam, Korea .
jae.cho@ucl.ac.uk

Two lignans were isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus by
activity/​guided fractionation and investigated for their biological properties
and molecular mechanism of action. On the basis of their spectroscopic data,
these compounds were identified as savinin (1) and calocedrin (2), dibenzyl
butyrolactone/​type lignan compounds having an alpha/​arylidene gamma/​lactone
structure. These lignans significantly inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)/​a
production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/​stimulated RAW264.7 cells, and T cell
proliferation elicited by concanavalin (Con A), without displaying cytotoxicity.
The molecular inhibitory mechanism of compound 1 was confirmed to be mediated by
the non/​polar butyrolactone ring, according to a structure/​relationship study
with structurally related and unrelated compounds, such as arctigenin (a
dibenzyl butyrolactone type lignan), eudesmin (a furofuran type lignan),
isolariciresinol (a dibenzylbutane type lignan), and cynaropicrin (a
sesquiterpene lactone). The results suggest that savinin may act as an active
principle in the reported biological activities of P. santalinus, such as
antiinflammatory effect, by mediation of the butyrolactone ring as a valuable
pharmacophore.

PMID: 11217086 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

12: J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Jan;74(1):69/​74.

Effect of oral administration of bark extracts of Pterocarpus santalinus L. on
blood glucose level in experimental animals.

Kameswara Rao B, Giri R, Kesavulu MM, Apparao C.

Department of Biochemistry, S.V. University, 517502, A.P., Tirupathi, India.

The effect of administration of different doses of Pterocarpus santalinus L.
bark extracts in normal and diabetic rats, on blood glucose levels was evaluated
in this study. Among the three fractions (aqueous, ethanol and hexane),
ethanolic fraction at the dose of 0.25 g/kg body weight showed maximum
antihyperglycemic activity. The same dose did not cause any hypoglycemic
activity in normal rats. The results were compared with the diabetic rats
treated with glibenclamide and the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic
extract of PS bark at the dose of 0.25 g/kg b.w. was found to be more effective
than that of glibenclamide.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11137350 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 Sep;48(9):1373/​4.

A new acylated isoflavone glucoside from Pterocarpus santalinus.

Krishnaveni KS, Srinivasa Rao JV.

Department of Botany, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Sri Venkateswara
University, Tirupati, India. kvrao51@hotmail.com

Phytochemical investigation on the constituents of heartwood of Pterocarpus
santalinus resulted in the isolation of a new acylated isoflavone glucoside. The
structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral studies as
4',5/​dihydroxy/​7/​O/​methyl isoflavone 3'/​O/​D/​(3''/​E/​cinnamoyl)glucoside.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10993243 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Phytochemistry. 2000 Mar;53(5):605/​6.

An isoflavone from Pterocarpus santalinus.

Krishnaveni KS, Rao JV.

Department of Botany, School of Biological and Earth Sciences, Sri Venkateswara
University, Tirupati, India. kvrao51@hotmail.com

A new isoflavone together with liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin has been
isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Based on spectral
methods, the structure of the new compound was elucidated as
6/​hydroxy,7,2',4',5'/​tetramethoxyisoflavone.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non/​U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10724187 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Contact Dermatitis. 1996 Jan;34(1):69.

Allergic contact dermatitis from red sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus).

Sandra A, Shenoi SD, Srinivas CR.

Department of Dermatology, Kasturba Hospital, Karnataka, India.

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 8789238 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Stain Technol. 1981 Mar;56(2):83/​5.

Chemical aspects of santalin as a histological stain.

Banerjee A, Mukherjee AK.

Recent research on the chemical nature of the red dyes isolated from Pterocarpus
santalinus and certain West African plants, viz., Baphia nitida, Pterocarpus
osun and Pterocarpus soyauxii, have been reviewed. P. santalinus contains
santalins A, B and C, but no santarubin. Santalins and santarubins have been
found in P. osun, P. soyauxii and B. nitida. The structural formulae of the
santalins are presented and their differences from santarubins indicated.
Santalins A and B have some similarities in structure with hematein. This is
probably responsible for their staining properties; the possible mechanism of
staining is discussed.

PMID: 6166100 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Stain Technol. 1981 Mar;56(2):79/​82.

Newer applications of the histological stain prepared from Pterocarpus
santalinus.

Sen Gupta PC, Mukherjee AK.

A histological stain prepared from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.
has been found to be an excellent nuclear stain for various cells of animal and
plant origin. As an elastic tissue stain, the results are comparable to standard
elastic tissue stains. The striations of voluntary muscle fibers are well shown.
The Nissl granules and fibers of cranial nerves in the pons are visualized. When
counterstained with light green, it differentially stains muscle and fibrous
tissue. The stain can be used as counterstain with certain histochemical
procedures with satisfactory results. The preparation and use of this versatile
stain are described.

PMID: 6166099 [PubMed /​ indexed for MEDLINE]


 

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