Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Amla.

  • Botanical Name: Phyllanthus Emblica

  • Ayurvedic Name: Amalaki

  • Common Name: Amla

Phyllanthus Emblica

Plant Phytonutrient Profile

1: Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Nov;29(11):2313-6.

Development and application of RAPD-SCAR marker for identification of
Phyllanthus emblica LINN.

Dnyaneshwar W, Preeti C, Kalpana J, Bhushan P.

Bioprospecting Laboratory, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences,
University of Pune, India.

Correct genotype identification of medicinal plant material remains important
for botanical drug industry. Limitations of chemical and morphological
approaches for authentication have generated need for newer methods in quality
control of botanicals. The present study was carried out to develop DNA based
marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN. A putative marker (1.1
kb) specific for P. emblica was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) technique. Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was
developed from the RAPD amplicon. The SCAR marker was found useful for
identification of P. emblica in its commercial samples and Triphalachurna, a
multi-component Ayurvedic formulation.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17077537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Oct;291(1-2):77-82. Epub 2006 Sep 5.

Restorative effect of Kalpaamruthaa, an indigenous preparation, on oxidative
damage in mammary gland mitochondrial fraction in experimental mammary

Arulkumaran S, Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. ALM. Post Graduate Institute of Basic
Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, 600113, India.

Cancer prevention and treatment using phytochemicals have attracted increased
interest. Recent studies have shown that Semecarpus anacardium Linn nut milk
extract (SA), a promising antioxidant and anticancer drug, exerts its anticancer
effect through reducing or quenching reactive oxygen species under different
conditions. The present study examined whether Phyllanthus emblica Linn fruit,
rich in vitamin C content synergistically in combination can enhance both the
antioxidant and anticancer activity of S. anacardium nut milk extract in 7,
12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced experimental mammary carcinoma in
rat model. Female Sprague Dawley rats of 180 +/- 10 g were categorized into six
groups. Three groups were administered DMBA (25mg/rat, orally) dissolved in
olive oil to induce mammary carcinoma. One of these groups received
Kalpaamruthaa (KA) (300 mg/kg b.wt, orally) and other group received SA
(200mg/kg b.wt, orally) for 14 days after 90 days of DMBA induction. A vehicle
treated control and drug control groups were also included. The mitochondrial
fraction of untreated DMBA-induced mammary gland showed 2.61-fold increase in
lipid peroxidation level and abnormal changes in the activities/levels of
mitochondrial enzymic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and
glutathione reductase) and non-enzymic (glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E)
antioxidants were observed. DMBA treated rats also showed decline in the
activities of mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate
dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase.
In contrast, rats treated with Kalpaamruthaa showed normal lipid peroxide level
and antioxidant defenses. The results of the present study highlight the
improved antioxidant property of KA than sole treatment of S. anacardium nut
milk extract.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16953336 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Microbiol Res. 2006 Jul 24; [Epub ahead of print]

Production of tannase from Aspergillus ruber under solid-state fermentation
using jamun (Syzygium cumini) leaves.

Kumar R, Sharma J, Singh R.

Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra-136 119,
Haryana, India.

Tannase producing fungal strains were isolated from different locations
including garbages, forests and orchards, etc. The strain giving maximum enzyme
yield was identified to be Aspergillus ruber. Enzyme production was studied
under solid state fermentation using different tannin rich substrates like ber
leaves (Zyzyphus mauritiana), jamun leaves (Syzygium cumini), amla leaves
(Phyllanthus emblica) and jawar leaves (Sorghum vulgaris). Jamun leaves were
found to be the best substrate for enzyme production under solid-state
fermentation (SSF). In SSF with jamun leaves, the maximum production of tannase
was found to be at 30 degrees C after 96h of incubation. Tap water was found to
be the best moistening agent, with pH 5.5 in ratio of 1:2 (w/v) with substrate.
Addition of carbon and nitrogen sources to the medium did not increase tannase
production. Under optimum conditions as standardized here, the enzyme production
was 69U/g dry substrate. This is the first report on production of tannase by A.
ruber, giving higher yield under SSF with agro-waste as the substrate.

PMID: 16870410 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4: Mutat Res. 2006 Oct 10;609(1):17-25. Epub 2006 Jul 24.

Protection against radiation oxidative damage in mice by Triphala.

Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Bhilwade HN, Chaubey RC, Priyadarsini KI,
Mishra KP.

Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India.

Protection against whole body gamma-irradiation (WBI) of Swiss mice orally fed
with Triphala (TPL), an Ayurvedic formulation, in terms of mortality of
irradiated animals as well as DNA damage at cellular level has been
investigated. It was found that radiation induced mortality was reduced by 60%
in mice fed with TPL (1g/kg body weight/day) orally for 7 days prior to WBI at
7.5 Gy followed by post-irradiation feeding for 7 days. An increase in xanthine
oxidoreductase activity and decrease in superoxide dismutase activity was
observed in the intestine of mice exposed to WBI, which, however, reverted back
to those levels of sham-irradiated controls, when animals were fed with TPL for
7 days prior to irradiation. These data have suggested the prevention of
oxidative damage caused by whole body radiation exposure after feeding of
animals with TPL. To further understand the mechanisms involved, the magnitude
of DNA damage was studied by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) in blood
leukocytes and splenocytes obtained from either control animals or those fed
with TPL for 7 days followed by irradiation. Compared to irradiated animals
without administering TPL, the mean tail length was reduced about three-fold in
blood leukocytes of animals fed with TPL prior to irradiation. Although, similar
protection was observed in splenocytes of TPL fed animals, the magnitude of
prevention of DNA damage was significantly higher than that observed in
leukocytes. It has been concluded that TPL protected whole body irradiated mice
and TPL induced protection was mediated through inhibition of oxidative damage
in cells and organs. TPL seems to have potential to develop into a novel herbal
radio-protector for practical applications.

PMID: 16860592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Oct 11;107(3):361-4. Epub 2006 Apr 18.

The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced
rat hepatic injury.

Pramyothin P, Samosorn P, Poungshompoo S, Chaichantipyuth C.

Pharmacological Action of Natural Products Research Unit, Department of
Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok, Thailand. [email protected]

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus
emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1
mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being
treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the
release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum
transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride
(HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination.
Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL
(silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol,
lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE
dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75
mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4
g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT,
IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial
roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16750340 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2006 Mar;61(1):1-5.

Nitric oxide radical scavenging active components from Phyllanthus emblica L.

Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ.

Department of Chemistry, Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai, 600 059,
Tamil Nadu, India. [email protected]

An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to identify
the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging components of Phyllanthus emblica. Dried fruit
rind of P. emblica was extracted with methanol and then separated into hexane,
ethyl acetate, and water fractions. Among these only the ethyl acetate phase
showed strong NO scavenging activity in vitro, when compared with water and
hexane phases. The ethyl acetate fraction was then subjected to separation and
purification using Sephadex LH-20 chromatography. Five compounds showing strong
NO scavenging activity were identified by spectral methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, and
MS) and by comparison with literature values to be Gallic acid, Methyl gallate,
Corilagin, Furosin, and Geraniin. In addition, HPLC identification and
quantification of isolated compounds were also performed. Gallic acid was found
to be a major compound in the ethyl acetate extract and Geraniin showed highest
NO scavenging activity among the isolated compounds.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16688481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2005 Dec;51(6):413-8.

Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on hypercholesterolemia and
lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats.

Kim HJ, Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Tohda C, Rao TP, Juneja LR.

Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University,
2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.

The effects of amla on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and cholesterol
levels were investigated in vitro and in vivo using Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation
and cholesterol-fed rats. SunAmla and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of amla
significantly inhibited thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance level in
the Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation and the effects were stronger than those of
probucol. In addition, the administration of SunAmla (at a dose of 20 or 40
mg/kg body weight/d) or EtOAc extract of amla (at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg body
weight/d) for 20 d to rats fed 1% cholesterol diet significantly reduced total,
free and LDL-cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner, and EtOAc extract of
amla exhibited more potent serum cholesterol-lowering effect than SunAmla in the
same amount. Furthermore, the oxidized LDL level in serum was markedly elevated
in cholesterol-fed control rats as compared with normal rats, while it was
significantly decreased by the administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of
amla. Moreover, the serum TBA-reactive substance level was also significantly
decreased after oral administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla. These
results suggest that amla may be effective for hypercholesterolemia and
prevention of atherosclerosis.

PMID: 16521700 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Phytomedicine. 2006 Mar;13(4):222-9. Epub 2005 Sep 27.

Protective effect of CardiPro against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in

Mohan IK, Kumar KV, Naidu MU, Khan M, Sundaram C.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Nizam's Institute of Medical
Sciences, Punjagutta, Hyderabad, 500082, India.

The effect of CardiPro, a polyherbal formulation, with an antioxidant property,
has been studied on doxorubicin (DXR)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. CardiPro
(150 mg/kg b.w., twice daily was administered orally for 7 weeks along with four
equal injections (each containing 4.0 mg/kg b.w., DXR) intraperitoneally, once
weekly (cumulative dose 16 mg/kg). After a 3-week post DXR treatment period,
cardiotoxicity was assessed by noting mortality, volume of ascites, liver
congestion, changes in heart weight, myocardial lipid peroxidation, antioxidant
enzymes and histology of heart. DXR-treated animals showed higher mortality
(50%) and more ascites. Myocardial SOD and glutathione peroxidase activity were
decreased and lipid peroxidation was increased. Histology of heart of
DXR-treated animals showed loss of myofibrils and focal cytoplasmic
vacuolization. CardiPro significantly protected the mice from DXR-induced
cardiotoxic effects as evidenced by lower mortality (25%), less ascites,
myocardial lipid peroxidation, normalization of antioxidant enzymes and minimal
damage to the heart histologically. Our data confirm the earlier reports that
DXR cardiotoxicity is associated with the free radical-induced tissue damage.
Administration of CardiPro, with an antioxidant property, protected the
DXR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16492523 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Dec;24(4):555-63.

Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on
benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system.

Deep G, Dhiman M, Rao AR, Kale RK.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal
Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive
potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants
namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala
is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have
shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]
induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment
groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala
mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced
to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor
burden was 7.27 +/- 1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced
to 3.00 +/- 0.82 (p < 0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p < 0.001) by 5%
dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17 +/-
0.75 (p < 0.001) and 2.00 +/- 0.71 (p < 0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala,
respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in
reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also
significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have
contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of
multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16471318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Phytother Res. 2006 Jan;20(1):79-81.

Inhibitory effect of Thai plant extracts on P-glycoprotein mediated efflux.

Junyaprasert VB, Soonthornchareonnon N, Thongpraditchote S, Murakami T, Takano

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 447
Sri-Ayutthaya, Rajathavee, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. [email protected]

Curcuminoids from Curcuma longa L. and extracts of Psidium guajava L.,
Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees, Phyllanthus emblica L. and Solanum
trilobatum L. were investigated for their inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein
(P-gp) on the efflux transport of rhodamine 123 (Rho-123 ) in Caco-2 cells and
rat ileum. Of the five tested samples, curcuminoids and an extract of P. guajava
showed the highest inhibitory effect on P-gp mediated efflux of Rho-123 in
Caco-2 cells. Additionally, they were found to have equal potential in
inhibiting Rho-123 efflux transport from serosal to mucosal surfaces of the rat
ileum. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16397849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2005 Oct;5(10):1665-71.

Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis fruit
extract, their phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution.

Ankamwar B, Damle C, Ahmad A, Sastry M.

Nanoscience Group, Materials Chemistry Division, National Chemical Laboratory,
Pune, India.

The design, synthesis and characterization of biologically synthesized
nanomaterials have become an area of significant interest. In this paper, we
report the extracellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using
Emblica Officinalis (amla, Indian Gooseberry) fruit extract as the reducing
agent to synthesize Ag and Au nanoparticles, their subsequent phase transfer to
an organic solution and the transmetallation reaction of hydrophobized silver
nanoparticles with hydrophobized chloroaurate ions. On treating aqueous silver
sulfate and chloroauric acid solutions with Emblica Officinalis fruit extract,
rapid reduction of the silver and chloroaurate ions is observed leading to the
formation of highly stable silver and gold nanoparticles in solution.
Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles
indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 20 nm and 15 to 25 nm
respectively. Ag and Au nanoparticles thus synthesized were then phase
transferred into an organic solution using a cationic surfactant octadecylamine.
Transmetallation reaction between hydrophobized silver nanoparticles and
hydrophobized chloroaurate ions in chloroform resulted in the formation of gold

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Evaluation Studies

PMID: 16245525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):113-8. Epub 2005 Oct 13.

Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic
preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Scartezzini P, Antognoni F, Raggi MA, Poli F, Sabbioni C.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biology, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio
42, 40126 Bologna, Italy. [email protected]

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. is one of the most important plants of Ayurved, the
traditional Indian medicine. In this ancient medicine, the fruit of Emblica
officinalis is processed according to a method named "Svaras Bhavana", whereby
the therapeutic potential of the plant is enhanced by treating the main herb
with its own juice. For many years, the activity of the fruits was attributed to
the high content of ascorbic acid; however, this has recently been questioned.
The aim of the paper is to clarify this matter. A reliable and feasible HPLC
method with diode array detection has been developed for the determination of
ascorbic acid in Emblica fruit and particularly in Emblica fruit processed
according to the Ayurvedic method. The antioxidant effects have also been
evaluated in comparison to the real levels of Vitamin C by different antioxidant
tests. The data obtained show that the Emblica fruit contains ascorbic acid
(0.4%, w/w), and that the Ayurvedic method of processing increases the healthy
characteristics of the fruit thanks to a higher antioxidant activity and a
higher content of ascorbic acid (1.28%, w/w). It has also been found that
Vitamin C accounts for approximately 45-70% of the antioxidant activity.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16226416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: J Med Food. 2005 Fall;8(3):362-8.

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Rao TP, Sakaguchi N, Juneja LR, Wada E, Yokozawa T.

Bio-nutrition Division, Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi, Mie, Japan.
[email protected]

The antioxidant properties of amla extracts and their effects on the oxidative
stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined in rats. Amla in the
form of either the commercial enzymatic extract SunAmla (Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd.,
Yokkaichi, Japan) (20 or 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or a polyphenol-rich
fraction of ethyl acetate extract (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day) was given
orally for 20 days to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Amla extracts
showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Amla also showed strong
inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The oral
administration of amla extracts to the diabetic rats slightly improved body
weight gain and also significantly alleviated various oxidative stress indices
of the serum of the diabetic rats. The elevated serum levels of
5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a glycosylated protein that is an indicator of
oxidative stress, were significantly reduced dose-dependently in the diabetic
rats fed amla. Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, yet another oxidative
stress parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive
substances levels were significantly reduced with amla, indicating a reduction
in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the decreased albumin levels in the diabetic
rats were significantly improved with amla. Amla also significantly improved the
serum adiponectin levels. These results form the scientific basis supporting the
efficacy of amla for relieving the oxidative stress and improving glucose
metabolism in diabetes.

PMID: 16176148 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):582-6.

In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an
ayurvedic formulation and its constituents.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM,
Mohan H.

Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research
Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085, India.

The aqueous extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (T1), Terminalia
chebula (T2) and Terminalia belerica (T3) and their equiproportional mixture
triphala were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity. gamma-Radiation
induced strand break formation in plasmid DNA (pBR322) was effectively inhibited
by triphala and its constituents in the concentration range 25-200 microg/mL
with a percentage inhibition of T1 (30%-83%), T2 (21%-71%), T3 (8%-58%) and
triphala (17%-63%). They also inhibited radiation induced lipid peroxidation in
rat liver microsomes effectively with IC(50) values less than 15 microg/mL. The
extracts were found to possess the ability to scavenge free radicals such as
DPPH and superoxide. As the phenolic compounds present in these extracts are
mostly responsible for their radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic
contents present in these extracts were determined and expressed in terms of
gallic acid equivalents and were found to vary from 33% to 44%. These studies
revealed that all three constituents of triphala are active and they exhibit
slightly different activities under different conditions. T1 shows greater
efficiency in lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA assay, while T2 has greater
radical scavenging activity. Thus their mixture, triphala, is expected to be
more efficient due to the combined activity of the individual components.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16161061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Cancer Lett. 2006 Jul 18;238(2):304-13. Epub 2005 Aug 30.

Cytotoxic response of breast cancer cell lines, MCF 7 and T 47 D to triphala and
its modification by antioxidants.

Sandhya T, Mishra KP.

Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400 085, India.

The cytotoxic effects of Triphala (TPL), an Indian Ayurvedic formulation with
known anti-cancer properties, has been investigated on two human breast cancer
cell lines differing in their p53 status. In vitro studies showed that MCF 7
with wild type p53 was more sensitive to TPL than T 47 D, which is p53 negative.
TPL induced loss of cell viability was determined by MTT assay. After 72h
incubation, the IC 50 values for MCF 7 was found to be approximately 8microg/ml
and that for T 47 D was approximately 26microg/ml. Moreover, TPL inhibited the
clonogenic growth of MCF 7 cells, which was significantly recovered by
pifithrin-alpha, the p53 inhibitor. However, pifithrin-alpha, did not modify TPL
induced cytotoxicity in T 47 D cells. Exogenous addition of antioxidants,
glutathione (GSH) and N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) inhibited the anti-proliferative
ability of TPL in both MCF 7 and T47 D. Annexin-V and propidium iodide double
staining of cells treated with TPL for 2h revealed that TPL induced significant
apoptosis in both the cell lines in a dose dependant manner but magnitude of
apoptosis was significantly higher in MCF 7 than in T 47-D cells. TPL was also
found to induce dose and time dependent increase in intracellular reactive
oxygen species in both the cell lines. Present results have demonstrated that
MCF 7 and T 47 D cells exhibited differential sensitivity to TPL, which seems to
be dependant on their p53 status. Inhibition of anti-proliferative ability of
TPL by antioxidants suggests a role for TPL induced ROS in the induction of
apoptosis. It is concluded that p53 status of cancer cells formed an important
factor in predicting the response of cancer cells to prooxidant drugs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16135398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Phytother Res. 2005 May;19(5):444-6.

Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Emblica officinalis.

Singh I, Sharma A, Nunia V, Goyal PK.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of
Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India.

The fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis (EO) is an important drug used in Indian
systems of medicine for several diseases and as a tonic. In view of its
multifarious uses, the plant extract (aqueous) was tested for its
radioprotective properties against sublethal gamma radiation (9 Gy) in Swiss
albino mice. Animals were divided into two groups and irradiated with gamma
radiation externally, with or without EO extract, which was given orally at
different doses before irradiation. The dose of fruit pulp extract found to be
most effective against radiation was 100 mg/kg b.wt. This dose increased the
survival time and reduced the mortality rate of mice significantly. Furthermore,
body weight loss in EO administered irradiated animals was significantly less in
comparison with animals who were given radiation only. Copyright (c) 2005 John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 16106381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005 Apr-Jun;6(2):197-201.

Chemopreventive action of emblica officinalis on skin carcinogenesis in mice.

Sancheti G, Jindal A, Kumari R, Goyal PK.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of
Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, India.

Chemoprevention with food phytochemicals is currently regarded as one of the
most important strategies for cancer control. Emblica officinalis (Family:
Euphorbiaceae) indigenous to India, is valued for its unique tannins and
flavanoids, which contain very powerful antioxidant properties. The inhibition
of tumor incidences by fruit extract of this plant has been evaluated on
two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice, induced by a
single application of 7, 12-dimethyabenz(a)anthrecene (100 microg / 100 microl
acetone), and two weeks later, promoted by repeated application of croton oil
(1% in acetone/thrice a week) till the end of the experiment (16 weeks). The
tumor incidence, tumor yield, tumor burdon and cumulative number of papillomas
were found to be higher in the control (without EO treatment) as compared to
experimental animals (EO treated). The differences in the values of the results
of experimental groups were statistically analysed and found to be significant
in comparison to the control group (p< 0.05). The present study demonstrates the
chemopreventive potential of Emblica officinalis fruit extract on DMBA induced
skin tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16101333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Jun;56(4):287-91.

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants.

Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D.

Nutraceutical Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

To identify promising sources of antioxidants, some food and medicinal plants
were studied for total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The leaves,
bark and fruits of Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula
and Terminalia muelleri, the leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and the
seeds of Syzygium cumini were found to have high total phenolic contents
(72.0-167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6-90.6%). Leaves of
Eucalyptusglobulus were a rich source of rutin, Moringa oleifera for kaempferol,
aerial parts of Centella asiatica for quercetin, fruits of T. bellerica and T.
chebula for gallic acid, and bark of T. arjuna, leaves and fruits of T.
bellerica and bark, leaves and fruits of T. muelleri for ellagic acid.

PMID: 16096138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005 Jul;125(7):587-91.

Antiatherogenic effects of phyllanthus emblica associated with corilagin and its

Duan W, Yu Y, Zhang L.

Jiangsu Center for Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing
210038, China.

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is the main etiologic factor in
atherogenesis, and antioxidants are accepted as effective treatment of
atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the mechanism of
the antiatherogenic effects of the herb Phyllanthus Emblica, which is widely
used to treat atherosclerosis-related diseases, is associated with ox-LDL via
its compounds of soluble tannin, corilagin
(beta-1-O-galloyl-3,6-(R)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose), and its analogue
Dgg16 (1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells,
ECV-304, were incubated with ox-LDL (50 mg/l), treated with corilagin or Dgg16
at different doses (0.0001-0.1 mmol/l), and then incubated with monocytes.
Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the culture media was determined and the number of
monocytes adhering to ECV-304 cells was counted with cytometry. In another
experiment, the rat vascular smooth muscular cells (VSMC) were incubated in
media with or without ox-LDL (50 mg/l), and with corilagin or Dgg16 also at
different doses (0.0001-0.1 mol/l), the proliferation of which was assayed with
MTT. The results showed that both corilagin and Dgg16 were able to decrease MDA,
prevented ECV-304 cells from being adhering to by monocytes, and inhibited VSMC
proliferation activated by ox-LDL. The results suggest that the two compounds
are effective in inhibiting the progress of atherosclerosis by alleviating
oxidation injury or by inhibiting ox-LDL-induced VSMC proliferation, which may
be promising mechanisms for treating atherosclerosis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15997216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Jul;28(7):1304-6.

Reversal of fibrogenic events in liver by Emblica officinalis (fruit), an Indian
natural drug.

Tasduq SA, Mondhe DM, Gupta DK, Baleshwar M, Johri RK.

Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jammu-Tawi,

A hydroalcoholic (50%) extract of Emblica officinalis (fruit) (EO-50) reduced
the severity of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and
thioacetamide (TAA). Improved liver function was observed by measuring the
levels of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT),
alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin in serum. Hepatic parameters monitored
were the levels of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and
hydroxyproline and the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx),
Na+,K+-ATPase and cytochrome P450 (CYP 450 2E1) (aniline hydroxylation). The
results suggested that EO-50 effectively reversed profibrogenic events possibly
due to its promising antioxidative activity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15997120 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Indian J Med Res. 2005 May;121(5):683-90.

Influence of Yoga and Ayurveda on self-rated sleep in a geriatric population.

Manjunath NK, Telles S.

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, Bangalore, India.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sleep in older persons is characterized by decreased
ability to stay asleep, resulting in fragmented sleep and reduced daytime
alertness. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia in older persons is associated
with hazardous side effects. Hence, the present study was designed to compare
the effects of Yoga and Ayurveda on the self rated sleep in a geriatric
population. METHODS: Of the 120 residents from a home for the aged, 69 were
stratified based on age (five year intervals) and randomly allocated to three
groups i.e., Yoga (physical postures, relaxation techniques, voluntarily
regulated breathing and lectures on yoga philosophy), Ayurveda (a herbal
preparation), and Wait-list control (no intervention). The groups were evaluated
for self-assessment of sleep over a one week period at baseline, and after three
and six months of the respective interventions. RESULTS: The Yoga group showed a
significant decrease in the time taken to fall asleep (approximate group average
decrease: 10 min, P<0.05), an increase in the total number of hours slept
(approximate group average increase: 60 min, P< 0.05) and in the feeling of
being rested in the morning based on a rating scale (P<0.05) after six months.
The other groups showed no significant change. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION:
Yoga practice improved different aspects of sleep in a geriatric population.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15937373 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):216-21.

Antioxidant activity of DHC-1, an herbal formulation, in experimentally-induced
cardiac and renal damage.

Bafna PA, Balaraman R.

Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The M.S. University
of Baroda, Baroda -390 001, Gujarat, India.

DHC-1, an herbal formulation derived from the popular plants Bacopa monniera,
Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Mangifera indica and Syzygium
aromaticum was studied for its antioxidant activity. The protective effect of
DHC-1 in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and cisplatin-induced renal
damage were studied. A significant reduction in the serum markers of heart and
kidney damage and the extent of lipid peroxidation with a concomitant increase
in the enzymatic (SOD and CAT) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced
glutathione) were observed in DHC-1 pretreated animals compared with the
isoproterenol or cisplatin alone treated animals. Thus it can be concluded that
DHC-1 possesses a protective effect against both damaged heart and kidneys in
rats. This beneficial effect may be attributed, at least in part, to its
antioxidant activity. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15934019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):193-7.

Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis
against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver toxicity.

Tasduq SA, Kaisar P, Gupta DK, Kapahi BK, Maheshwari HS, Jyotsna S, Johri RK.

Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Jammu-Tawi 180001 India.

The present report showed the hepatoprotective property of a 50% hydroalcoholic
extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (fruit) (EO-50) against
antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs-induced hepatic injury. The biochemical
manifestations of hepatotoxicity induced by rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH)
and pyrazinamide (PZA), either given alone or in combination were evaluated. In
vitro studies were done on suspension cultures of rat hepatocytes while
sub-acute studies were carried out in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of
EO-50 was found to be due to its membrane stabilizing, antioxidative and CYP 2E1
inhibitory effects. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15934014 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 May;43(5):430-6.

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity and DNA
synthesis in Wistar rats.

Sultana S, Ahmad S, Khan N, Jahangir T.

Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical
Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar,
New Delhi 110 062, India. [email protected]

A single dose of CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight, po in corn oil) increased the levels
of SGOT (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamate
pyruvate transaminase), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), glutathione-S-transferase
and depletion in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione
reductase. It also caused enhancement in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO)
and DNA synthesis. There was also pathological deterioration of hepatic tissue
as evident from multivacuolated hepatocytes containing fat globules around
central vein. The pretreatment of E. officinalis for 7 consecutive days showed a
profound pathological protection to liver cell as depicted by univacuolated
hepatocytes. Pretreatment with E. officinalis at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body
weight, prior to CCl4 intoxication showed significant reduction in the levels of
SGOT, SGPT, LDH, glutathione-S-transferase, LPO and DNA synthesis. There was
also increase in reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione
reductase. The results suggest that E. officinalis inhibits hepatic toxicity in
Wistar rats.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15900908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Cancer Lett. 2006 Jan 18;231(2):206-14.

Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer

Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Mishra KP.

Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Mumbai 400 085, India.

The cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract of Triphala, an ayurvedic formulation,
were investigated on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and a transplantable
mouse thymic lymphoma (barcl-95). The viability of treated cells was found to
decrease with the increasing concentrations of Triphala. On the other hand,
treatment of normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10 F, human peripheral blood
mononuclear cells, mouse liver and spleen cells, with similar concentrations of
Triphala did not affect their cytotoxicity significantly. The drug treatment was
found to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and barcl-95 cells in vitro as determined by
annexin-V fluorescence and proportion of apoptotic cells was found dependent on
Triphala concentration. MCF-7 cells treated with Triphala when subjected to
single cell gel electrophoresis, revealed a pattern of DNA damage,
characteristic of apoptosis. Studies on Triphala treated MCF-7 and barcl-95
cells showed significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)
in a concentration dependent manner. ROS increase was, however, found to be
insignificant in MCF-10 F as well as in murine spleen and liver normal cells. In
vivo, direct oral feeding of Triphala to mice (40 mg/kg body weight)
transplanted with barcl-95 produced significant reduction in tumor growth as
evaluated by tumor volume measurement. It was also found that apoptosis was
significantly higher in the excised tumor tissue of Triphala fed mice as
compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in tumor growth
reduction. These results suggest that Triphala possessed ability to induce
cytotoxicity in tumor cells but spared the normal cells. The differential effect
of Triphala on normal and tumor cells seems to be related to its ability to
evoke differential response in intracellular ROS generation. The differential
response of normal and tumor cells to Triphala in vitro and the substantial
regression of transplanted tumor in mice fed with Triphala points to its
potential use as an anticancer drug for clinical treatment.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15899544 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005 Jan;96(1):80-7.

Screening of antioxidants from medicinal plants for cardioprotective effect
against doxorubicin toxicity.

Wattanapitayakul SK, Chularojmontri L, Herunsalee A, Charuchongkolwongse S,
Niumsakul S, Bauer JA.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University,
Bangkok 10110, Thailand. [email protected]

Doxorubicin is an important and effective anticancer drug widely used for the
treatment of various types of cancer but its clinical use is limited by
dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Elevated tissue levels of cellular superoxide
anion/oxidative stress are a mechanism by which doxorubicin-induced
cardiotoxicity. Selected medicinal plant extracts were tested for their
antioxidant capacity and cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced
cardiotoxicity. The cardiac myoblasts H9c2 were incubated with the antioxidants
ascorbic acid, trolox, N-acetylcysteine or selected medicinal plant extracts
including; 1) ethanolic extracts from Curcuma longa L-EtOH Phyllanthus emblica
L-EtOH, and Piper rostratum Roxb-EtOH; and 2) water extracts from Curcuma longa
L-H2O and Morus alba L-H2O. The cardioprotective effects of these extracts were
evaluated by crystal violet cytotoxicity assay. IC50s of doxorubicin were
compared in the presence or absence of ascorbic acids, trolox, N-acetylcysteine
or plant extracts. Morus alba L-H2O showed the highest antioxidant properties
evaluated by ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. Ascorbic acid and
N-acetylcysteine had modest effects on the protection of doxorubicin-induced
cytotoxicity while trolox showed insignificant protective effect. All plant
extracts protected cardiac toxicity at different degrees except that Curcuma
longa L-EtOH had no protective effect. Phyllanthus emblica-EtOH (100 microg/ml)
showed the highest cardioprotective effect (approximately 12-fold doxorubicin
IC50 increase). The data demonstrate that antioxidants from natural sources may
be useful in the protection of cardiotoxicity in patients who receive

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15667600 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 10;97(1):15-20. Epub 2004 Dec 25.

The in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Triphala--an Indian herbal

Kaur S, Michael H, Arora S, Harkonen PL, Kumar S.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005,

A study on cytotoxic effect of acetone extract of "Triphala" whose
antimutagenicity has already been tested. The in vitro antimutagenic activity of
Triphala--an Indian herbal drug. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 40, 47-54) was
extended to test its cytotoxic effects on cancer cell-lines using Shionogi 115
(S115) and MCF-7 breast cancer cells and PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells
as models. The results revealed that acetone extract of "Triphala" showed a
significant cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell-lines and the effect was
similar on all cancer cell lines used in this study. The major phenolic
compounds in the most potent acetone extracts were isolated and purified.
Structural analysis was conducted using spectroscopic techniques including mass
spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) which showed
gallic acid as the major component. The suppression of the growth of cancer
cells in cytotoxic assays may be due to the gallic acid-a major polyphenol
observed in "Triphala".

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15652269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2004 Dec;45(4):549-55.

Modulation of haematopoetic system and antioxidant enzymes by Emblica
officinalis gaertn and its protective role against gamma-radiation induced
damages in mice.

Hari Kumar KB, Sabu MC, Lima PS, Kuttan R.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, Kerala State, India.

The radio protective effect of the fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis Gaertn
(Emblica) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice. Mice were treated with 2.5
g/kg b.wt of Emblica for 10 consecutive days before irradiation and exposed to a
single dose of 700 rads (7Gy) of radiation after the last dose. One group was
given Emblica continuously for another 15 days after irradiation. Changes in the
total leukocyte count, bone marrow viability and hemoglobin were studied after
whole body irradiation. Administration of Emblica significantly increased these
levels, which were lowered by irradiation. Animals were sacrificed at various
time points after irradiation and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes
catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and
glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and levels of glutathione were assayed in the
blood. The damage to the cell membrane after whole body irradiation was studied
by measuring the tissue lipid peroxides levels. Administration of Emblica
significantly enhanced the activity of the various antioxidant enzymes and GST
as well as glutathione system in the blood. Treatment with Emblica also lowered
the elevated levels of lipid peroxides in the serum. The data clearly indicated
that the extract significantly reduced the bioeffects of radiation. Emblica
extract may be useful in reducing the side effects produced during therapeutic

PMID: 15635265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Hum Exp Toxicol. 2004 Nov;23(11):527-31.

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against
7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino

Banu SM, Selvendiran K, Singh JP, Sakthisekaran D.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras, Taramani Campus,
Chennai 600113, India.

Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was evaluated for
protection against genotoxicity induced by the rodent carcinogen,
7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Oral administration of EO fruit extract
in various concentrations (100, 250, 500 mg/kg b.wt) for seven consecutive days
prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA decreased the frequency of
bone marrow micronuclei induced in Swiss albino mice. Significant increases in
the liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx),
glutathione reductase (GR) and detoxifying enzyme glutathione-S-transferase
(GST), were found in the fruit extract treated group. The extract also reduced
the hepatic levels of the activating enzymes cytochrome (Cyt) P450 and Cyt b5.
These increased in the carcinogen treated group, which emphasizes its protective
effect against the carcinogen. There was a dose-dependent effect of the extract
against the genotoxin with the maximum effect at 500 mg/kg b.wt. The protection
afforded by EO may be associated with its antioxidant capacity and through its
modulatory effect on hepatic activation and detoxifying enzymes.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15625778 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Oct;28(10):940-3.

[Studies on chemical constituents in fruits of Tibetan medicine Phyllanthus

[Article in Chinese]

Zhang LZ, Zhao WH, Guo YJ, Tu GZ, Lin S, Xin LG.

School of Chinese Pharmacy, Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,
Beijing 100102, China.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chemical constituents of Tibetan medicine
Phyllanthus emblica. METHOD: Various chromatographic techniques were employed
for isolation and purification of the constituents, and the structures were
elucidated by chemical and spectral analyses. RESULT: 11 compounds were isolated
and identified as gallic acid (I), ellagic acid (II), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose
(III), 3,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose (IV), chebulinic acid (V), quercetin (VI),
chebulagic acid (VII), corilagin (VIII), 3-ethylgallic acid
(3-ethoxy-4,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid, IX), isostrictiniin (X),
1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (XI). CONCLUSION: 3-Ethylgallic acid
(3-ethoxy-4,5-dihydroxy-benzoic acid) is a novel compound, and isostrictiniin
was found from P. emblica for the first time.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15620182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Dec;56(12):1573-9.

Emblica officinalis reverses thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and early
promotional events of primary hepatocarcinogenesis.

Sultana S, Ahmed S, Sharma S, Jahangir T.

Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical
Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdrad Nager,
New Delhi 110062, India. [email protected]

Emblica officinalis is widely used in Indian medicine for the treatment of
various diseases. In the present study, it was found that fruits of E.
officinalis inhibit thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and
hyper-proliferation in rat liver. The administration of a single necrotic dose
of thioacetamide(6.6 mM kg(-1)) resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) increase
in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic
transaminase (SGPT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels compared with
saline-treated control values. Thioacetamide caused hepatic glutathione (GSH)
depletion and a concomitant increase in malanodialdehyde (MDA) content. It also
resulted in an increase(P < 0.001) in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase
(GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and
a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P < 0.001). Hepatic
ornithine decarboxylase activity and thymidine incorporation in DNA were
increased bythioacetamide administration. Prophylactic treatment with E.
officinalis for 7 consecutive days before thioacetamide administration inhibited
SGOT, SGPT and GGT release in serum compared with treated control values. It
also modulated the hepatic GSH content and MDA formation. The plant extract
caused a marked reduction in levels of GSH content and simultaneous inhibition
of MDA formation. E. officinalis also caused a reduction in the activity of GST,
GR and G6PD. GPx activity was increased after treatment with the plant extract
at doses of 100 mg kg(-1) and 200 mg kg(-1). Prophylactic treatment with the
plant caused a significant down-regulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity
(P < 0.001) and profound inhibition in the rate of DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). In
conclusion, the acute effects of thioacetamide in rat liver can be prevented by
pre-treatment with E. officinalis extract.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15586980 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(1-2):43-51.

Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for
allergic rhinitis.

Pratibha N, Saxena VS, Amit A, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of
nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs
when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe
polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of
allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal
plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica,
Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since
inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study
aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo
models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw
edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema
in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino
rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and
compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55%
inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under
the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7%
inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at
all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most
potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated
31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino
rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also
exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against
Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately
63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin
inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive
control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated IC50 concentrations at 1.5 and 9.0
microg/ml, respectively. These results demonstrate that this novel polyherbal
formulation is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that can ameliorate the symptoms
of allergic rhinitis.

PMID: 15573692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 Aug;55(5):415-22.

A study on degradation kinetics of ascorbic acid in amla (Phyllanthus emblica
L.) during cooking.

Nisha P, Singhal RS, Pandit AB.

Food and Fermentation Technology Department, and Institute of Chemical
Technology, University of Mumbai, India.

The kinetics of ascorbic acid degradation in amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) as
well as in pure ascorbic acid solutions at initial concentrations present in
amla over a temperature range of 50-120 degrees C (steady-state temperature) has
been studied. The ascorbic acid degradation followed first-order reaction
kinetics where the rate constant increased with an increase in temperature. The
temperature dependence of degradation was adequately modeled by the Arrhenius
equation. The activation energies were found to be 4.09 kcal/mole for amla and
4.49 kcal/mole for pure vitamin solution. The degradation kinetics of ascorbic
acid was also evaluated in normal open pan cooking, pressure-cooking and a newly
developed and patented fuel-efficient EcoCooker (unsteady state heating
process). A mathematical model was developed using the steady-state kinetic
parameters obtained to predict the losses of ascorbic acid from the
time-temperature data of the unsteady state heating processing method. The
results obtained indicate the ascorbic acid degradation is of a similar order of
magnitude in all the methods of cooking.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15545050 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Nov;95(1):83-5.

Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Perianayagam JB, Sharma SK, Joseph A, Christina AJ.

Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Division, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar-125001, India.

The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic
activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis
fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500
mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia
in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic
acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO
did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test.
These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed
potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening
of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds,
carbohydrates and amino acids, which may be responsible for anti-pyretic and
analgesic activities.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15374611 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30(3):99-109.

Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic

D'Souza P, Amit A, Saxena VS, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men,
women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when
the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic
rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal
membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy,
watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2)
has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique
combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus
emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper
nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant
efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl
radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay,
1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and
2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical
scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced
lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7
exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically
generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73 microg/ml); superoxide anion (IC50
24.65 microg/ml by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
[PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27 microg/ml by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium
[NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34 microg/ml); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl
hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62 microg/ml); and
2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical
(IC50 7.35 microg/ml). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the
concentration range of 20-80 microg/ml. Aller-7 also significantly inhibited
nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages.
These results demonstrate that Aller-7 is a potent scavenger of free radicals
and that it may serve.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15366786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 May;42(5):499-503.

Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica
officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Avinash KD.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University, Amravati Road, Nagpur
440 033, India. [email protected]

A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and
cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time,
pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures,
spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and
antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced
a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced
spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised
the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and
protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500,
750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure
activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by
pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results
suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature.

PMID: 15233476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Mol Vis. 2004 Mar 12;10:148-54.

Inhibition of aldose reductase by tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis:
implications for the prevention of sugar cataract.

Suryanarayana P, Kumar PA, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB.

Biochemistry Division, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.

PURPOSE: Aldose reductase (AR) has been a drug target because of its involvement
in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract.
Although numerous synthetic AR inhibitors (ARI) have been tested and shown to
inhibit the enzyme, clinically synthetic ARIs have not been very successful.
Therefore, evaluating natural sources for ARI potential may lead to the
development of safer and more effective agents against diabetic complications.
In the present study we have assessed the inhibition of AR by constituents of
Emblica officinalis both in vitro and in lens organ culture. METHODS: E.
officinalis is widely used against many chronic ailments including diabetes.
Aqeous extract of E. officinalis and its major constituent tannoids were tested
for inhibition against both rat lens and purified recombinant human AR. ARI
potential of isolated tannoids of E. officinalis were also investigated against
osmotic stress in rat lens organ culture. RESULTS: E. officinalis extract
inhibited rat lens and recombinant human AR with IC50 values 0.72 and 0.88 mg/ml
respectively. Since E. officinalis is a rich source of ascorbic acid, we
investigated whether ascorbic acid was responsible for AR inhibition by E.
officinalis extract. However, ascorbic acid did not inhibit AR even at 5 mM
concentration. Further, we demonstrate that the hydrolysable tannoids of E.
officinalis were responsible for AR inhibition, as enriched tannoids of E.
officinalis exhibited remarkable inhibition against both rat lens and human AR
with IC50 of 6 and 10 microg/ml respectively. The inhibition of AR by E.
officinalis tannoids is 100 times higher than its aqueous extract and comparable
to or better than quercetin. Furthermore, the isolated tannoids not only
prevented the AR activation in rat lens organ culture but also sugar-induced
osmotic changes. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that tannoids of E.
officinalis are potent inhibitors of AR and suggest that exploring the
therapeutic value of natural ingredients that people can incorporate into
everyday life may be an effective approach in the management of diabetic

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15031705 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2-3):229-32.

Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Amalkadi Ghrita against carbon
tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats.

Achliya GS, Wadodkar SG, Dorle AK.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road,
Nagpur 440033, India. [email protected]

Amalkadi Ghrita (AG), a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated for its
hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic
damage in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of AG was evaluated by measuring
levels of serum marker enzymes like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase
(SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase
(ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP). The serum levels of total proteins and
bilirubin were also estimated. The histological studies were also carried out to
support the above parameters. Silymarin was used as standard drug.
Administration of AG (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) markedly prevented CCl4-induced
elevation of levels of serum GPT, GOT, ACP, ALP, and bilirubin. The decreased
level of total proteins due to hepatic damage induced by CCl4 was found to be
increased in AG-treated group. The results are comparable to that of silymarin.
A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal
architecture, as compared to CCl4-treated group. Hepatoprotective effect of AG
is probably due to combined action of all ingredients.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15013185 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003 Dec;22(12):639-45.

Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP-1, a polyherbal phytomedicine.

Tasaduq SA, Singh K, Sethi S, Sharma SC, Bedi KL, Singh J, Jaggi BS, Johri RK.

Biochemistry Lab, Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Canal
Road, Jammu-Tawi 180 001, India.

HP-1 a herbal formulation comprising of Phyllanthus niruri and extracts of
Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Tinospora
cordifolia has been evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity. Results show that HP-1 reversed the
leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT)
and prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) levels in a primary monolayer
culture of rat hepatocytes (in vitro). HP-1 attenuated the serum toxicity as
manifested in elevated levels of transaminases (glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase (GOT), and GPT) The antioxidative enzymes in liver (catalase and
superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were restored to normal values after the oral
administration of HP-1. HP-1 suppressed the formation of the superoxide anion
radical and reduced CCl4 mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO). Silymarin and
antioxidants (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol) were used for
comparison. The present study showed that HP-1 is a potential hepatoprotective
formulation with an additional attribute of being anti-peroxidative.

PMID: 14992325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Biol Pharm Bull. 2004 Feb;27(2):251-5.

Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Nagao T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Okabe H, Kouno I.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo Machi,
Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan. [email protected]

Eighteen main compounds, including four norsesquiterpenoids (1-4) and 14
phenolic compounds (5-18) isolated previously from Phyllanthus emblica, together
with a main constituent, proanthocyanidin polymers (19) identified at this time
from the roots, were estimated for their antiproliferative activities against
MK-1 (human gastric adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human uterine carcinoma), and B16F10
(murine melanoma) cells using an MTT method. All of the phenolic compounds
including the major components 5-8 from the fruit juice, 8, 9, and 12 from the
branches and leaves, and 19 from the roots showed stronger inhibition against
B16F10 cell growth than against HeLa and MK-1 cell growth. Norsesquiterpenoid
glycosides 3 and 4 from the roots exhibited significant antiproliferative
activities, although their aglycon 1 and monoglucoside 2 showed no inhibitory
activity against these tumor cells.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14758047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Phytother Res. 2004 Jan;18(1):54-60.

Emblica officinalis causes myocardial adaptation and protects against oxidative
stress in ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats.

Rajak S, Banerjee SK, Sood S, Dinda AK, Gupta YK, Gupta SK, Maulik SK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi,

The fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla) are widely used in the Indian System of
Medicine and are believed to increase defense against disease. In the present
study, the effects of chronic oral administration of fresh fruit homogenate of
Amla on: (i). myocardial antioxidant system and (ii). oxidative stress induced
by ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rat heart were investigated. Fresh amla
fruit homogenate, in three different doses (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) and normal
saline (C) were administered orally to Wistar albino rats (120-150 gms) of
either sex daily for 30 days. There was reduction in basal myocardial lipid
peroxidation, as evidenced by decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
(TBARS) level, and augmentation of myocardial endogenous antioxidants, like
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the
treated rats. Hearts were also subjected to in vitro IRI (9 min of global
ischemia, followed by 12 min of reperfusion, Langendorff's mode). Significant
myocyte injury and rise in myocardial TBARS along with depletion of SOD,
catalase, GSH (reduced glutathione) and GPx occurred in the control group. No
significant increase in myocardial TBARS and depletion of antioxidant enzymes
were observed in the treated groups. Myocyte injury was evident only in 250
mg/kg group. The results indicate that chronic Emblica officinalis
administration causes myocardial adaptation by augmenting endogenous
antioxidants and protects rat hearts from oxidative stress associated with
ischemic-reperfusion injury. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14750202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2003;29(3):107-15.

Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition,
antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical
formulation for allergic rhinitis.

Amit A, Saxena VS, Pratibha N, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a
major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's
population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic
rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the
treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven
medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T.
bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum,
which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical
manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released
from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation
was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging
them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of
Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes
involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses.
Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes
vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to
bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was
determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive
control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig
tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls.
Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus
demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 14708456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;57(7):296-300.

Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin.

Ganju L, Karan D, Chanda S, Srivastava KK, Sawhney RC, Selvamurthy W.

Immunomodulation Laboratory, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied
Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India. [email protected]

The immunomodulatory properties of amla (Emblica officinalis) and shankhpushpi
(Evolvulus alsinoides) were evaluated in adjuvant induced arthritic (AIA) rat
model. Injecting Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in right hind paw of the
animals induced inflammation. The crude extracts of both the herbs were
administered intraperitonially following a repeated treatment profile. The
anti-inflammatory response of both the extracts was determined by lymphocyte
proliferation activity and histopathological severity of synovial hyperplasia.
Both the extracts showed a marked reduction in inflammation and edema. At
cellular level immunosuppression occurred during the early phase of the disease.
There was mild synovial hyperplasia and infiltration of few mononuclear cells in
amla or shankhpushpi treated animals. The induction of nitric oxide synthase
(NOS) was significantly decreased in treated animals as compared to controls.
These observations suggest that both the herbal extracts caused
immunosuppression in AIA rats, indicating that they may provide an alternative
approach to the treatment of arthritis.

PMID: 14499177 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44: Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):583-9.

Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

Nosal'ova G, Mokry J, Hassan KM.

Department of Pharmacology, Jessenius Medical School, Comenius University,
Martin, Slovakia. [email protected]

The antitussive activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (E. officinalis, Fam.
Euphorbiaceae) was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the
laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results
showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive
effect of E. officinalis is not unambiguous. A higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.)
of this substance perorally was more effective, especially in decreasing the
number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min(-1)) and the intensity
of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA-) was more pronounced.
These results showed that the cough suppressive activity of E. officinalis is
dose-dependent. We could also demonstrate that the antitussive activity of E.
officinalis is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive
drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent
dropropizine. It is supposed that the antitussive activity of the dry extract of
Emblica officinalis is due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and
antioxidant efficacy effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 13678247 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2003 Jun;22(2):201-12.

Induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell lines by Emblica
officinalis polyphenols and its effect on chemical carcinogenesis.

Rajeshkumar NV, Pillai MR, Kuttan R.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, India.

Plant-derived phenolic compounds manifest many beneficial effects and can
potentially inhibit several stages of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we
investigated the efficacy of Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) polyphenol
fraction (EOP) on the induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell
lineses and its modulatory effect on N- nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced liver
tumors in rats. The results indicate that EOP treatment could induce apoptosis
in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and CeHa cell lines At 200 microg/ml dose EOP
induced membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and intenucleosomal breaks as
evident from the morphology and DNA ladder pattern obtained in gel
electrophoresis. The results also suggested that EOP treatment could decrease
the liver tumour development induced by NDEA. Animals administered (oral) with
NDEA (0.02%, 2.5 ml/rat, 5 days a week, 20 weeks) developed visible liver
tumours by the end of the 20th week and the liver weight raised to 5.2 +/- 1.1
g/ 100 g body weight. Only 11% of the animals treated with EOP (60 mg/kg, oral,
5 days a week for 20 weeks) developed visible liver tumours by this period and
the liver weights were reduced to 3.2 +/- 0.7 g/ 100 g body weight.
gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was raised to 88.4 +/- 16.2 U/l in serum
of NDEA treated group was reduced to 48.4 +/- 14.8 U/l by EOP treatment.
Elevated levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate pyruvate
transaminase (GPT), bilirubin, liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) and
glutathione (GSH) in the NDEA administered group were significantly reduced by
EOP treatment. The EOP was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals
and inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. EOP also inhibited DNA topoisomerase I
in Saccharomyces cervisiae mutant cell cultures and the activity of cdc25
tyrosine phosphatase.

PMID: 12866570 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Sep;27(9):649-53, 679.

[Study on anti-HIV drugs in Egyptian medicinal plants]

[Article in Chinese]

Sun XF, Wang W, Du GY, Lu WB.

Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100091,

Publication Types:

PMID: 12866564 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):430-3.

Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica officinalis) against chromium (VI)
induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages.

Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Deepti P, Vandana M, Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Timarpur, Lucknow Road,
Delhi-110054, India. [email protected]

The cytoprotective and immunomodulating properties of Emblica officinalis (Amla)
against chromium (VI) induced oxidative damage are reported. Chromium (VI) at 1
micro g/mL concentration was highly cytotoxic. It enhanced free radical
production and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione
peroxidase (GPx) activity in macrophages. The presence of Amla resulted in an
enhanced cell survival, decreased free radical production and higher antioxidant
levels similar to that of control cells. Further, chromium (VI) treatment
resulted in decreased phagocytosis and gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) production
while Amla inhibited chromium induced immunosuppression and restored both
phagocytosis and gamma-IFN production by macrophages significantly. Copyright
2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12722158 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48: Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):306-10.

Protective effect of a polyherbal formulation (Immu-21) against
cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity in mice.

Jena GB, Nemmani KV, Kaul CL, Ramarao P.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical
Education and Research, Sector-67, S A S Nagar, Punjab 160 062, India.

The object was to evaluate the effects of a polyherbal formulation, Immu-21,
against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced chromosomal aberrations (CA) and
micronuclei (MN) in mice. CP alone (40 mg/kg, i.p.) produced classical as well
as non-classical chromosomal aberrations in mice, and the incidence of CA was
significantly more in the CP treated group when compared with that of the
control group. Immu-21, which contains extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Withania
somnifera, Emblica officinalis and Tinospora cordifolia, was given at 100 mg/kg,
daily, over 7 days, and 30 mg/kg daily over 14 days and inhibited both
CP-induced classical and non-classical chromosomal aberrations ( approximately
40%-60% of control). A significant increase in MN was also observed in bone
marrow erythrocytes of mice treated with CP, and pretreatment with Immu-21 also
significantly reduced these. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by estimating the ratio
of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). The
present results indicate that chronic treatment with Immu-21 prevented
CP-induced genotoxicity in mice. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12722129 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 May;86(1):75-80.

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica
officinalis) root extracts.

Alam MI, Gomes A.

Department of Physiology, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and
Hospital, Sidhra, Jammu 180006, India. [email protected]

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis
Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant
(V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera
russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and
in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant,
defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by
both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant
extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant
extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12686445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50: Indian J Exp Biol. 2002 May;40(5):564-70.

Modulation of acute cadmium toxicity by Emblica officinalis fruit in rat.

Khandelwal S, Shukla LJ, Shanker R.

Industrial Toxicology Research Centre Lucknow 226001, India. [email protected]

The efficacy of Emblica officinalis in modifying the acute cytotoxicity of
cadmium in male rats was evaluated. Oral administration of Emblica fruit juice
(500 mg/kg, b.w.) for 8 days followed by a single toxic dose of Cd as CdCl2 (3
mg/kg,b.w. ip), considerably reduced the mortality in rats as well as prevented
to some extent the cadmium induced histopathological damage in testis, liver and
kidneys. Biochemical investigation also revealed reduced levels of Cd induced
serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and
gamma glutamyltranspeptidase. The enhanced levels of Cd and lipid peroxidation
in liver, kidney, and testes and metallothionein and total sulphydryl in liver
and kidney by Cd were significantly reduced by Emblica pretreatment. These
results suggest cytoprotective potential of Emblica fruit in acute cadmium
toxicity which could be due to its multiple role in biological system.

PMID: 12622203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51: Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 2003;Suppl 1:295-300.

Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.

Arora S, Kaur K, Kaur S.

Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University,
Amritsar, India. [email protected]

India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital
stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources.
Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to
their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia
auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia
bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala,"
which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic
activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing
the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the
frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100
against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen
2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant
antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract
of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was
more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100
tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting
mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the
medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising
antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further.
Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 12616620 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52: Phytomedicine. 2002 Sep;9(6):515-22.

Gastroprotective effects of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis on in vivo test models in

Al-Rehaily AJ, Al-Howiriny TA, Al-Sohaibani MO, Rafatullah S.

Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

An ethanol extract of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis Gaertn. was examined for its
antisecretory and antiulcer activities employing different experimental models
in rats, including pylorus ligation Shay rats, indomethacin, hypothermic
restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2
M NaOH and 25% NaCl). Oral administration of Amla extract at doses 250 mg/kg and
500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of gastric lesions in all test
models used. It also caused significant decrease of the pyloric-ligation induced
basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity and gastric mucosal injury. Besides,
Amla extract offered protection against ethanol-induced depletion of stomach
wall mucus and reduction in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration.
Histopathological analyses are in good agreement with pharmacological and
biochemical findings. The results indicate that Amla extract possesses
antisecretory, antiulcer, and cytoprotective properties.

PMID: 12403160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002 Sep-Oct;15(5):374-80.

Emblica cascading antioxidant: a novel natural skin care ingredient.

Chaudhuri RK.

Rona/EM Industries, Inc., Hawthorne, NY 10532, USA. [email protected]

A standardized extract of Phyllanthus emblica (trade named Emblica) was found to
have a long-lasting and broad-spectrum antioxidant activity. The product has no
pro-oxidation activity induced by iron and/or copper because of its iron and
copper chelating ability. Emblica helps protect the skin from the damaging
effects of free radicals, non-radicals and transition metal-induced oxidative
stress. Emblica is suitable for use in anti-aging, sunscreen and general purpose
skin care products. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12239434 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Sep;82(1):1-9.

Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an
experimental study.

Sairam K, Rao ChV, Babu MD, Kumar KV, Agrawal VK, K Goel RK.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi 221 005, India.

The ulcer protective potential of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis
Gaertn. (EOE) was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats
induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and
healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in rats. EOE,
10-50 mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed dose-dependent
ulcer protective effects in all the above acute ulcer models (36.0-98.3%
protection, P < 0.2 to P < 0.001) and significant ulcer healing effect in dose
of 20 mg/kg after 5 (control ulcer index: 20.2+/-2.3 mm(2)/rat, % healing 59.6%,
P < 0.001) and 10 (control UI: 11.0+/-1.7, % healing 65.5%, P < 0.01) days
treatment. Further study on gastric mucosal factors showed that it significantly
decreased the offensive factors like acid (acid output-control 118.7+/-12.1
microEq/4 h, EOE% decrease 65.9%, P < 0.01) and pepsin (peptic output-control
738.8 micromol/4 h, EOE% decrease 46.2%, P < 0.001) and increased the defensive
factors like mucin secretion (TC:P ratio-control 1.21+/-0.15, EOE% increase
95.0%, P < 0.01), cellular mucus (TC:P ratio-control 1.16+/-0.13, EOE% increase
53.4%, P < 0.05) and life span of mucosal cells (DNA content of gastric
juice-control 77.3+/-8.7 microg/m per 100 g body weight, EOE% decrease 42.1%, P
< 0.05). EOE showed significant antioxidant effect in stressed animals (control
UI 35.8+/-2.5, antioxidant status: LPO 0.58+/-0.03 nmol MDA/mg protein, SOD and
CAT 227.8+/-6.3 and 18.4+/-1.2 U/mg protein respectively; EOE% decrease in UI
88.2%, mucosal LPO 69.0%, SOD 53.1% and increase in mucosal CAT 59.8%, P < 0.001
respectively) and did not have any effect on cell proliferation in terms of DNA
microg/mg protein or glandular weight. The results showed that EOE had
significant ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to its
effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. Copyright 2002 Elsevier
Science Ireland Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12169398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):155-60.

Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their
antioxidant property.

Sabu MC, Kuttan R.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Kerala Trichur 680 553, India.

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica
officinalis and their combination named 'Triphala' (equal proportion of above
three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine.
They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and
superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited
50% of lipid peroxidation induced with Fe(2+)/ascorbate were food to be 85.5,
27, 74 and 69 micro g/ml, respectively. The concentration needed for the
inhibition of hydoxyl radical scavenging were 165, 71, 155.5 and 151 micro g/ml,
and that for superoxide scavenging activity were found to be 20.5, 40.5, 6.5 and
12.5 micro g/ml, respectively. Oral administration of the extracts (100 mg/kg
body weight) reduced the blood sugar level in normal and in alloxan (120 mg/kg)
diabetic rats significantly within 4 h. Continued, daily administration of the
drug produced a sustained effect.

PMID: 12065146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Int J Oncol. 2002 Jul;21(1):187-92.

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in
extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell
growth of human tumor cell lines.

Khan MT, Lampronti I, Martello D, Bianchi N, Jabbar S, Choudhuri MS, Datta BK,
Gambari R.

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University
Science and Technology Chittagong, Bangladesh.

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts
from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human
erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL
cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting
in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna,
Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos,
Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica
officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their
hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory
medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to
identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and
n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of
pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying
pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12063567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Jun;50(6):841-3.

Two new acylated flavanone glycosides from the leaves and branches of
Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Abe T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Japan.

Two new acylated flavanone glycosides, (S)-eriodictyol
7-O-(6"-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (S)-eriodictyol
7-O-(6"-O-galloyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the leaves and
branches of Phyllanthus emblica together with a new phenolic glycoside,
1-O-(6"-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), as well as 22 known
compounds. Their structures were determined by spectral and chemical methods.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12045344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jun;81(1):5-10.

Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on
lymphocytes: an in-vitro study.

Sai Ram M, Neetu D, Yogesh B, Anju B, Dipti P, Pauline T, Sharma SK, Sarada SK,
Ilavazhagan G, Kumar D, Selvamurthy W.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, New
Delhi 110054, India. [email protected]

The fruits extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla) has been reported to have
strong anti-oxidant properties. There is a paucity of studies on the
immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of Amla in immuno-compromised
states, with the emphasis on lymphocytes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to
determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Amla using
chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive agent. Chromium (Cr) treatment results in
enhanced cytotoxicity, free radical production, lipid peroxidation and decreased
glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and diminished glutathione (GSH) levels.
There was a significant inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide and
concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Chromium also inhibited Con
A stimulated interleukin-2 and gamma-interferon production significantly.
Further, there was enhanced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in the presence of
Cr. Amla significantly inhibited Cr-induced free radical production and restored
the anti-oxidant status back to control level. Amla also inhibited apoptosis and
DNA fragmentation induced by Cr. Interestingly, Amla relieved the
immunosuppressive effects of Cr on lymphocyte proliferation and even restored
the IL-2 and gamma-IFN production considerably.

PMID: 12020921 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: Hum Exp Toxicol. 2001 Dec;20(12):643-50.

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated

Haque R, Bin-Hafeez B, Ahmad I, Parvez S, Pandey S, Raisuddin S.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard
University), New Delhi, India.

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in
spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity,
mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess
the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian
gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These
protective effects were studied on immunological parameters and kidney and liver
antioxidants. Plant extract treatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight per os
(p.o.) for 10 days resulted in the modulation of these parameters in normal as
well as CP (50 mg/kg)-treated animals. Plant extract in particular was very
effective in reducing CP-induced suppression of humoral immunity. Plant extract
treatment in normal animals modulated certain antioxidants of kidney and liver.
In CP-exposed animals, plant pretreatment provided protection to antioxidants of
kidney. Not only were the reduced glutathione levels significantly (p<0.001)
increased but plant extract treatment resulted in restoration of antioxidant
enzymes in CP-treated animals. It is suggested that E. officinalis or its
medicinal preparations may prove to be useful as a component of combination
therapy in cancer patients under CP treatment regimen.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11936579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Apr;40(4):527-34.

The in vitro antimutagenic activity of Triphala--an Indian herbal drug.

Kaur S, Arora S, Kaur K, Kumar S.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, 143 005, Amritsar,

A study to evaluate an antimutagenic potential of water, chloroform and acetone
extracts of Triphala has been made in an Ames histidine reversion assay using
TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium against the
direct-acting mutagens, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and sodium azide, and
the indirect-acting promutagen, 2-aminofluorene (2AF), in the presence of
phenobarbitone-induced rat hepatic S9. A combination drug 'Triphala' - a
composite mixture of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula and Emblica officinalis,
has been used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of many
malaises, such as heart ailments and hepatic diseases. The drug was sequentially
extracted with water, acetone and chloroform at room temperature. The study
revealed that water extract was ineffective in reducing the revertants induced
by the mutagens. The results with chloroform and acetone extracts showed
inhibition of mutagenicity induced by both direct and S9-dependent mutagens. A
significant inhibition of 98.7% was observed with acetone extract against the
revertants induced by S9-dependent mutagen, 2AF, in co-incubation mode of
treatment. Various spectroscopic techniques, namely 1H-NMR, normal 13C-NMR,
distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT-90 and DEPT-135), UV
and IR, are under way to identify the polyphenolic compounds from an acetone

PMID: 11893411 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: J Nat Prod. 2001 Dec;64(12):1527-32.

Phyllanemblinins A-F, new ellagitannins from Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Abe T, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-Machi 1-14,
Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan.

Six new ellagitannins, phyllanemblinins A-F (1-6), were isolated from
Phyllanthus emblica, along with 30 known tannins and related compounds. Their
structures were determined by spectral and chemical methods. Phyllanemblinins A
(1) and B (2) were confirmed to be ellagitannins having a tetrahydroxybenzofuran
dicarboxyl group and a hexahydroxydiphenoyl group, respectively, by chemical
synthesis from furosin (8). Phyllanemblinin C (3) has a new acyl group at the
glucose 2,4-positions and is structurally related to chebulagic acid.
Phyllanemblinins D (4), E (5), and F (6) were found to be positional isomers of
neochebuloyl 1(beta)-O-galloylglucose.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11754604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jan;79(1):81-7.

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for

Anila L, Vijayalakshmi NR.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, 695 581, Kerala,
Trivandrum, India.

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce
lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG
CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis
flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M.
indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E.
officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was
highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of
hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and
enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of
cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of
cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic
activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net
effect is to lower lipid levels.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11744299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: J Nat Prod. 2001 Jul;64(7):870-3.

Novel sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-Machi 1-14,
Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan.

Three novel bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, phyllaemblic acids B (1) and C (2)
and phyllaemblicin D (3), together with two new phenolic glycosides,
2-carboxylmethylphenol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and
2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), were
isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica. The structures of 1-5 were
established by spectral and chemical methods. The absolute stereochemistry of 1
and 2 was determined by applying the PGME method.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11473414 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2001 May;49(5):537-40.

New phenolic constituents from the fruit juice of Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Yang CR, Kouno I.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Japan.

Six new phenolic constituents, L-malic acid 2-O- (1), mucic acid 2-O- (5), mucic
acid 1,4-lactone 2-O- (6), 5-O- (8), 3-O- (10), and 3,5-di-O- (11) gallates,
were isolated from the fruit juice of Phyllanthus emblica together with their
methyl esters (2-4, 7, 9), and their structures were determined by spectral and
chemical methods. Compounds 5, 6, and 8, the major phenolic constituents of the
juice, were present as an equilibrium mixture in aqueous solution.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11383602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: J Nat Prod. 2000 Nov;63(11):1507-10.

Novel norsesquiterpenoids from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica.

Zhang YJ, Tanaka T, Iwamoto Y, Yang CR, Kouno I.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo Machi 1-14,
Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan.

Three ester glycosides, named phyllaemblicins A (3), B (4), and C (5), and a
methyl ester (2), of a highly oxygenated norbisabolane, phyllaemblic acid (1),
were isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica, along with 15 tannins and
related compounds. The structures of 2-5 were established by spectral and
chemical methods.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11087593 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1997 Sep;22(9):515-8, 525, 574.

[Ethnopharmacology of Phyllanthus emblica L.]

[Article in Chinese]

Xia Q, Xiao P, Wan L, Kong J.

Institute of Medicinal Plant, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.

This paper deals with the ethnopharmacology of P. emblica, a traditional herbal
medicine used by many peoples in the world. The paper introduces the biological
characters, geographical distribution-patterns, chemical constitution and
pharmacology of the plant. By cross-cultural comparative study, this paper
indicates that there are 17 countries and nations of the world using various
parts of P. emblica in their medical treatment. The medicinal plant is good for
anti-hepatitis, anti-cancer, anti-tumor and regulation of stomachal function.
The plant is also regarded as a traditional immunomodulator and a natural
adaptogen. The result of the study reveals that P. emblica is an important
traditional medicine with broad prospects.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 11038937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 May;70(2):171-6.

The role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention
from indomethacin induced gastric ulcer.

Bandyopadhyay SK, Pakrashi SC, Pakrashi A.

University College of Medicine, Calcutta, India.

Pretreatment with the butanol extract of the water fraction of Phyllanthus
emblica fruits at the dose of 100 mg/kg body-weight, orally administered to rats
for 10 consecutive days, was found to enhance secretion of gastric mucus and
hexosamine (P<0.001) in the indomethacin induced ulceration of rats. The
morphological observations also supported a protective effect of the stomach
wall from lesion. The indomethacin treatment of the premedicated animals with
the drug hardly affected either the malondialdehyde (MDA) or superoxide
dismutase (SOD) level in gastric tissue while the ulcerative agent itself
significantly enhanced both the levels. An antioxidant property appears to be
predominantly responsible for this cytoprotective action of the drug.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10771207 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Planta Med. 1997 Dec;63(6):518-24.

Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.

Ihantola-Vormisto A, Summanen J, Kankaanranta H, Vuorela H, Asmawi ZM, Moilanen

Medical School, University of Tampere, Finland.

Leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. have been used for the
anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment of rural populations in its growing
areas in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia, and the
Malay Peninsula. In the present study, leaves of Ph. emblica were extracted with
ten different solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanol, tetrahydrofuran,
acetic acid, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, chloroform, and water). The
inhibitory activity of the extracts against human polymorphonuclear leukocyte
(PMN) and platelet functions was studied. Methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and
1,4-dioxane extracts (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited leukotriene B4-induced
migration of human PMNs by 90% and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine
(FMLP)-induced degranulation by 25-35%. The inhibitory activity on
receptor-mediated migration and degranulation of human PMNs was associated with
a high proportion of polar compounds in the extracts as assessed by normal phase
thin layer chromatography. Diethyl ether extract (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited
calcium ionophore A23187-induced leukotriene B4 release from human PMNs by 40%,
thromboxane B2 production in platelets during blood clotting by 40% and
adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by 36%. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and
rutin, all compounds isolated earlier from Ph. emblica, could not explain these
inhibitory activities on PMNs or platelets by Ph. emblica extracts. These
results show that the leaves of Ph. emblica have inhibitory activity on PMNs and
platelets, which confirm the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of
this plant as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The data suggest
that the plant leaves contain as yet unidentified polar compound(s) with potent
inhibitory activity on PMNs and chemically different apolar molecule(s) which
inhibit both prostanoid and leukotriene synthesis.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9434603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Indian J Exp Biol. 1995 Apr;33(4):261-8.

Erratum in:
Indian J Exp Biol 1995 Aug;33(8):precedi.

Hepatoprotective studies on Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and quercetin.

Gulati RK, Agarwal S, Agrawal SS.

Department of Pharmacology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Phyllanthus emblica is a constituent of many hepatoprotective formulations
available in market. 50% alcoholic extract of P. emblica and quercetin isolated
from it were studied for hepatoprotective effect against country made liquor
(CML) and paracetamol challenge in albino rats and mice respectively. The
extract at the dose of 100 mg/100 g [corrected], po and quercetin at the dose of
15 mg/100 g, po, produced significant hepatoprotection.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7558182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1995 Apr;43(4):641-8.

Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV) reverse transcriptase.

el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Kusumoto IT, Kadota S, Hattori M, Namba T.

Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku (Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicines), Toyama
Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Extracts of 41 medicinal plants used in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for
their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse
transcriptase. The extracts of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Quercus
pedunculata, Rumex cyprius, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and
Terminalia horrida showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 < or = 50
micrograms/ml. Through a bioassay guided-fractionation of the methanol extract
of the fruit of P. emblica, putranjivain A (1) was isolated as a potent
inhibitory substance with IC50 = 3.9 microM, together with
1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3),
kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5) and
digallic acid (6). The inhibitory mode of action by 1, 2 and 6 was
non-competitive with respect to the substrate but competitive with respect to a
template-primer. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 was established in this
paper by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

PIP: The fundamental role played by reverse transcriptase (RT) in the
replication of retroviruses has made this enzyme a key target in the
chemotherapy of HIV infection. Since the replicative cycle of HIV is interrupted
by RT inhibitors, the inhibition of HIV RT is currently considered as a useful
approach in the prophylaxis and intervention of AIDS. The MeOH and water
extracts of 41 medicinal plants used in Egyptian folk medicine were evaluated
for their HIV-1 RT inhibitory effects, and inhibitory substances were identified
from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica that showed a potent inhibitory activity
to HIV-1-RT. The enzyme activity was determined by the amount of tritium
labeled-substrate incorporation into a polymer fraction in the presence of a
template-primer. Of the plant materials tested, the fruits of Phyllanthus
emblica L. (MeOH extract), Quercus pedunculata (MeOH and water extracts), Rumex
cyprius (MeOH and water extracts), Terminalia bellerica (MeOH and water
extracts), Terminalia chebula (MeOH and water extracts), and Terminalia horrida
(MeOH extract) showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 of 2-49 mcg/ml.
However, in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the inhibitory potency
of most of the extracts, except for P. emblica (MeOH extract) and T. chebula
(water extract), was appreciably reduced by nonspecific binding of their
ingredients with BSA. Through a bioassay guided-fractionation of the methanol
extract of the fruit of P. emblica, putranjivain A (1) was isolated as a potent
inhibitory substance with IC50 = 3.9 mcM, together with
1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3),
kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), and
digallic acid (6). The inhibitory mode of action by 1, 2, and 6 was
noncompetitive with respect to the substrate but competitive with respect to a
template-primer. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 was established in this
paper by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7541317 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71: J Ethnopharmacol. 1994 Aug;44(1):55-60.

Augmentation of murine natural killer cell and antibody dependent cellular
cytotoxicity activities by Phyllanthus emblica, a new immunomodulator.

Suresh K, Vasudevan DM.

Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.

When administered orally, Phyllanthus emblica, an excellent source of vitamin C
(ascorbate), has been found to enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity and
antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in syngeneic BALB/c mice,
bearing Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) tumor. P. emblica elicited a 2-fold
increase in splenic NK cell activity on day 3 post tumor inoculation. Enhanced
activity was highly significant on days 3, 5, 7 and 9 after tumor inoculation
with respect to the untreated tumor bearing control. A significant enhancement
in ADCC was documented on days 3, 7, 9, 11 and 13 in drug treated mice as
compared to the control. An increase in life span (ILS) of 35% was recorded in
tumor bearing mice treated with P. emblica. This increased survival was
completely abrogated when NK cell and killer (K) cell activities were depleted
either by cyclophosphamide or anti-asialo-GM1 antibody treatment. These results
indicate: (a) an absolute requirement for a functional NK cell or K cell
population in order that P. emblica can exert its effect on tumor bearing
animals, and (b) the antitumor activity of P. emblica is mediated primarily
through the ability of the drug to augment natural cell mediated cytotoxicity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7990505 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Environ Mol Mutagen. 1993;21(3):229-36.

Relative efficiency of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract and ascorbic acid in
modifying lead and aluminium-induced sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone

Dhir H, Roy AK, Sharma A.

Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India.

The identification of desmutagens and bioantimutagens in plants has prompted the
search for additional plant extracts capable of modifying adverse cellular
effects of environmental toxicants. The protective action of crude extracts of
Phyllanthus emblica fruits (PFE) against lead (Pb) and aluminium (Al)-induced
sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was studied in bone marrow cells of Mus
musculus. The modifying effect of the crude extract was compared with that of
comparable amounts of synthetic ascorbic acid (AA), a major component of the
fruits. Oral administration of PFE or AA for 7 consecutive days before exposure
of mice to the metals by intraperitoneal injections reduced the frequencies of
SCEs induced by both metals. PFE afforded a more pronounced protective effect
than AA in counteracting the genotoxicity induced by both Al and Pb: This
difference was significant with Pb. The higher protection afforded by PFE may be
attributed to the interaction of AA with other natural ingredients present in
the crude fruit extract.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8462526 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Food Chem Toxicol. 1992 Oct;30(10):865-9.

Relative protection given by extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and an
equivalent amount of vitamin C against a known clastogen--caesium chloride.

Ghosh A, Sharma A, Talukder G.

Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India.

Aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit and an equivalent amount of
vitamin C were administered orally by gavage to laboratory-bred Swiss albino
mice for 7 days in order to evaluate the protection afforded by the two extracts
against clastogenic effects of different doses of caesium chloride (CsCl) on
bone marrow cells of Mus musculus in vivo. Both pretreatments significantly
reduced the frequency of chromosome aberrations induced by CsCl given at three
different doses, indicating that vitamin C, an essential component of P. emblica
extract, was the effective agent in protecting against the clastogenicity of the
metal salt.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1427509 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74: Toxicol Lett. 1992 Aug;62(1):9-17.

Modification of metal-induced micronuclei formation in mouse bone marrow
erythrocytes by Phyllanthus fruit extract and ascorbic acid.

Roy AK, Dhir H, Sharma A.

Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India.

The comparative efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract, and its main
constituent, ascorbic acid, in modifying the cytotoxic action of lead and
aluminium was evaluated in vivo in bone marrow cells of Mus musculus. Oral
administration of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract for 7 days before exposure
to the metals through intraperitoneal injections reduced the frequency of
micronuclei induced by all doses of both metals. Priming with comparable doses
of synthetic ascorbic acid reduced micronuclei formation induced by both doses
of aluminium and only the lower dose of lead. With the higher dose of lead (20
mg/kg body wt.) priming with ascorbic acid increased the frequency of
micronuclei when compared with mice administered lead alone. The greater
efficacy of Phyllanthus fruit extract in alleviating metal-induced
clastogenicity may be due to the combined action of all ingredients in the crude
extract, rather than to ascorbic acid alone.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1509511 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Cancer Lett. 1991 Jul 26;59(1):9-18.

Modifying role of Phyllanthus emblica and ascorbic acid against nickel
clastogenicity in mice.

Dhir H, Agarwal K, Sharma A, Talukder G.

Centre for Advanced Study in Cell and Chromosome Research, Department of Botany,
University of Calcutta, India.

Nickel, a major environmental pollutant is known for its clastogenic and
carcinogenic potential. Dietary inhibitors of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are
of particular importance since they may have a role in cancer prevention. In the
present investigation, aqueous extract of edible dried fruits of Phyllanthus
emblica, a well known medicinal plant, was fed to Mus musculus for seven
consecutive days prior to treatment with different doses of nickel chloride (10,
20 and 40 mg/kg body wt.); the fruit extract significantly reduced the frequency
of CA/cell, the percentage of aberrant cells and the frequency of micronuclei
induced by all doses of nickel in the bone marrow cells of mice. Ascorbic acid,
a major constituent of the fruit, fed for 7 consecutive days in equivalent
concentration as that present in the fruit, however, could only alleviate the
cytotoxic effects induced by low doses of nickel; at the higher doses it was
ineffective. The greater efficacy of the fruit extract could be due to the
interaction of its various natural components rather than to any single
constituent. The study assumes importance in view of the widespread human
exposure to nickel compounds.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1878862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76: Mutat Res. 1990 Jul;241(3):305-12.

Modification of clastogenicity of lead and aluminium in mouse bone marrow cells
by dietary ingestion of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract.

Dhir H, Roy AK, Sharma A, Talukder G.

Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India.

Extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and ascorbic acid were evaluated separately
for protection against clastogenicity induced by lead (Pb) and aluminium (Al)
salts on mouse bone marrow chromosomes. Oral administration of Phyllanthus fruit
extract (PFE) for 7 days before exposure to both metals by intraperitoneal
injection increased the frequency of cell division and reduced the frequency of
chromosome breaks significantly. Comparable doses of synthetic ascorbic acid
(AA) were less effective and could protect against the effects of Al and only a
low dose of Pb (10 mg/kg body weight). AA administered before treatment in mice
given higher doses of Pb (40 mg/kg body weight) enhanced the frequency of
chromosome breaks, giving a synergistic effect. The higher protection afforded
by PFE may be due to the combined action of all ingredients, rather than to AA

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2366810 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1990 May;24(3):132-5.

[Inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica juice on formation of
N-nitrosomorpholine in vitro and N-nitrosoproline in rat and human]

[Article in Chinese]

Hu JF.

Department of Nutrition, Beijing Medical University.

The juice of Phyllanthus emblica and its dialyzate were examined for their
inhibition on formation of N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) in vitro and
N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) in vivo. Addition of 2 ml of the juice dialyzate (JD) to
a system containing 22 mumols/L NaNO2 and 22 mumols/L morpholine was found to
effectively block NMOR formation, with the inhibition of 93%, while only 49.2%
of inhibition was observed from the low concentration of vitamin C (VC, 20.5
mumols/L), which is equal to those present in the JD. Moreover, the inhibition
was not affected by precipitating JD with plumbous acetate and gelatin. In rats
garaging with NaNO2 and proline (40 mumols/L), co-administration of 1.3 ml of
the undialyzed juice containing 36 mumols/L of VC reduced the urinary excretion
of NPRO from 69.62 nmol/L to 4.24 nmol/L. Similarly, it was found in human
studies that 13 ml of the juice dramatically diminished the NPRO excretion from
75.10 nmol/L to 22.79 nmol/L in the 24-hr urine of 12 healthy volunteers, who
had ingested 300 mg NaNO3 and 500 mg proline. Again, the juice showed a higher
inhibition in both cases in inhibiting NPRO synthesis than the equivalent of VC
solution. The results suggested that only a fraction of inhibition is accounted
for by VC in the juice, whereas the rest might contribute to some unknown
non-phenolic inhibitors, which are worthwhile further identifying.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 2253517 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78: J Ethnopharmacol. 1983 May;7(3):247-65.

Anna Pavala Sindhooram--an antiatherosclerotic Indian drug.

Shanmugasundaram KR, Seethapathy PG, Shanmugasundaram ER.

The procedure for the preparation of Anna Pavala Sindhooram (APS), a drug based
on the concepts of Indian medicine for the prevention and reversal of the
atherosclerotic disease process is described in detail. The uniformity in the
composition of samples of the drug obtained in 10 batches, prepared over a
period of 5 years is evident from the chemical analysis of the mineral
constituents. The possibility of iodine, copper, iron, calcium and magnesium
present in the Anna Pavala Sindhooram, acting metabolically to reduce
hypercholesterolemia is discussed. The ingredients used are green vitriol
(Annabedi or ferrous sulphate), coral reef (Corallium rubrum or Pavalam), leaves
of Acalypha indica (Kuppaimeni), Lippia nodiflora (Poduthalai), Vinca rosea
(Nityakalyani), Lawsonia alba (maruthondri) and Cynodon dactylon (Arugampul) and
the flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis (Chemparathampoo) and the ripe fruits of
Phyllanthus emblica (nellikkai). Sindhooram is the chief therapeutic form of
herbo-mineral preparations used in the Sidha system of Indian medicine.

PMID: 6876850 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79: Biochem J. 1936 Jun;30(6):1014-20.

A tannin from the Indian gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) with a protective
action on ascorbic acid.

Damodaran M, Nair KR.

The Biochemical Laboratory, University of Madras, Madras.

PMID: 16746112 [PubMed]