Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Chebulic Myrobalan.

  • Botanical Name: Terminalia Chebula

  • Ayurvedic Name: Haritaki

  • Common Name: Chebulic Myrobalan

Terminalia Chebula

Plant Phytonutrient Profile


1: Phytother Res. 2007 Feb 1; [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of the growth inhibitory activities of triphala against common
bacterial isolates from HIV infected patients.

Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Shankar EM, Manikandan S, Vijayakumar R, Thangaraj
R, Vijayananth K, Sheeladevi R, Rao UA.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. ALM PG Institute of Basic
Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu,
India 600 113.

The isolation of microbial agents less susceptible to regular antibiotics and
the rising trend in the recovery rates of resistant bacteria highlights the need
for newer alternative principles. Triphala has been used in traditional medicine
practice against certain diseases such as jaundice, fever, cough, eye diseases
etc. In the present study phytochemical (phenolic, flavonoid and carotenoid) and
antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triphala and its
individual components (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica
officinalis) were tested against certain bacterial isolates (Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri, Staphylococcus
aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella paratyphi-B, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus
faecalis, Salmonella typhi) obtained from HIV infected patients using
Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods.
T. chebula was found to possess high phytochemical content followed by T.
belerica and E. officinalis in both aqueous and ethanol extracts. Further, most
of the bacterial isolates were inhibited by the ethanol and aqueous extracts of
T. chebula followed by T. belerica and E. officinalis by both disk diffusion and
MIC methods. The present study revealed that both individual and combined
aqueous and ethanol extracts of Triphala have antibacterial activity against the
bacterial isolates tested. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 17273983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2: Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007 Feb;127(2):385-8.

Hypolipidemic effect of triphala in experimentally induced hypercholesteremic
rats.

Saravanan S, Srikumar R, Manikandan S, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R.

Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM. PG. Institute of Basic Medical Sciences,
University of Madras, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The
present study highlights the efficacy of Ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala
(Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Emblica officinalis) on total
cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL), Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL),
High density lipoprotein (HDL) and free fatty acid in experimentally induced
hypercholesteremic rats. Four groups of rats were employed namely control,
Triphala treated, hypercholesterolemia rats (4% Cholesterol + 1% cholic acid +
egg yolk) and Triphala pre-treatment in hypercholesteremic rats. Results showed
significant increase in the total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, and free fatty acid in
hypercholesteremic rats were significantly reduced in Triphala treated
hypercholesteremic rats. The data demonstrated that Triphala formulation was
associated with hypolipidemic effects on the experimentally induced
hypercholesteremic rats.

PMID: 17268159 [PubMed - in process]

3: J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2006;20(4):233-9. Epub 2006 Oct 2.

Chemomodulatory effects of Terminalia chebula against nickel chloride induced
oxidative stress and tumor promotion response in male Wistar rats.

Prasad L, Husain Khan T, Jahangir T, Sultana S.

Section of Chemoprevention and Nutrition Toxicology, Department of Medical
Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar,
New Delhi 110062, India.

Nickel, a major environmental pollutant is a known potent nephrotoxic agent. In
this communication we report the chemopreventive effect of Terminalia chebula on
nickel chloride (NiCl(2)) induced renal oxidative stress, toxicity and cell
proliferation response in male Wistar rats. Administration of NiCl(2)
(250micromoL Ni/kg body weight) to male Wistar rats resulted in an increase in
the reduced renal glutathione content (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST),
glutathione reductase (GR), lipid peroxidation (LPO), H(2)O(2) generation, blood
urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine with a concomitant decrease in the
activity of glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001). Nickel chloride (NiCl(2))
treatment also induced tumor promotion markers, viz., ornithine decarboxylase
(ODC) activity and thymidine [(3)H] incorporation into renal DNA (p<0.001).
Prophylactic treatment of rats with T. chebula (25mg/kg body weight and 50mg/kg
body weight) daily for one week resulted in the diminution of NiCl(2) mediated
damage as evident from the down regulation of glutathione content, GST, GR, LPO,
H(2)O(2) generation, BUN, serum creatinine, DNA synthesis (p<0.001) and ODC
activity (p<0.01) with concomitant restoration of GPx activity. Thus, the
present investigation suggests that T. chebula extract could be used as
therapeutic agent for cancer prevention as evident from this study where it
blocks or suppresses the events associated with chemical carcinogenesis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17098582 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: J Food Prot. 2006 Sep;69(9):2205-9.

Growth-inhibiting activity of active component isolated from Terminalia chebula
fruits against intestinal bacteria.

Kim HG, Cho JH, Jeong EY, Lim JH, Lee SH, Lee HS.

Faculty of Biotechnology and Center for Agricultural Science and Technology,
College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonbuk National University, Chonju
561-756, Korea.

The growth-inhibitory activity of materials derived from the fruit of Terminalia
chebula was evaluated against six intestinal bacteria by means of an impregnated
paper disk agar diffusion method. The butanol fraction of T. chebula extract had
profound growth-inhibitory activity at a concentration of 5 mg per disk. The
biologically active component isolated from the T. chebula fruits was identified
with a variety of spectroscopic analyses as ethanedioic acid. The growth
responses varied in accordance with the bacterial strain, chemical, and dosage
tested. In a test with concentrations of 2 and 1 mg per disk, ethanedioic acid
had strong and moderate inhibitory activity against Clostridium perfringens and
Escherichia coli, respectively, with no associated adverse effects on the growth
of the four tested lactic acid-producing bacteria. Ellagic acid derived from T.
chebula fruits exerted a potent inhibitory effect against C. perfringens and E.
coli, but little or no inhibition was observed with treatments of behenic acid,
P-caryophyllene, eugenol, isoquercitrin, oleic acid, ca-phellandrene,
3-sitosterol, stearic acid, a-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, or
triacontanoic acid. These results may be an indication of at least one of the
pharmacological properties of T. chebula fruits.

PMID: 16995525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Arch Toxicol. 2006 Aug 24; [Epub ahead of print]

Isolation of chebulic acid from Terminalia chebula Retz. and its antioxidant
effect in isolated rat hepatocytes.

Lee HS, Jung SH, Yun BS, Lee KW.

Department of Food Science, College of Life sciences and Biotechnology, Korea
University, 1,5-ga, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul, 136-701, South Korea,
[email protected]

A hepatoprotective compound was isolated from the ethanolic extract of the
fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. by consecutive solvent partitioning, followed
by silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. The purified compound
was identified as a mixture of chebulic acid and its minor isomer, neochebulic
acid, with a ratio of 2:1 by spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR and
MS spectroscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the protection of
rat hepatocytes against oxidative toxicity by chebulic acid obtained from T.
chebula Retz. This compound exhibited in vitro a free radical-scavenging
activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity. Also, the specific ESR
spectrum for the (*)OOH radical signals consisting of three-line ESR spectra was
within the field of 0.27 mT, whereas 2.5 and 0.25 mg/ml of chebulic acid
significantly reduced the signal intensity of the ESR spectra to 0.06 mT and
0.11 mT, respectively. Using isolated rat hepatocyte experiment, we demonstrated
that the treatment of hepatocytes with chebulic acid significantly reduced the
tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell cytotoxicity, intracellular
reactive oxygen species level, and the ratio of GSSH, oxidized form of
glutathione (GSH) to the over total GSH (GSH + GSSG) (4.42%) as compared to that
with t-BHP alone (8.33%).

PMID: 16932919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

6: J Sep Sci. 2006 Jul;29(11):1653-7.

Preparative isolation of hydrolysable tannins chebulagic acid and chebulinic
acid from Terminalia chebula by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

Han Q, Song J, Qiao C, Wong L, Xu H.

Chinese Medicine Laboratory, Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese
Medicine, Shatin N. T., Hong Kong, China.

As a chromatographic column, the high-speed counter-current chromatography
system was equipped with a preparative HPLC series, enabling the successful
isolation of hydrolysable tannins from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, a
traditional Chinese medicine. The two-phase solvent system was composed of
n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:20:1:20 v/v). As a result, 33.2 mg
chebulagic and 15.8 mg chebulinic acids were obtained in one step from 300 mg of
crude extract. Their purities were determined by HPLC to be 95.3 and 96.1%,
respectively. The chemical structures were identified by their MS and 1H NMR
spectra.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16922284 [PubMed - in process]

7: Can J Microbiol. 2006 May;52(5):427-35.

Fungal endophyte assemblages from ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal
trees.

Tejesvi MV, Mahesh B, Nalini MS, Prakash HS, Kini KR, Subbiah V, Shetty HS.

Department of Studies in Applied Botany and Biotechnology, University of Mysore,
Manasagangothri, Karnataka, India.

Endophytic fungi represent an interesting group of microorganisms associated
with the healthy tissues of terrestrial plants. They represent a large reservoir
of genetic diversity. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark
segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely
Terminalia arjuna, Crataeva magna, Azadirachta indica, Holarrhena
antidysenterica, Terminalia chebula, and Butea monosperma (11 individual trees),
growing in different regions of southern India. Forty-eight fungal species were
recovered from 2200 bark segments. Mitosporic fungi represented a major group
(61%), with ascomycetes (21%) and sterile mycelia (18%) the next major groups.
Species of Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Myrothecium, Trichoderma, Verticillium, and
Chaetomium were frequently isolated. Exclusive fungal taxa were recovered from
five of the six plant species considered for the study of endophytic fungi.
Rarefaction indices for species richness indicated the highest expected number
of species for bark segments were isolated from T. arjuna and A. indica (20
species each) and from C. magna (18 species).

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16699567 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 May 7;6:17.

Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia
chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Rao NK, Nammi S.

Pharmacology Division, GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam 530045, Andhra
Pradesh, India. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) has been widely used in Ayurveda
for the treatment of diabetes. In the present investigation, the chloroform
extract of T. chebula seed powder was investigated for its antidiabetic activity
in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using short term and long term study
protocols. The efficacy of the extract was also evaluated for protection of
renal functions in diabetic rats. METHODS: The blood glucose lowering activity
of the chloroform extract was determined in streptozotocin-induced (75 mg/kg,
i.p.; dissolved in 0.1 M acetate buffer; pH 4.5) diabetic rats, after oral
administration at the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in short term study. Blood
samples were collected from the eye retro-orbital plexus of rats before and also
at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after drug administration and the samples were
analyzed for blood glucose by using glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method using a
visible spectrophotometer. In long term study, the extract (300 mg/kg) was
administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, daily for 8 weeks. Blood
glucose was measured at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Urine samples were
collected before the induction of diabetes and at the end of 8 weeks of
treatments and analyzed for urinary protein, albumin and creatinine levels. The
data was compared statistically using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Dunnet's
t-test. RESULTS: The chloroform extract of T. chebula seeds produced
dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose of diabetic rats and comparable with
that of standard drug, glibenclamide in short term study. It also produced
significant reduction in blood glucose in long term study. Significant
renoprotective activity is observed in T. chebula treated rats. The results
indicate a prolonged action in reduction of blood glucose by T. chebula and is
probably mediated through enhanced secretion of insulin from the beta-cells of
Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. The probable mechanism of
potent renoprotective actions of T. chebula has to be evaluated. CONCLUSION: The
present studies clearly indicated a significant antidiabetic and renoprotective
effects with the chloroform extract of T. chebula and lend support for its
traditional usage. Further investigations on identification of the active
principles and their mode of action are needed to unravel the molecular
mechanisms involved in the observed effects.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16677399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Mar;25(3):111-8.

Terminalia chebula (fruit) prevents liver toxicity caused by sub-chronic
administration of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in combination.

Tasduq SA, Singh K, Satti NK, Gupta DK, Suri KA, Johri RK.

Division of Pharmacology and Natural Products Chemistry, Regional Research
Laboratory, (CSIR), Canal Road, Jammu - Tawi 180 001, India.

Terminalia chebula Gertn. (Combetraceae) is an important herbal drug in
Ayurvedic pharmacopea. In the present study, a 95% ethanolic extract of T.
chebula (fruit) (TC extract), which was chemically characterized on the basis of
chebuloside II as a marker, was investigated for hepatoprotective activity
against anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drug-induced toxicity. TC extract was found
to prevent the hepatotoxicity caused by the administration of rifampicin (RIF),
isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) (in combination) in a sub-chronic mode
(12 weeks). The hepatoprotective effect of TC extract could be attributed to its
prominent anti-oxidative and membrane stabilizing activities. The changes in
biochemical observations were supported by histological profile.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16634329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: J Chromatogr A. 2006 Apr 21;1112(1-2):171-80. Epub 2006 Feb 3.

Chromatographic fingerprint analysis--a rational approach for quality assessment
of traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

Xie P, Chen S, Liang YZ, Wang X, Tian R, Upton R.

Zhuhai Chromap Institute of Herbal Medicine Research, Zhuhai 519085, PR China.
[email protected]

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM) contain multiple botanicals, each of
which contains many compounds that may be relevant to the medicine's putative
activity. Therefore, analytical techniques that look at a suite of compounds,
including their respective ratios, provide a more rational approach to the
authentication and quality assessment of TCHM. In this paper we present several
examples of applying chromatographic fingerprint analysis for determining the
identity, stability, and consistency of TCHM as well as the identification of
adulterants as follows: (1) species authentication of various species of ginseng
(Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium, Panax noto-ginseng) and stability of
ginseng preparations using high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)
fingerprint analysis; (2) batch-to-batch consistency of extracts of Total
Glycosides of Peony (TGP), to be used as a raw material and in finished products
(TGP powdered extract products), using high performance liquid chromatography
(HPLC) fingerprint analysis with a pattern recognition software interface
(CASE); (3) documenting the representative HPLC fingerprints of Immature Fruits
of Terminalia chebula (IFTC) through the assessment of raw material, in-process
assay of the extracts, and the analysis of the finished product (tablets); (4)
HPLC fingerprint study demonstrating the consistent quality of total flavonoids
of commercial extracts of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) leaves (EGb) along with
detection of adulterations. The experimental conditions as well as general
comments on the application of chromatographic fingerprint analysis are
discussed.

PMID: 16472540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Dec;24(4):555-63.

Chemopreventive potential of Triphala (a composite Indian drug) on
benzo(a)pyrene induced forestomach tumorigenesis in murine tumor model system.

Deep G, Dhiman M, Rao AR, Kale RK.

Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal
Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

The present work is probably the first report on cancer chemopreventive
potential of Triphala, a combination of fruit powder of three different plants
namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. Triphala
is a popular formulation of the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Our findings have
shown that Triphala in diet has significantly reduced the benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]
induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. In the short term treatment
groups, the tumor incidences were lowered to 77.77% by both doses of Triphala
mixed diet. In the case of long-term treatment the tumor incidences were reduced
to 66.66% and 62.50% respectively by 2.5% and 5% triphala containing diet. Tumor
burden was 7.27 +/- 1.16 in the B(a)P treated control group, whereas it reduced
to 3.00 +/- 0.82 (p < 0.005) by 2.5% dose and 2.33 +/- 1.03 (p < 0.001) by 5%
dose of Triphala. In long-term studies the tumor burden was reduced to 2.17 +/-
0.75 (p < 0.001) and 2.00 +/- 0.71 (p < 0.001) by 2.5% and 5% diet of Triphala,
respectively. It was important to observe that Triphala was more effective in
reducing tumor incidences compared to its individual constituents. Triphala also
significantly increased the antioxidant status of animals which might have
contributed to the chemoprevention. It was inferred that the concomitant use of
multiple agents seemed to have a high degree of chemoprevention potential.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16471318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

12: Mol Cell Biochem. 2006 Feb;283(1-2):67-74.

Effect of Triphala on oxidative stress and on cell-mediated immune response
against noise stress in rats.

Srikumar R, Parthasarathy NJ, Manikandan S, Narayanan GS, Sheeladevi R.

Immunology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Dr ALM.PG. Institute of Basic
Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai, Tamilnadu,
India.

Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. The
present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia
chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) on noise-stress induced
alterations in the antioxidant status and on the cell-mediated immune response
in Wistar strain male albino rats. Noise-stress employed in this study was 100
dB for 4 h/d/15 days and Triphala was used at a dose of 1 g/kg/b.w/48 days.
Eight different groups of rats namely, non-immunized: control, Triphala,
noise-stress, Triphala with noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups
were used. Sheep red blood cells (5 x 10(9) cells/ml) were used to immunize the
animals. Biochemical indicators of oxidative stress namely lipid peroxidation,
antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase
(GPx), ascorbic acid in plasma and tissues (thymus and spleen) and SOD, GPx and
corticosterone level in plasma were estimated. Cell-mediated immune response
namely foot pad thickness (FPT) and leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI) test
were performed only in immunized groups. Results showed that noise-stress
significantly increased the lipid peroxidation and corticosterone level with
concomitant depletion of antioxidants in plasma and tissues of both
non-immunized and immunized rats. Noise-stress significantly suppressed the
cell-mediated immune response by decreased FPT with an enhanced LMI test. The
supplementation with Triphala prevents the noise-stress induced changes in the
antioxidant as well as cell-mediated immune response in rats. This study
concludes that Triphala restores the noise-stress induced changes may be due to
its antioxidant properties.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16444587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):582-6.

In vitro antioxidant studies and free radical reactions of triphala, an
ayurvedic formulation and its constituents.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Bhagirathi RG, Mishra B, Mishra KP, Banavalikar MM,
Mohan H.

Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research
Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085, India.

The aqueous extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (T1), Terminalia
chebula (T2) and Terminalia belerica (T3) and their equiproportional mixture
triphala were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant activity. gamma-Radiation
induced strand break formation in plasmid DNA (pBR322) was effectively inhibited
by triphala and its constituents in the concentration range 25-200 microg/mL
with a percentage inhibition of T1 (30%-83%), T2 (21%-71%), T3 (8%-58%) and
triphala (17%-63%). They also inhibited radiation induced lipid peroxidation in
rat liver microsomes effectively with IC(50) values less than 15 microg/mL. The
extracts were found to possess the ability to scavenge free radicals such as
DPPH and superoxide. As the phenolic compounds present in these extracts are
mostly responsible for their radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic
contents present in these extracts were determined and expressed in terms of
gallic acid equivalents and were found to vary from 33% to 44%. These studies
revealed that all three constituents of triphala are active and they exhibit
slightly different activities under different conditions. T1 shows greater
efficiency in lipid peroxidation and plasmid DNA assay, while T2 has greater
radical scavenging activity. Thus their mixture, triphala, is expected to be
more efficient due to the combined activity of the individual components.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16161061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1639-44.

Antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula in vivo and in
vitro.

Lee HS, Won NH, Kim KH, Lee H, Jun W, Lee KW.

Department of Food Science, College of Life & Environmental Sciences, Korea
University, Seoul, Korea.

The ripe fruit of Terminalia chebula RETZIUS (T. chebula RETZ) (Combretsceae),
which is a native plant in India and Southeast Asia, has traditionally been used
as a popular folk medicine for homeostatic, antitussive, laxative, diuretic, and
cardiotonic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the
protective effects of an aqueous extract of fruit of T. chebula on the
tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury observed in cultured
rat primary hepatocytes and rat liver. Both treatment and pretreatment of the
hepatocytes with the T. chebula extract (TCE) significantly reversed the
t-BHP-induced cell cytotoxicity and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. In addition,
TCE exhibited in vitro ferric-reducing antioxidant activity and
2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activities. The in vivo
study showed that pretreatment with TCE (500 or 1000 mg/kg) by gavage for 5 d
before a single dose of t-BHP (0.1 mmol/kg i.p.) significantly lowered the serum
levels of the hepatic enzyme markers aspartate aminotransferase and alanine
aminotransferase and reduced the indicators of oxidative stress in the liver,
such as the glutathine disulfide content and lipid peroxidation, in a
dose-dependent manner. Histopathologic examination of the rat livers showed that
TCE reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatocyte swelling and
neutrophilic infiltration, and repaired necrosis induced by t-BHP. Based on the
results described above, we speculate that TCE has the potential to play a role
in the hepatic prevention of oxidative damage in living systems.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16141531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Sep;277(1-2):43-8.

Radiation protection by Terminalia chebula: some mechanistic aspects.

Gandhi NM, Nair CK.

Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre,
Trombay, Mumbai, 400 085, India.

Radioprotective ability of the aqueous extract of the fruit of Terminalia
chebula (TCE) was evaluated for its antioxidant and radioprotective abilities.
TCE (50 microg) was able to neutralise 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, a stable
free radical by 92.9%. The free radical neutralizing ability of TCE was
comparable to that of ascorbate (100 microM) 93.5% and gallic acid (100 microM)
91.5% and was higher than that of the diethyldithiocarbamate (200 microM) 55.4%,
suggesting the free radical activity of TCE. TCE protected the plasmid DNA
pBR322 from undergoing the radiation-induced strand breaks. Radiation damage
converts the supercoiled form (ccc) of plasmid to open circular form (oc); the
presence of TCE during radiation exposure protected the plasmid from undergoing
these damages. The administration of TCE (80 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) prior to
whole body irradiation of mice (4 Gy) resulted in a reduction of peroxidation of
membrane lipids in the mice liver as well as a decrease in radiation-induced
damage to DNA, as assayed by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). TCE
also protected the human lymphocytes from undergoing the gamma radiation-induced
damage to DNA exposed in vitro to 2 Gy gamma-radiation. These results suggest
the radioprotective ability of TCE.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 16132713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Jun;56(4):287-91.

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants.

Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D.

Nutraceutical Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

To identify promising sources of antioxidants, some food and medicinal plants
were studied for total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The leaves,
bark and fruits of Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula
and Terminalia muelleri, the leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and the
seeds of Syzygium cumini were found to have high total phenolic contents
(72.0-167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6-90.6%). Leaves of
Eucalyptusglobulus were a rich source of rutin, Moringa oleifera for kaempferol,
aerial parts of Centella asiatica for quercetin, fruits of T. bellerica and T.
chebula for gallic acid, and bark of T. arjuna, leaves and fruits of T.
bellerica and bark, leaves and fruits of T. muelleri for ellagic acid.

PMID: 16096138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Aug;28(8):1398-403.

Immunomodulatory activity of triphala on neutrophil functions.

Srikumar R, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R.

Department of Medical Physiology, Immunology Laboratory, Dr. A.L. Mudaliar
Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras,
Taramani Campus, Chennai-600 113, India.

Immune activation is an effective as well as protective approach against
emerging infectious diseases. The immunomodulatory activities of Triphala
(Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) were assessed
by testing the various neutrophil functions like adherence, phagocytosis
(phagocytic index (P.I) and avidity index (A.I)) and nitro blue tetrazolium
(NBT) reduction in albino rats. In recent years much attention is being focused
on the immunological changes occur during stress. Noise (100 dB) stress for 4
h/d for 15 d, was employed to alter the neutrophil functions. The neutrophil
function tests and corticosterone levels were carried out in eight different
groups of animals, namely control, Triphala, noise-stress, Triphala
noise-stress, and corresponding immunized groups were used. Sheep red blood
cells (SRBC 5 x 10(9) cells per ml) were used for immunizing the animals that
belongs to immunized groups. In Triphala administration (1 g/kg/d for 48 d), A.I
was found to be significantly enhanced in the Triphala group, while the
remaining neutrophil functions and steroid levels were not altered
significantly. However the neutrophil functions were significantly enhanced in
the Triphala immunized group with a significant decrease in corticosterone level
was observed. Upon exposure to the noise-stress, the neutrophil functions were
significantly suppressed and followed by a significant increase in the
corticosterone levels were observed in both the noise-stress and the
noise-stress immunized groups. These noise-stress-induced changes were
significantly prevented by Triphala administration in both the Triphala
noise-stress and the Triphala noise-stress immunized groups. Hence our study has
divulged that oral administration of Triphala appears to stimulate the
neutrophil functions in the immunized rats and stress induced suppression in the
neutrophil functions were significantly prevented by Triphala.

PMID: 16079482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2005;24(3):193-200.

Evaluation of genotoxicity of medicinal plant extracts by the comet and VITOTOX
tests.

Arora S, Brits E, Kaur S, Kaur K, Sohi RS, Kumar S, Verschaeve L.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005,
Punjab, India.

We report the results of our genotoxic evaluation of extracts from three
medicinal plants Acacia nilotica, Juglans regia, and Terminalia chebula and the
herbal drug Triphala employing the VITOTOX and comet tests.These tests detect
DNA damage in prokaryotic and eukaryotic test systems, respectively. In the
VITOTOX test, none of the extracts were identified as genotoxic. In the comet
assay, extracts of Acacia nilotica showed statistically significant DNA damage
only in a concentration of 2500 ppm (highest tested dose), whereas extracts from
Juglans regia showed significant damage in concentrations above 250 ppm and
more. Extracts from Terminalia chebula and Tripahala significantly increased DNA
damage in a concentration above 500 ppm. This is not considered contradictory,
because DNA damage in the alkaline comet assay may not be permanent and hence
may not necessarily result in mutations. All the extracts were previously found
in the Ames assay to have potent antimutagenic effects against the direct acting
mutagens NPD, sodium azide, and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-AF. The results of
the previous study using the Ames assay are in conformity with those of the
VITOTOX test. It was found that the extracts were safe in concentrations of up
to 1000 microg/0.1 mL and 2500 microg/0.1 mL. A literature survey also showed
that plant extracts can be mutagenic as well as antimutagenic depending on the
test system used. This indicates that a battery of assays is needed before any
conclusion can be reached.

PMID: 16050803 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Phytochem Anal. 2005 Jul-Aug;16(4):246-51.

Chemical identification of the sources of commercial Fructus Chebulae.

Juang LJ, Sheu SJ.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Tingchow
Road, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Twenty-eight commercial samples of Fructus Chebulae were collected from local
herbal markets in Taiwan and were determined to have been derived from
Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia chebula Retz. var. parviflora Thwaites,
which differ markedly in external appearance. Ten tannin-related constituents
[gallic acid (1), chebulic acid (2), punicalagin (4), chebulanin (7), corilagin
(8), neochebulinic acid (9), ellagic acid (11), chebulagic acid (12), chebulinic
acid (13) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (14)] were identified and
quantified by HPLC. Samples derived from T. chebula. var. parviflora, which are
typically round-shaped, generally contained higher concentrations of 13 and 14
but lower levels of 12 compared with those from T. chebula, which are largely
oval-shaped. The ratio of the concentration of 14 to that of 4 may serve as a
potential parameter for differentiating samples from the two origins (T.
chebula, ratio 0.6 +/- 0.3; T. chebula. var. parviflora, ratio 3.4 +/- 2.2).
Levels of the three major bioactive constituents 12-14 were found to provide
good references for the quality assessment of Fructus Chebulae. The ratio of the
concentration of 12 to that of 14 may offer a guideline for determining quality
as well as origin of the drug (lower-grade T. chebula, ratio 12.4 +/- 6.0;
medium-grade T. chebula, ratio 8.8 +/- 7.9; higher-grade T. chebula, ratio 3.2
+/- 0.8; T. chebula var. parviflora, ratio 1.6 +/- 0.7).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16042149 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20: J Basic Microbiol. 2005;45(2):106-14.

Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of
beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Aqil F, Khan MS, Owais M, Ahmad I.

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh--202002 India.

Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for
antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical
isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of
plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test
strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of
resistance to common beta-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced
beta-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta-lactam antibiotics, tested.
The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia
(flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica
granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits)
showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size
of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves
of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the
other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind)
exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency
of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged
from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from
Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and
methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the
methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from
Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and
Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from
Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above
extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like alkaloids,
glycosides, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. TLC-bioautography indicated
phenols and flavonoids as major active compounds.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15812867 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21: Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):345-53.

Suppression of the onset and progression of collagen-induced arthritis by
chebulagic acid screened from a natural product library.

Lee SI, Hyun PM, Kim SH, Kim KS, Lee SK, Kim BS, Maeng PJ, Lim JS.

Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience, Daejeon University,
Yongun-dong, Dong-gu, Daejeon 300-716, Republic of Korea.

OBJECTIVE: Chebulagic acid (CHE) from the immature seeds of Terminalia chebula
was identified from a natural product library as a potent suppressor of T cell
activity. This study examined the effectiveness of CHE against the onset and
progression of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. METHODS: Arthritis was
induced in DBA/1J mice by subcutaneous immunization with bovine type II collagen
on days 0 and 21. CHE was administered intraperitoneally for 3 weeks, either as
prophylaxis (10 or 20 mg/kg) before disease onset or as therapy (20 mg/kg) after
disease onset. Clinical scores, serum antibody levels, and cytokines were
measured, and flow cytometric analysis and real-time reverse
transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the knee
joints of mice with CIA. RESULTS: In both the prophylactic and therapeutic CHE
dosing models, all clinical scores, serum levels of total and anticollagen IgG,
and levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-6 were reduced, while serum levels
of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) were markedly elevated. The number
of granulocytes was reduced, but the proportion of CD4+,CD25+ T cells was
greater in the knee joints of CHE-treated CIA mice. Expression of Foxp3 and
TGFbeta messenger RNA was also augmented significantly in the knee joints of
CHE-treated CIA mice in the therapeutic dosing model. CONCLUSION: CHE
significantly suppressed the onset and progression of CIA in mice. Immune
suppression via the induction of TGFbeta and CD4+,CD25+ T cells may represent a
new strategy in the development of therapies for managing rheumatoid arthritis
and other inflammatory diseases.

PMID: 15641090 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Bioresour Technol. 2005 May;96(8):949-53.

Microbial transformation of tannin-rich substrate to gallic acid through
co-culture method.

Banerjee R, Mukherjee G, Patra KC.

Microbial Biotechnology and Downstream Processing Laboratory, Agricultural and
Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302,
West Bengal, India. [email protected]

Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding
tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous
fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus
(GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod
cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process
parameters for maximum production of tannase and gallic acid by co-culture
method were optimized through media engineering. MSSF was carried out at the
optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The optimal pH and
incubation period was 5.0 and 48 h respectively. Through the co-culture
technique the maximum yield of tannase and gallic acid was found to be 41.3 U/ml
and 94.8% respectively.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15627566 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(1-2):43-51.

Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for
allergic rhinitis.

Pratibha N, Saxena VS, Amit A, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of
nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs
when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe
polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of
allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal
plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica,
Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since
inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study
aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo
models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw
edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema
in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino
rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and
compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55%
inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under
the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7%
inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at
all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most
potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated
31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino
rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also
exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against
Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately
63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin
inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive
control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated IC50 concentrations at 1.5 and 9.0
microg/ml, respectively. These results demonstrate that this novel polyherbal
formulation is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that can ameliorate the symptoms
of allergic rhinitis.

PMID: 15573692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Phytomedicine. 2004 Sep;11(6):530-8.

Studies on the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as a potent antioxidant and
a probable radioprotector.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Naik DB, Gangabhagirathi R, Mohan H.

Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research
Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India.

Aqueous extract of a natural herb, Terminalia chebula was tested for potential
antioxidant activity by examining its ability to inhibit gamma-radiation-induced
lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and damage to superoxide dismutase
enzyme in rat liver mitochondria. The antimutagenic activity of the extract has
been examined by following the inhibition of gamma-radiation-induced strand
breaks formation in plasmid pBR322 DNA. In order to understand the
phytochemicals responsible for this, HPLC analysis of the extract was carried
out, which showed the presence of compounds such as ascorbate, gallic acid and
ellagic acid. This was also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry. The extract
inhibits xanthine/xanthine oxidase activity and is also an excellent scavenger
of DPPH radicals. The rate at which the extract and its constituents scavenge
the DPPH radical was studied by using stopped-flow kinetic spectrometer. Based
on all these results it is concluded that the aqueous extract of T. chebula acts
as a potent antioxidant and since it is able to protect cellular organelles from
the radiation-induced damage, it may be considered as a probable radioprotector.

PMID: 15500265 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Phytother Res. 2004 Sep;18(9):737-41.

Cytoprotective effect on oxidative stress and inhibitory effect on cellular
aging of Terminalia chebula fruit.

Na M, Bae K, Kang SS, Min BS, Yoo JK, Kamiryo Y, Senoo Y, Yokoo S, Miwa N.

College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

The ethanol extract from the fruit of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae)
exhibited significant inhibitory activity on oxidative stress and the
age-dependent shortening of the telomeric DNA length. In the peroxidation model
using t-BuOOH, the T. chebula extract showed a notable cytoprotective effect on
the HEK-N/F cells with 60.5 +/- 3.8% at a concentration of 50 microg/ml. In
addition, the T. chebula extract exhibited a significant cytoprotective effect
against UVB-induced oxidative damage. The life-span of the HEK-N/F cells was
elongated by 40% as a result of the continuous administration of 3 microg/ml of
the T. chebula extract compared to that of the control. These observations were
attributed to the inhibitory effect of the T. chebula extract on the
age-dependent shortening of the telomere, length as shown by the Southern blots
of the terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) of DNA extracted from subculture
passages. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15478203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Phytother Res. 2004 Aug;18(8):670-3.

Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric
potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

Rani P, Khullar N.

Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India.

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of
traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant
extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against
multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown
by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica
granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and
Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia
belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia
catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum,
Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and
Butea monosperma.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15476301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Sep Sci. 2004 Jun;27(9):718-24.

Determination of hydrolyzable tannins in the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz.
by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis.

Juang LJ, Sheu SJ, Lin TC.

Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Tingchow
Road, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

A RP-HPLC method for determining fourteen components (gallic acid, chebulic
acid, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-D-glucose, punicalagin, 3,4,6-tri-O-galloyl-D-glucose,
casuarinin, chebulanin, corilagin, neochebulinic acid, terchebulin, ellagic
acid, chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-D-glucose)
in the fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz. is described. The separation was
achieved within 80 min using a binary gradient with mobile phases consisting of
a pH 2.7 phosphoric acid solution and an 80% CH3CN solution. Capillary
electrophoretic analyses were also attempted, and it was found that CZE (25 mM
Na2B4O7, 5 mM NaH2PO4, pH 7.0) was an efficient method for the separation of
gallotannins, while an MEKC method (25 mM Na2B4O7, 5 mM NaH2PO4, 20 mM SDS, pH
7.0, and 10% acetonitrile) provided a better separation for most of the tannins
examined. The HPLC and CE methods developed were both successfully applied to
the assay of tannins in commercial samples of Chebulae Fructus.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15387468 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30(3):99-109.

Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic
rhinitis.

D'Souza P, Amit A, Saxena VS, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men,
women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when
the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic
rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal
membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy,
watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2)
has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique
combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus
emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper
nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant
efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl
radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay,
1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and
2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical
scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced
lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7
exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically
generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73 microg/ml); superoxide anion (IC50
24.65 microg/ml by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
[PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27 microg/ml by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium
[NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34 microg/ml); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl
hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62 microg/ml); and
2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical
(IC50 7.35 microg/ml). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the
concentration range of 20-80 microg/ml. Aller-7 also significantly inhibited
nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages.
These results demonstrate that Aller-7 is a potent scavenger of free radicals
and that it may serve.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15366786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Feb;42(2):174-8.

Protective effect of Terminalia chebula against experimental myocardial injury
induced by isoproterenol.

Suchalatha S, Shyamala Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Madras, Guindy
Campus, Chennai 600 025, India.

Cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits (500
mg/kg body wt) was examined in isoproterenol (200 mg/kg body wt) induced
myocardial damage in rats. In isoproterenol administered rats, the level of
lipid peroxides increased significantly in the serum and heart. A significant
decrease was observed in the activity of the myocardial marker enzymes with a
concomitant increase in their activity in serum. Histopathological examination
was carried out to confirm the myocardial necrosis. T. chebula extract
pretreatment was found to ameliorate the effect of isoproterenol on lipid
peroxide formation and retained the activities of the diagnostic marker enzymes.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15282950 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Fitoterapia. 2004 Mar;75(2):231-5.

Antibacterial screening of plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine.

Bonjar GH.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural Engineering, Bahonar
University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. [email protected]

Fifty methanolic plant extracts belonging to 44 plant species of 33 families
finding use in Iranian folkloric medicine were screened for antibacterial
activity. Thirty samples, including 28 species in 20 families, had antibacterial
activity against at least on one of the bacteria. Among the active plants, 32.6%
were active against G(-), 62% against G(+), and 47.3% against both G(-) and G(+)
bacteria. Dianthus coryophyllus was active against all tested G(-) and G(+)
bacteria except Micrococcus luteus. Most susceptible G(-) bacteria were
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica and least susceptible G(-)
bacterium was Escherichia coli. In G(+) bacteria, most and least susceptible
were Staphylococcus aureus and M. luteus, respectively. The least MIC, as 0.62
mg/ml, belonged to Myrtus communis seeds against S. aureus, Bacillus cereus and
B. bronchiseptica, and to Terminalia chebula ripe seeds against S. aureus.

PMID: 15030933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003 Dec;22(12):639-45.

Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP-1, a polyherbal phytomedicine.

Tasaduq SA, Singh K, Sethi S, Sharma SC, Bedi KL, Singh J, Jaggi BS, Johri RK.

Biochemistry Lab, Division of Pharmacology, Regional Research Laboratory, Canal
Road, Jammu-Tawi 180 001, India.

HP-1 a herbal formulation comprising of Phyllanthus niruri and extracts of
Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica and Tinospora
cordifolia has been evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4) induced toxicity. Results show that HP-1 reversed the
leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT)
and prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) levels in a primary monolayer
culture of rat hepatocytes (in vitro). HP-1 attenuated the serum toxicity as
manifested in elevated levels of transaminases (glutamate oxaloacetate
transaminase (GOT), and GPT) The antioxidative enzymes in liver (catalase and
superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were restored to normal values after the oral
administration of HP-1. HP-1 suppressed the formation of the superoxide anion
radical and reduced CCl4 mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO). Silymarin and
antioxidants (ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol) were used for
comparison. The present study showed that HP-1 is a potential hepatoprotective
formulation with an additional attribute of being anti-peroxidative.

PMID: 14992325 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: J Basic Microbiol. 2004;44(1):42-8.

Biosynthesis of tannase and gallic acid from tannin rich substrates by Rhizopus
oryzae and Aspergillus foetidus.

Mukherjee G, Banerjee R.

Microbial Biotechnology and Downstream Processing Laboratory, Agricultural and
Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302,
West Bengal, India.

Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for
production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures,
Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013
MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia
chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental
parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized
through media engineering. The highest yield of tannase and gallic acid was
obtained after 60 h in case of Rhizopus oryzae and after 72 h by Aspergillus
foetidus with 3 ml of induced inoculum. The optimum initial pH of the
fermentation was found to be 4.5 in case of Rhizopus oryzae and 5.0 for
Aspergillus foetidus. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30
degrees C and 80% relative humidity. Collectively, the data reveal the potential
of the modified solid-state fermentation process for the production of tannase
and gallic acid from tannin-rich substrates with R. oryzae and A. foetidus.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14768027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2003;29(3):107-15.

Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition,
antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical
formulation for allergic rhinitis.

Amit A, Saxena VS, Pratibha N, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a
major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's
population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic
rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the
treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven
medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T.
bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum,
which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical
manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released
from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation
was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging
them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of
Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes
involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses.
Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes
vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to
bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was
determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive
control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig
tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls.
Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus
demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 14708456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: Fitoterapia. 2004 Jan;75(1):74-6.

Inhibition of Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans by plants used in Iranian
folkloric medicine.

Bonjar GH.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural Engineering, Bahonar
University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. [email protected]

In vitro anticandidal activity of methanol extracts of 42 plant species of 29
families used in Iranian folkloric medicine were evaluated at 20 mg/ml
concentration against Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans. Nineteen plant
species in 16 families showed anticandidal activities. The lowest MIC of 0.62
mg/ml belonged to Terminalia chebula and Thymus vulgaris.

PMID: 14693224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Phytother Res. 2003 Nov;17(9):1123-5.

Screening South Indian medicinal plants for antifungal activity against
cutaneous pathogens.

Vonshak A, Barazani O, Sathiyamoorthy P, Shalev R, Vardy D, Golan-Goldhirsh A.

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert
Research, Albert Katz Department of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant
Biotechnology Laboratory, Sede Boqer Campus, 84990, Israel.

In this study, twenty-eight South Indian medicinal plants were screened for
their anti-fungal activity against six species of fungi (Trichophyton
mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. soudanense, Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata,
and C. krusei). Three plant species extracts, Celastrus paniculatus, Eriodendron
anfractuosum and Ficus glomerata showed inhibitory activity. An aqueous extract
of galls of Terminalia chebula showed inhibitory effects on three dermatophytes
(Trichophyton spp.) and three yeasts (Candida spp.). Seeds extract of T. chebula
inhibited only the growth of T. glabrata. An aqueous extract of T. chebula
showed inhibitory effects higher than those measured in ethanol extracts. It is
therefore suggested that tannins are plausible candidates for the
anti-dermatophytic effects of T. chebula. Chebulinic acid, a known tannin of T.
chebula was tested and found not inhibitory, thus a search for the active
compound is needed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14595602 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Sep;26(9):1331-5.

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula.

Cheng HY, Lin TC, Yu KH, Yang CM, Lin CC.

Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Kaohsiung Medical University,
Taiwan.

Free radicals react with biological molecules and destroy the structure of
cells, which eventually causes free-radical induced disease such as cancer,
renal failure, aging, etc. In this study, 6 extracts and 4 pure compounds of
Terminalia chebula RETZ. were investigated for anti-lipid peroxidation,
anti-superoxide radical formation and free radical scavenging activities. The
superoxide radical scavenging of the 4 pure compounds was further evaluated
using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. The results showed that all
tested extracts and pure compounds of T. chebula exhibited antioxidant activity
at different magnitudes of potency. The antioxidant activity of each pure
compound was derived from different pathways and was suggested to be specific.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 12951481 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2004 Feb;39(Pt 1):99-106.

Statistical optimization of tannase production from Penicillium variable using
fruits (chebulic myrobalan) of Terminalia chebula.

Saxena S, Saxena RK.

Department of Microbiology, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez
Road, New Delhi--110021, India.

Statistically based experimental designs were applied to the optimization of
cultural conditions for tannase production, an enzyme of great importance, from
Penicillium variable. First, D-optimal design was used to evaluate the effects
of variables, including concentrations of substrate (chebulic myrobalan, fruits
of the tree Terminalia chebula ), pH, inoculum density, agitation and incubation
period, on tannase production. The optimum value of pH and inoculum density thus
obtained was 5.0 and 5 x 10(7) spores/50 ml respectively. Among these variables,
substrate concentration, agitation and incubation period were identified to have
the significant effects. Subsequently, the concentrations of substrate,
agitation and incubation period were optimized using central composite design.
The optimum values of the parameters thus obtained from the response surface
methodology were 5.8 g of the substrate/50 ml of the medium, pH 5.0, 5 x 10(7)
spores/50 ml of inoculum density, 150 rev./min agitation rate and 72 h of
incubation period. The subsequent verification experiments confirmed the
validity of the models. This optimization strategy led to a 2.4-fold increase in
the enzyme production from 13.6 units/ml obtained in D-optimal design to 33
units/ml in central composite design.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12927025 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: Phytochemistry. 2003 May;63(1):97-104.

Comparative antioxidant activity of individual herbal components used in
Ayurvedic medicine.

Naik GH, Priyadarsini KI, Satav JG, Banavalikar MM, Sohoni DP, Biyani MK, Mohan
H.

Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research
Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085, India.

Four aqueous extracts from different parts of medicinal plants used in Ayurveda
(an ancient Indian Medicine) viz., Momardica charantia Linn (AP1), Glycyrrhiza
glabra (AP2), Acacia catechu (AP3), and Terminalia chebula (AP4) were examined
for their potential as antioxidants. The antioxidant activity of these extracts
was tested by studying the inhibition of radiation induced lipid peroxidation in
rat liver microsomes at different doses in the range of 100-600 Gy as estimated
by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Of all these extracts, AP4
showed maximum inhibition in the TBARS formation and hence is considered the
best antioxidant among these four extracts. The extracts were found to restore
antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the radiation induced damage.
The antioxidant capacities were also evaluated in terms of ascorbate equivalents
by different methods such as cyclic voltammetry, decay of ABTS(.-) radical by
pulse radiolysis and decrease in the absorbance of DPPH radicals. The results
were found to be in agreement with the lipid peroxidation data and AP4 showed
maximum value of ascorbate equivalents. Therefore AP4, with high antioxidant
activity, is considered as the best among these four extracts.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12657303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 Sep;20(9):463-4.

[Supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction of the fatty oil in Terminalia chebula and
GC-MS analysis]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhang X, Chen C, He S, Ge F.

Guangzhou Medical College, PLA, Guangzhou 510315.

The fatty oils in Terminulia chebula were extracted by supercritical-CO2 fluid
extraetion, and their fatty acids and its relative contents were determined by
GC-MS. 12 fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid, linoleic acid and oleic
acid of them are main constituents. Compared with petroleum ether extraction
method, the extraction rate from SFE-CO2 is higher and extraction time shorter.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12572426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):227-31.

Influence of Terminalia chebula on dermal wound healing in rats.

Suguna L, Singh S, Sivakumar P, Sampath P, Chandrakasan G.

Department of Biochemistry, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai,
India.

The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an
evergreen plant, Terminalia chebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in
vivo, was assessed. T. chebula treated wounds healed much faster as indicated by
improved rates of contraction and a decreased period of epithelialization.
Biochemical studies revealed a significant increase in total protein, DNA and
collagen contents in the granulation tissues of treated wounds. The levels of
hexosamine and uronic acid in these tissues, also increased upto day 8
post-wounding. Reduced lipid peroxide levels in treated wounds, as well as ESR
measurement of antioxidant activity by DPPH radical quenching, suggested that T.
chebula possessed antioxidant activities. The tensile strength of tissues from
extract-treated incision wounds increased by about 40%. In addition, T. chebula
possessed antimicrobial activity and was active largely against Staphylococcus
aureus and Klebsiella. These results strongly document the beneficial effects of
T. chebula in the acceleration of the healing process.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12164266 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Aug;81(3):327-36.

Inhibition of cancer cell growth by crude extract and the phenolics of
Terminalia chebula retz. fruit.

Saleem A, Husheem M, Harkonen P, Pihlaja K.

Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20014
Turku, Finland. [email protected]

A 70% methanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit, was studied for its effects
on growth in several malignant cell lines including a human (MCF-7) and mouse
(S115) breast cancer cell line, a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS-1), a human
prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) and a non-tumorigenic, immortalized human
prostate cell line (PNT1A) using assays for proliferation ([(3)H]-thymidine
incorporation and coulter counting), cell viability (ATP determination) and cell
death (flow cytometry and Hoechst DNA staining). In all cell lines studied, the
extract decreased cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell
death in a dose dependent manner. Flow cytometry and other analyses showed that
some apoptosis was induced by the extract at lower concentrations, but at higher
concentrations, necrosis was the major mechanism of cell death. ATP assay guided
chromatographic fractionation of the extract yielded ellagic acid,
2,4-chebulyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (a new natural product), and chebulinic acid
which were tested by ATP assay on HOS-1 cell line in comparison to three known
antigrowth phenolics of Terminalia, gallic acid, ethyl gallate, luteolin, and
tannic acid. Chebulinic acid (IC(50) = 53.2 microM +/- 0.16) > tannic acid
(IC(50) = 59.0 microg/ml +/- 0.19) > and ellagic acid (IC(50) = 78.5 microM +/-
0.24), were the most growth inhibitory phenolics of T. chebula fruit in our
study.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12127233 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):155-60.

Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their
antioxidant property.

Sabu MC, Kuttan R.

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Kerala Trichur 680 553, India.

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica
officinalis and their combination named 'Triphala' (equal proportion of above
three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine.
They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and
superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited
50% of lipid peroxidation induced with Fe(2+)/ascorbate were food to be 85.5,
27, 74 and 69 micro g/ml, respectively. The concentration needed for the
inhibition of hydoxyl radical scavenging were 165, 71, 155.5 and 151 micro g/ml,
and that for superoxide scavenging activity were found to be 20.5, 40.5, 6.5 and
12.5 micro g/ml, respectively. Oral administration of the extracts (100 mg/kg
body weight) reduced the blood sugar level in normal and in alloxan (120 mg/kg)
diabetic rats significantly within 4 h. Continued, daily administration of the
drug produced a sustained effect.

PMID: 12065146 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Planta Med. 2002 May;68(5):457-9.

Inhibition of HIV-1 integrase by galloyl glucoses from Terminalia chebula and
flavonol glycoside gallates from Euphorbia pekinensis.

Ahn MJ, Kim CY, Lee JS, Kim TG, Kim SH, Lee CK, Lee BB, Shin CG, Huh H, Kim J.

The bioassay-directed isolation of Terminalia chebula fruits afforded four human
immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitors, gallic acid ( 1) and
three galloyl glucoses ( 2 - 4). In addition, four flavonol glycoside gallates (
5 - 8) from Euphorbia pekinensis containing the galloyl moiety also showed the
inhibitory activity at a level comparable to those of 2 - 4. By comparison with
the activities of the compounds not bearing this moiety, it is proposed that the
galloyl moiety plays a major role for inhibition against the 3'-processing of
HIV-1 integrase of these compounds.

Publication Types:
Letter
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12058327 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2001 Nov-Dec;56(11-12):973-8.

Total phenolics concentration and antioxidant potential of extracts of medicinal
plants of Pakistan.

Saleem A, Ahotupa M, Pihlaja K.

Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, Finland. [email protected]

Thirty-seven plant organs, traditionally used as drugs, collected in Pakistan,
were extracted with 70% acetone and analyzed for their total phenolics
concentration and antioxidant potential. Seven extracts showed more than 85%
inhibition of lipid peroxidation in vitro as compared with blank. Butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 233.6 microg/l +/- 28.3) was the strongest
antioxidant in our test system. The IC50 results indicate that the extracts of
Nymphaea lotus L. flowers, Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile beans, Terminalia
belerica Roxb. fruits, and Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, brown) were
stronger antioxidants than alpha-tocopherol, while Terminalia chebula Retz.
(fruit coat), Terminalia chebula Retz. (fruits, black) and Ricinus communis L.
leaves were weaker antioxidant extracts than alpha-tocopherol and BHT. Total
phenolics concentration, expressed as gallic acid equivalents, showed close
correlation with the antioxidant activity. High performance liquid
chromatographic analysis with diode array detection at 280 nm, of the seven
extracts indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives,
hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonol aglycones and their glycosides as
main phenolics compounds. This information, based on quick screening methods,
enables us to proceed towards more detailed chemical and pharmacological
understanding of these plant materials.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11837686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001 Jul;18(1):85-8.

Antibacterial activity of black myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz) against
Helicobacter pylori.

Malekzadeh F, Ehsanifar H, Shahamat M, Levin M, Colwell RR.

Department of Microbiology and Biological Sciences, University of Tehran,
Tehran, Iran.

The effect of ether, alcoholic and water extracts of black myrobalan (Teminalia
chebula Retz) on Helicobactor pylori were examined using an agar diffusion
method on Columbia Agar. Water extracts of black myrobalan showed significant
antibacterial activity and had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and
minimum bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of 125 and 150 mg/l, respectively. The
extract was active after autoclaving for 30 min at 121 degrees C. Plant powder
(incorporated in agar) gave higher MIC and MBC values (150 and 175 mg/l,
respectively). Water extracts of the black myrobalan at a concentration of 1-2.5
mg/ml inhibited urease activity of H. pylori. The results show that black
myrobalan extracts contain a heat stable agent(s) with possible therapeutic
potential. Other bacterial species were also inhibited by black myrobalan water
extracts.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 11463533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Feb;74(2):133-40.

Inhibitory action of water soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula on systemic
and local anaphylaxis.

Shin TY, Jeong HJ, Kim DK, Kim SH, Lee JK, Kim DK, Chae BS, Kim JH, Kang HW, Lee
CM, Lee KC, Park ST, Lee EJ, Lim JP, Kim HM, Lee YM.

College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Chonju, 565-701, Chonbuk, South Korea.

We investigated the effects of the water soluble fraction of Terminalia chebula
(Combretaceae) (WFTC) on systemic and local anaphylaxis. WFTC administered 1h
before compound 48/80 injection inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic
shock 100% with doses of 0.01-1.0 g/kg. When WFTC was administered 5 or 10 min
after compound 48/80 injection, the mortality also decreased in a dose-dependent
manner. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was inhibited by 63.5+/-7.8% by oral
administration of WFTC (1.0 g/kg). When WFTC was pretreated at concentrations
ranging from 0.005 to 1.0 g/kg, the serum histamine levels were reduced in a
dose-dependent manner. WFTC (0.01-1.0 mg/ml) also significantly inhibited
histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) by compound 48/80.
However, WFTC (1.0 mg/ml) had a significant increasing effect on
anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from RPMC.
These results indicate that WFTC may possess a strong antianaphylactic action.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11167031 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000 Nov;78(11):861-6.

Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by the herbal preparation Padma
28 in macrophage cell line.

Moeslinger T, Friedl R, Volf I, Brunner M, Koller E, Spieckermann PG.

Institute of Physiology, Vienna, Austria. [email protected]

Padma 28 is a mixture of herbs used in traditional Tibetan medicine with
anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effects of Padma 28 on nitric
oxide (NO) production by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in
lipopolysaccharide stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). Padma 28 (0-900
microg/mL) induced a concentration dependent inhibition of inducible nitric
oxide synthesis. iNOS protein expression showed a concentration dependent
reduction as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with
increasing amounts of Padma 28. Padma 28 decreased iNOS mRNA levels as shown by
RT-PCR. Aqueous extracts from costi amari radix (costus root, the dried root of
Saussurea lappa) and the outer cover of myrobalani fructus (the dried fruit of
Terminalia chebula), constituents of the complex herb preparation Padma 28, were
found to inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthesis by decreasing iNOS protein and
iNOS mRNA levels. The inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis might
contribute to the anti-inflammatory activities of Padma 28.

PMID: 11100933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48: Phytother Res. 2000 Jun;14(4):245-9.

Protection of epithelial cells against influenza A virus by a plant derived
biological response modifier Ledretan-96.

Badmaev V, Nowakowski M.

Laboratory of Applied Pharmacology, New York State Institute for Basic Research,
Staten Island, NY 10314, USA.

A multicomponent herbal formula Ledretan-96 was tested on an epithelial tissue
culture cell line (MDCK) for its protective activity against cytopathic effects
caused by influenza A virus. The whole formula and each of its 23 individual
components were tested in the same system. The results indicated that the
formula, when prepared according to established procedure, in the form of
decoction, is active in protecting epithelial cells against damage caused by
influenza A virus used at different dosages. Of the 23 components tested, only
one, Terminalia chebula, showed a significant protective effect when applied to
the epithelial cells individually. Controls for these studies included cell
cultures exposed to individual components and the complete formula without
virus; the cultures were monitored for any toxic effects by morphology and
protein synthesis. The protective effects of Ledretan-96 and Terminalia chebula
could be distinguished from toxicity against the epithelial cells. In addition,
the results indicated that the complete formula maintained antiviral activity at
a higher therapeutic index than the Terminalia chebula extract alone. Copyright
2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10861966 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49: J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec 15;68(1-3):299-306.

Potential of the aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula as an anticaries agent.

Jagtap AG, Karkera SG.

Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Santacruz (E), Mumbai,
India. karke[email protected]

The aqueous extract from Terminalia chebula was tested for its ability to
inhibit the growth and some physiological functions of Streptococcus mutans. The
extract strongly inhibited the growth, sucrose induced adherence and glucan
induced aggregation of S. mutans. Mouthrinsing with a 10% solution of the
extract inhibited the salivary bacterial count and salivary glycolysis.
Mouthrinsing with the extract significantly reduced total bacterial counts and
the total streptococcal counts in the saliva samples obtained up to and
including 3 h after rinsing, compared with the counts obtained prerinsing or
after placebo rinsing. The extract successfully inhibited glycolysis of salivary
bacteria for up to 90 min postrinsing.

PMID: 10624892 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50: Phytother Res. 1999 Jun;13(4):275-91.

Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

Rege NN, Thatte UM, Dahanukar SA.

Ayurveda Research Centre, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seth GS
Medical College, Parel, Mumbai, India. [email protected]

Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax
ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum
sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential.
However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the
clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens
which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further
discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied
for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of
selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis,
Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered
orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose,
following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and
chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these
stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective
parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced
alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a
normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested.
All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while
Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced
intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability
to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal
macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse
serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the
direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant
drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies
on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced
immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress
induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked.
Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical
damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to
depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent
data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic
adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation.

Publication Types:
Review

PMID: 10404532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51: Mycoses. 1998 Dec;41(11-12):535-6.

Antifungal activity of Indian plant extracts.

Dutta BK, Rahman I, Das TK.

Defense Research Laboratory, Tezpur, Assam, India.

In vitro studies of water extracts of plants such as Terminalia chebula, Punica
granatum, Delonix regia and Emblica officinalis were found to be detrimental to
test dermatophytes.

PMID: 9919899 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52: Mutat Res. 1998 Nov 9;419(1-3):169-79.

Antimutagenicity of hydrolyzable tannins from Terminalia chebula in Salmonella
typhimurium.

Kaur S, Grover IS, Singh M, Kaur S.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143 005,
India.

A tannin fraction (TC-E) from the dried fruit pulp of Terminalia chebula was
obtained by successfully extracting with 95% ethyl alcohol and ethyl acetate.
TC-E was subjected to silica gel chromatography which yielded four fractions,
viz., TC-EI, TC-EII, TC-EIII and TC-EIV. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and
13C-NMR revealed that TC-EI was gallic acid (GA) derivative while the other
fractions were tannin in nature. TC-E and its fractions were evaluated for their
antimutagenic potential against two direct-acting mutagens,
4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide (4NQNO), and
S9-dependent mutagen, 2-aminofluorene (2AF) in TA98 and TA100 strains of
Salmonella typhimurium. The study revealed that the extract (TC-E) and its
fractions were highly significant against S9-dependent mutagen, 2AF. The effect
was found to be more or less corresponding with the nature of the fractions, as
the monomeric TC-EI (a GA derivative) was least effective as compared to other
fractions which were oligomeric, and the order of their effectiveness as per
their IbD50 value being TC-EIV (8.9 micrograms)>TC-EIII (17.8 micrograms)>TC-EII
(45 micrograms)>TC-EI (320 micrograms) in TA98; TC-EIV being 40 times more
effective than TC-EI in inhibiting his+ revertants. A similar effect was noticed
in TA100 too, where TC-EI was the least effective and TC-EII had the maximum
effect. A similar result was noticed when the antimutagenicity of GA (a
monomeric) was compared with tannic acid (TA, an oligomeric). However, chebula
tannins were found to be partly effective against NPD but not at all effective
against 4NQNO. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9804945 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Sep;62(2):183-93.

Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties.

Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F.

Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Institute of Agriculture, Aligarh
Muslim University, India.

A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were
subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and
opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each
plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion
method at sample concentration of 200 mg/ml. The results indicated that out of
82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more test
pathogens. Interestingly, extracts of five plants showed strong and broad
spectrum activity as compared to rest of 51 plant extracts which demonstrated
moderate activity. On the whole the alcoholic extracts showed greater activity
than their corresponding aqueous and hexane extracts. Among various extracts,
only alcoholic extracts of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia
belerica, Plumbago zeylanica and Holarrhena antidysenterica were found to show
potentially interesting activity against test bacteria. These active crude
alcoholic extracts were also assayed for cellular toxicity to fresh sheep
erythrocytes and found to have no cellular toxicity.

PMID: 9741890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54: Nippon Rinsho. 1998 Jan;56(1):156-60.

[Cytomegalovirus infection and its possible treatment with herbal medicines]

[Article in Japanese]

Shiraki K, Yukawa T, Kurokawa M, Kageyama S.

Department of Virology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University.

Medicinal herbs, Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia chebula, and
Rhus javanica, with anti-herpes simplex virus therapeutic activity, inhibited
replication of human cytomegalovirus(CMV) and murine CMV(MCMV) in vitro. These
anti-CMV activities were examined in an MCMV infection model using
immunosuppressed mice. Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Terminalia
chebula significantly suppressed MCMV yields in lungs of treated mice compared
with water treatment. Efficacy of oral treatment with 750 mg/kg/day of Geum
japonicum-extract was similar to that of the intraperitoneal administration with
2 mg/kg/day of ganciclovir in increasing the body weight of infected mice and
reducing the virus yield in the lungs. These herbs may be beneficial for the
prophylaxis of CMV diseases in immunocompromized patients.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Review

PMID: 9465682 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Biol Pharm Bull. 1997 Sep;20(9):1017-9.

Immunosuppressive effects of gallic acid and chebulagic acid on CTL-mediated
cytotoxicity.

Hamada S, Kataoka T, Woo JT, Yamada A, Yoshida T, Nishimura T, Otake N, Nagai K.

Department of Bioengineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.

Gallic acid (GA) and chebulagic acid (CA) were isolated from the extract of a
herbal medicine, kashi (myrobalans: the fruit of Terminalia chebula) as active
principles that blocked the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated cytotoxicity.
GA and CA inhibited the killing activity of CD8+ CTL clone at IC50 values of 30
microM and 50 microM, respectively. Granule exocytosis in response to anti-CD3
stimulation was also blocked by GA and CA at the equivalent concentrations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9331989 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Biol Pharm Bull. 1997 Apr;20(4):401-4.

Extraction and purification of effective antimicrobial constituents of
Terminalia chebula RETS. against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Sato Y, Oketani H, Singyouchi K, Ohtsubo T, Kihara M, Shibata H, Higuti T.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokushima, Japan.

Examination of the EtOH extract of the fruiting bodies of Terminalia chebula
RETZ. led to the isolation of two potent antimicrobial substances against even
methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. On the basis of
spectroscopic evidence, the two isolates have been identified as gallic acid and
its ethyl ester.

PMID: 9145218 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: J Postgrad Med. 1997 Jan-Mar;43(1):12-3.

Effect of oral administration of Terminalia chebula on gastric emptying: an
experimental study.

Tamhane MD, Thorat SP, Rege NN, Dahanukar SA.

Ayurveda Research Centre, Department of Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College,
Parel, Mumbai.

Terminalia chebula is a commonly advocated agent in Ayurveda for improving
gastrointestinal motility. Charles Foster rats (150-200 gms of either sex) were
divided into four groups as follows--Group 1 (n = 15) normal animals; Group II
(n = 6) rats administered metoclopramide (1.35 mg/kg); Group III (n = 8) rats
given atropine (0.45 mg/kg). These agents were injected intramuscularly, 30 mins
before the experiment. Rats from Group IV (n = 8) were administered Terminalia
chebula (100 mg/kg/day for 15 days orally). Metoclopramide and atropine have
established prokinetic and antikinetic activities respectively and are therefore
included for comparison. All rats were then given a test meal of methyl
cellulose (1.5%) mixed with phenol red (50 mg/100 ml) orally and gastric
emptying was measured 20 mins later. Gastric emptying of normal rats (Group I)
was found to be 51.6 +/- 7.79%. Metoclopramide significantly increased the
gastric emptying (76.33 +/- 12.37%; p < 0.01) and atropine inhibited the
motility (% gastric emptying being 7.26 +/- 19.76%; p < 0.01). Terminalia
chebula was found to increase the percent gastric emptying (86.57 +/- 6.65%; p <
0.01). Thus from this study it appears that Terminalia chebula can serve as an
useful alternative to prokinetic drugs available today.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 10740705 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Nov;54(2-3):119-24.

Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and
in immunomodulation studies.

Sohni YR, Bhatt RM.

Department of Biology, Alabama A&M University, Normal 35762, USA.

The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental
amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The
formulation comprises the following five plants-Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora
cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The
formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic
amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to
4.2 for sham-treated controls. In immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was
enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre. The T-cell counts remained
unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell-mediated immune
response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI)
tests.

PMID: 8953425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: Antiviral Res. 1996 Oct;32(2):63-70.

Prophylactic treatment of cytomegalovirus infection with traditional herbs.

Yukawa TA, Kurokawa M, Sato H, Yoshida Y, Kageyama S, Hasegawa T, Namba T,
Imakita M, Hozumi T, Shiraki K.

Department of Virology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Hot water extracts of four traditional herbs, Geum japonicum, Syzygium
aromaticum, Terminalia chebula and Rhus javanica, which have been shown to have
anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in vivo, were examined for
anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) activity in vitro and in vivo in this study. They
inhibited replication of human CMV and murine CMV (MCMV) in vitro. These
anti-CMV activities in vivo were examined in an MCMV infection model using
immunosuppressed mice. Mice were subcutaneously treated with various doses of
cyclosporine, and immunosuppression and MCMV infection were monitored by
suppression of antibody production and virus yield in the lung, respectively.
Each herbal extract was orally administered to mice treated with 50 mg/kg of
cyclosporine from a day before intraperitoneal infection, and the efficacy of
herbs was evaluated by the reduction in the virus yield in the lung. Among them
Geum japonicum, Syzygium aromaticum, and Terminalia chebula significantly
suppressed MCMV yields in lungs of treated mice compared with water treatment.
Efficacy of oral treatment with 750 mg/kg per day of Geum japonicum extract was
similar to that of the intraperitoneal administration of 2 mg/kg per day of
ganciclovir in increasing the body weight of infected mice and reducing the
virus yield in the lungs. These herbs may be beneficial for the prophylaxis of
CMV diseases in immunocompromised patients.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8891165 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Antiviral Res. 1995 May;27(1-2):19-37.

Efficacy of traditional herbal medicines in combination with acyclovir against
herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro and in vivo.

Kurokawa M, Nagasaka K, Hirabayashi T, Uyama S, Sato H, Kageyama T, Kadota S,
Ohyama H, Hozumi T, Namba T, et al.

Department of Virology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Traditional herbal medicines have been safely used for the treatment of various
human diseases since ancient China. We selected 10 herbal extracts with
therapeutic antiherpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity. Among these, Geum
japonicum Thunb., Rhus javanica L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry, or
Terminalia chebula Retzus showed a stronger anti-HSV-1 activity in combination
with acyclovir than the other herbal extracts in vitro. When acyclovir and/or a
herbal extract were orally administered at doses corresponding to human use,
each of the 4 combinations significantly limited the development of skin lesions
and/or prolonged the mean survival times of infected mice compared with both
acyclovir and the herbal extract alone (P < 0.01 or 0.05). These combinations
were not toxic to mice. They reduced virus yields in the brain and skin more
strongly than acyclovir alone and exhibited stronger anti-HSV-1 activity in the
brain than in the skin, in contrast to acyclovir treatment by itself.
Combinations of acyclovir with historically used herbal medicines showed strong
combined therapeutic anti-HSV-1 activity in mice, especially reduction of virus
yield in the brain.

PMID: 7486956 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1995 Apr;43(4):641-8.

Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV) reverse transcriptase.

el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Kusumoto IT, Kadota S, Hattori M, Namba T.

Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku (Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicines), Toyama
Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Extracts of 41 medicinal plants used in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for
their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse
transcriptase. The extracts of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Quercus
pedunculata, Rumex cyprius, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and
Terminalia horrida showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 < or = 50
micrograms/ml. Through a bioassay guided-fractionation of the methanol extract
of the fruit of P. emblica, putranjivain A (1) was isolated as a potent
inhibitory substance with IC50 = 3.9 microM, together with
1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3),
kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5) and
digallic acid (6). The inhibitory mode of action by 1, 2 and 6 was
non-competitive with respect to the substrate but competitive with respect to a
template-primer. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 was established in this
paper by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

PIP: The fundamental role played by reverse transcriptase (RT) in the
replication of retroviruses has made this enzyme a key target in the
chemotherapy of HIV infection. Since the replicative cycle of HIV is interrupted
by RT inhibitors, the inhibition of HIV RT is currently considered as a useful
approach in the prophylaxis and intervention of AIDS. The MeOH and water
extracts of 41 medicinal plants used in Egyptian folk medicine were evaluated
for their HIV-1 RT inhibitory effects, and inhibitory substances were identified
from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica that showed a potent inhibitory activity
to HIV-1-RT. The enzyme activity was determined by the amount of tritium
labeled-substrate incorporation into a polymer fraction in the presence of a
template-primer. Of the plant materials tested, the fruits of Phyllanthus
emblica L. (MeOH extract), Quercus pedunculata (MeOH and water extracts), Rumex
cyprius (MeOH and water extracts), Terminalia bellerica (MeOH and water
extracts), Terminalia chebula (MeOH and water extracts), and Terminalia horrida
(MeOH extract) showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 of 2-49 mcg/ml.
However, in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the inhibitory potency
of most of the extracts, except for P. emblica (MeOH extract) and T. chebula
(water extract), was appreciably reduced by nonspecific binding of their
ingredients with BSA. Through a bioassay guided-fractionation of the methanol
extract of the fruit of P. emblica, putranjivain A (1) was isolated as a potent
inhibitory substance with IC50 = 3.9 mcM, together with
1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3),
kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), and
digallic acid (6). The inhibitory mode of action by 1, 2, and 6 was
noncompetitive with respect to the substrate but competitive with respect to a
template-primer. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 was established in this
paper by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7541317 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Jan;45(1):43-52.

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against
Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

Sohni YR, Kaimal P, Bhatt RM.

Microbiology Department, CHM College, University of Bombay, India.

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica
was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has
been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs,
namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia
chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted
in ethanol together and individually. In vitro amoebicidal activity was studied
to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all the
constituent extracts as well as the whole formulation. The formulation had a MIC
of 1000 micrograms/ml as compared with 10 micrograms/ml for metronidazole. In
experimental caecal amoebiasis in rats the formulation had a curative rate of
89% with the average degree of infection (ADI) reduced to 0.4 in a group dosed
with 500 mg/kg per day as compared with ADI of 3.8 for the sham-treated control
group of rats. Metronidazole had a cure rate of 89% (ADI = 0.4) at a dose of 100
mg/kg per day and cured the infection completely (ADI = 0) when the dosage was
doubled to 200 mg/kg per day. There were varying degrees of inhibition of the
following enzyme activities of crude extracts of axenically cultured amoebae:
DNase, RNase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alpha-amylase
and protease.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 7739226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: Indian J Exp Biol. 1992 Apr;30(4):339-41.

Antimutagenic activity of Terminalia chebula (myroblan) in Salmonella
typhimurium.

Grover IS, Bala S.

Department of Botanical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, India.

Antimutagenicity of water and chloroform extracts of dried myroblan Terminalia
chebula was determined against two direct acting mutagens, sodium azide and
4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) in strains TA100 and TA1535, and TA97a and TA98
of Salmonella typhimurium respectively and S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene
(2-AF) in TA97a, TA98 and TA100 strains. Water extract reduced NPD as well as
2-AF induced his+ revertants significantly but did not have any perceptible
effect against sodium azide included his+ revertants in TA100 and TA1535 strains
of S. typhimurium. The pre-incubation studies, where the extract was incubated
at 37 degrees C for 30 min with the said mutagen prior to plating, enhanced the
inhibitory effect. Autoclaving the water extract reduced the inhibitory effect
but the reduction in the effect was not significant. No inhibitory effect was
observed in any of the strains and against any of the test mutagens with
chloroform extract.

PMID: 1459604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: Indian J Exp Biol. 1989 Nov;27(11):959-62.

Effect of ayurvedic medicines on beta-glucuronidase activity of Brunner's glands
during recovery from cysteamine induced duodenal ulcers in rats.

Nadar TS, Pillai MM.

Biochemical and histochemical studies revealed decreased beta-glucuronidase
activity in the Brunner's glands of duodenal ulcerated rats. The enzyme activity
showed gradual increase during recovery. Rats treated with a mixture of
Ayurvedic medicines (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum and
Shanka Bhasma) recovered faster with concomitant increase in beta-glucuronidase
activity in the Brunner's glands. It can be concluded that Ayurvedic medicines
used do not act as antacid but improve the secretory status of Brunner's glands
involved in the protection against duodenal ulcer.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2620935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Indian J Med Sci. 1989 May;43(5):113-7.

Screening of in vitro antibacterial activity of Terminalia chebula, Eclapta alba
and Ocimum sanctum.

Phadke SA, Kulkarni SD.

Study of in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from the plants T. chebula,
E. alba and O. sanctum was carried out by the disk diffusion technique. All
showed such activity against human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative
bacteria. The activity against Salmonella organisms was shown only by T.
chebula; against Shigella organisms by T. chebula and E. alha; but not by O.
sanctum. The widest spectrum of antibacterial activity was shown by T. chebula.
It was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in between
that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of antibacterial
activity was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in
between that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of
antibacterial activity was observed in O. sanctum.

PMID: 2793213 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Int J Cardiol. 1988 Nov;21(2):167-75.

The Ayurvedic medicines Haritaki, Amala and Bahira reduce cholesterol-induced
atherosclerosis in rabbits.

Thakur CP, Thakur B, Singh S, Sinha PK, Sinha SK.

Patna Medical College, India.

Four groups of 25 rabbits each, were studied to determine the effect of Haritaki
(Terminalia chebula), Amla (Emblica officinalis) and Bahira (Terminalia
belerica) on cholesterol-induced hypercholesteolaemia and atherosclerosis. The
control group was fed with cholesterol alone; the Haritaki group received
Haritaki and cholesterol; the Bahira group received Bahira and cholesterol; and
the Amla group received Amla and cholesterol for 16 weeks. Cholesterolaemia was
significantly less (P less than 0.001) in the Haritaki group (166 mg/dl), the
Bahira group (240 mg/dl) and the Amla group (205 mg/dl) than in the control
group (630 mg/dl). The Haritaki group had significantly less cholesterolaemia (P
less than 0.001) as compared to the Bahira and Amla groups. Aortic sudanophilia
was significantly less (P less than 0.001) in the Haritaki group (6%), the
Bahira group (16%), and the Amla group (12%) than in the control group (38%).
The cholesterol contents of the liver and aorta, respectively, were
significantly less in the Haritaki group (46 mg/100 g, 28 mg/100 g), the Bahira
group (78 mg/100 g, 72 mg/100 g) and the Amla group (46 mg/100 g, 42 mg/100 g),
than in the control group (604 mg/100 g, 116 mg/100 g). Among the drug-fed
groups, the Haritaki group had significantly lower degrees of sudanophilia and
cholesterol content of aorta and liver (P less than 0.001) as compared to the
Bahira and Amla groups. Although all three drugs reduced serum cholesterol,
aortic sudanophilia and cholesterol contents of liver and aorta, their effects
were in ascending order of magnitude. The drugs did not influence serum
triglyceride levels, euglobulin clot lysis time or platelet
adhesiveness.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 3225068 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67: Zhong Yao Tong Bao. 1986 Sep;11(9):24-6.

[Influence of processing methods on the quality of Terminalia chebula]

[Article in Chinese]

Jiang JY.

PMID: 2952349 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: J Ethnopharmacol. 1985 Jul;13(3):323-35.

Studies of medicinal plants of Sri Lanka. Part 14: Toxicity of some traditional
medicinal herbs.

Arseculeratne SN, Gunatilaka AA, Panabokke RG.

Seventy five medicinal plants of the traditional Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of Sri
Lanka have been screened chemically for alkaloids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
Of these, Crotolaria juncea L. was found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids with
biological effects consistent with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. Feeding
trials in rats with three plants lacking pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely Aegle
marmelos (L.) Corr., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Ait. F. and Terminalia chebula
Retz. produced hepatic lesions which included central vein abnormalities while
Terminalia chebula and Withania somnifera (L.) dunal produced marked renal
lesions.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 4058035 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Indian J Med Res. 1971 Feb;59(2):281-3.

Purgative action of an oil obtained from Terminalia chebula.

Miglani BD, Sen P, Sanyal RK.

PMID: 5579243 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Acta Microbiol Pol B. 1970;2(2):127-32.

Effect of tannins from Terminalia chebula Retz. on the infectivity of potato
virus X.

Verma VS, Raychaudhuri S.

PMID: 5464707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71: J Egypt Med Assoc. 1952;35(11-12):763-71.

Pharmacological action of Terminalia chebula.

SALEH HH, RASHAD H, KHAFAGA S.

PMID: 13045262 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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