Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Chicory.

  • Botanical Name: Cichorium Intybus

  • Ayurvedic Name: Kasni

  • Common Name: Chicory

Cichorium Intybus

Plant Phytonutrient Profile

1: Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jan 11; [Epub ahead of print]

Toxicological evaluation of a chicory root extract.

Schmidt BM, Ilic N, Poulev A, Raskin I.

Biotech Center, Cook College, Rutgers University, 59 Dudley Road, New Brunswick,
NJ 08901-8520, USA.

An Ames test and a 28-day sub-chronic toxicity study in male and female
Sprague-Dawley rats were conducted to evaluate the safety of a chicory root
extract being investigated as a therapeutic for inflammation. Chicory extract
had no mutagenic activity in the Ames test although it was cytotoxic to certain
strains of Salmonella at higher doses with and without metabolic activation. For
the 28-day rat study, measurements included clinical observations, body weights,
food consumption, clinical pathology, gross necropsy and histology. There were
no treatment-related toxic effects from chicory extract administered orally at
70, 350, or 1000mg/kg/day. Since there were no observed adverse effects of
chicory extract in these studies, the NOAEL for the extract is 1000mg/kg/g
administered orally for 28days.

PMID: 17306431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 21;55(4):1604-11.

The fate of trans-caftaric acid administered into the rat stomach.

Vanzo A, Cecotti R, Vrhovsek U, Torres AM, Mattivi F, Passamonti S.

Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, 1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

trans-Caftaric acid is the most abundant nonflavonoid phenolic compound in
grapes and wines. It occurs in chicory and is one of the bioactive components of
Echinacea purpurea. In order to fill the gap of knowledge about its
bioavailability in mammals, we investigated its absorption, tissue distribution,
and metabolism in rats. Assuming that the stomach is a relevant site of
absorption of dietary polyphenols, a solution of trans-caftaric acid was
maintained in the ligated stomach of anaesthetized rats for 20 min. Intact
trans-caftaric acid was detected in rat plasma at both 10 and 20 min (293 +/- 45
and 334 +/- 49 ng/mL, respectively), along with its O-methylated derivative
trans-fertaric acid, whose concentration rose over time (from 92 +/- 12 to 185
+/- 24 ng/mL). At 20 min, both trans-caftaric acid and trans-fertaric acid were
detected in the kidney (443 +/- 78 and 2506 +/- 514 ng/g, respectively) but not
in the liver. Only trans-fertaric acid was found in the urine (33.3 +/- 12.8
microg/mL). In some rats, trans-caftaric acid was detected in the brain (180 +/-
20 ng/g).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17300159 [PubMed - in process]

3: Biomacromolecules. 2007 Feb;8(2):485-9.

Use of acyl phosphonates for the synthesis of inulin esters and their use as
emulsion stabilizing agents.

Rogge TM, Stevens CV, Colpaert A, Levecke B, Booten K.

SynBioC Research Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Bioscience
Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium; and
ORAFTI Bio Based Chemicals, Aandorenstraat 1, B-3300 Tienen, Belgium.

Inulin, the polydisperse polyfructose, extracted from chicory, was modified via
esterification with acyl phosphonates. The grafting of an acyl chain onto the
inulin backbone under different conditions led to a highly efficient synthesis
of a series of inulin esters, with interesting tensioactive properties. The
derivatives were evaluated in oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with isoparaffinic
oil, Isopar M. Therefore, a 2% (w/v) aqueous solution of inulin-based surfactant
was used in 50/50 O/W emulsions, in nonelectrolyte, and in electrolyte media,
using 1 M MgSO4. Longer acyl chains, e.g., dodecanoyl (C12), hexadecanoyl (C16),
and octadecanoyl (C18), with degrees of substitution lower than 0.5, gave rise
to the highest emulsion stabilities against coalescence.

PMID: 17291072 [PubMed - in process]

4: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Feb 7;55(3):795-8.

Effect of selenium foliar application on chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

Germ M, Stibilj V, Osvald J, Kreft I.

National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia, Jozef
Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Leaves of young chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) plants were sprayed with selenate
(1 mg SeVI/L) to establish the distribution of added selenium (Se) in the heads.
Its concentration was analyzed in the outer, intermediate, and innermost leaves
of chicory heads. The concentration of Se was about double (43-46 ng Se g-1 DM)
that in the control (21-24 ng Se g-1 DM), indicating that the applied Se was
transported from the sprayed leaves to the heads. In cv. Monivip, Se
concentration was even throughout the head, but in cv. Anivip, the innermost
leaves had a lower concentration of Se. No visual symptoms of Se toxicity
appeared on the plants, and the quantum yield of photosystem II showed no
indication that Se spraying could be harmful for energy conversion. Se increased
the respiratory potential in young plants but not in plants at harvest time.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17263476 [PubMed - in process]

5: Ann Bot (Lond). 2007 Jan;99(1):111-20.

Biomass allocation is an important determinant of the tannin concentration in
growing plants.

Haring DA, Suter D, Amrhein N, Luscher A.

Agroscope Reckenholz-Tanikon, Research Station ART, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046
Zurich, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Condensed tannins (CTs) in the diet affect consumers in a
concentration-dependent manner. Because of their importance in plant defence
against herbivores and pathogens as well as their potential application against
gastrointestinal parasites of ruminants in agronomy, an understanding of the
seasonal dynamics of CT concentrations during plant growth is essential.
METHODS: Over a vegetation period, CT concentrations in leaves, stems and roots
and the biomass proportions between these organs were investigated in Onobrychis
viciifolia, Lotus corniculatus and Cichorium intybus. Based on the experimental
data, a model has been suggested to predict CT concentrations in harvestable
biomass of these species. KEY RESULTS: During the experiment, leaf mass
fractions of plants decreased from 85, 64, 85 to 30, 18, 39 % d. wt in
Onobrychis, Lotus and Cichorium, respectively, and proportions of stems and
roots increased accordingly. While CT concentrations almost doubled in leaves in
Onobrychis (from 52 to 86 mg g(-1) d. wt, P<0.001) and Lotus (from 25 to 54 mg
g(-1) d. wt, P<0.001), they were stable at low levels in expanding leaves of
Cichorium (5 mg g(-1) d. wt) and in stems and roots of all investigated species.
Due to an inverse effect of the increasing CT concentrations in leaves and
simultaneous dilution from increasing proportions of 'CT-poor' stems, CT
concentrations in harvestable biomass were stable over time in all investigated
species: 62, 26 and 5 mg g(-1) d. wt for Onobrychis, Lotus and Cichorium,
respectively. CONCLUSIONS: As a consequence of the unequal distribution of
tannins in different plant parts and due to the changing biomass proportions
between them, various herbivores (e.g. a leaf-eating insect and a grazing
ruminant) may find not only different concentrations of CT in their diets but
also different CT dynamics during the season. For the prediction of seasonal
variations of CT concentrations, biomass allocation and accumulation of none-CT
plant material are likely to be as important predictors as the knowledge of CT
synthesis and its regulation.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17210606 [PubMed - in process]

6: Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2006 Nov-Dec;69(6):34-6.

[The effect of cichorium root extract on the morphofunctional state of liver in
rats with carbon tetrachloride induced hepatitis model]

[Article in Russian]

Krylova SG, Efimova LA, Vymiatina ZK, Zueva EP.

It is established that cichorium root extract therapy leads to normalization of
some morphofunctional liver features (decreases glycogen content and cell of
necrosis and increases the number of cells with pronounced protein synthesis
activity) in rats with CCl4-induced hepatitis.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17209462 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Dec 1; [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-diabetic effects of Cichorium intybus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic

Pushparaj PN, Low HK, Manikandan J, Tan BK, Tan CH.

Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University
of Singapore, Singapore 119260, Singapore.

The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic
properties of an ethanolic extract of Cichorium intybus (CIE) which is widely
used in India as a traditional treatment for diabetes mellitus. Male
Sprague-Dawley rats aged 9 weeks (160-200g) were administered with
streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) intraperitoneally to induce experimental diabetes.
The Cichorium intybus whole plant was exhaustively extracted with 80% ethanol,
concentrated at 40 degrees C using a rotavapor and freeze dried to get powder.
Hypoglycemic effects of CIE were observed in an oral glucose tolerance test
(OGTT) in which, a dose of 125mg of plant extract/kg body weight exhibited the
most potent hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, daily administration of CIE
(125mg/kg) for 14 days to diabetic rats attenuated serum glucose by 20%,
triglycerides by 91% and total cholesterol by 16%. However, there was no change
in serum insulin levels, which ruled out the possibility that CIE induces
insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells. In addition, hepatic
glucose-6-phosphatase activity (Glc-6-Pase) was markedly reduced by CIE when
compared to the control group. The reduction in the hepatic Glc-6-Pase activity
could decrease hepatic glucose production, which in turn results in lower
concentration of blood glucose in CIE-treated diabetic rats. In conclusion, our
results support the traditional belief that Cichorium intybus could ameliorate
diabetic state.

PMID: 17197141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

8: Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71(1):145-9.

Influence of harvest date on the yield and quality of chicory (Cichorium intybus

Francois IM, Marien E, De Proft M.

Laboratorium voor Plantenteelt, De Croylaan 42, BE-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.

PMID: 17191494 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9: Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71(1):75-8.

RNA interference (RNAI) as a tool to engineer high nutritional value in chicory
(Chicorium intybus).

Asad M.

Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological
Sciences, Ghent University Coupure Links 653, BE-9000 Gent, Belgium.
[email protected]

The major component of chicory (Chicorium intybus) root is inulin, which is a
polymer of fructose. Inulin production from chicory is hampered by the enzyme
fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH) that degrades inulin and limits its yield.
Increased FEH activity results in massive breakdown of fructan and production of
Fructose and inulo-n-oses. The latter phenomena are to be avoided for industrial
fructan production. RNA silencing, which is termed post-transcriptional gene
silencing (PTGS) in plants, is an RNA degradation process through sequence
specific nucleotide interactions induced by double-stranded RNA. For genetic
improvement of crop plants, RNAi has advantages over antisense-mediated gene
silencing and co-suppression, in terms of its efficiency and stability. We are
generating a transgenic chicory plants with suppressed FEH (exohydrolas) genes
using RNAi resulting in supressed inulin degradation. A small but important part
of the construct is a sequence unique for the target gene (exons) or genes,which
were cloned. The hairpin constructs were made and chicory was transformed by
Agrobacterium tumifaciense, strain (C58C1). The transgenics should be select and
check by means of molecular techniques.

PMID: 17191477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10: Biometrics. 2006 Dec;62(4):1107-15.

Fragment length distributions and collision probabilities for AFLP markers.

Gort G, Koopman WJ, Stein A.

Biometris, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 100, 6700 AC
Wageningen, The Netherlands. [email protected]

AFLP is a DNA fingerprinting technique frequently used in plant and animal
sciences. A drawback of the technique is the occurrence of multiple DNA
fragments of the same length in a single AFLP lane, which we name a collision.
In this article we quantify the problem. The well-known birthday problem plays a
role. Calculation of collision probabilities requires a fragment length
distribution (fld). We discuss three ways to estimate the fld: based on
theoretical considerations, on in-silico determination using DNA sequence data
from Arabidopsis thaliana, or on direct estimation from AFLP data. In the latter
case we use a generalized linear model with monotone smoothing of the fragment
length probabilities. Collision probabilities are calculated from two
perspectives, assuming known fragment counts and assuming known band counts. We
compare results for a number of fld's, ranging from uniform to highly skewed.
The conclusion is that collisions occur often, with higher probabilities for
higher numbers of bands, for more skewed distributions, and, to a lesser extent,
for smaller scoring ranges. For a typical plant genome an AFLP with 19 bands is
likely to contain the first collision. Practical implications of collisions are
discussed. AFLP examples from lettuce and chicory are used for illustration.

PMID: 17156285 [PubMed - in process]

11: Amino Acids. 2006 Nov 30; [Epub ahead of print]

Quality and flavour stability of coffee substitute prepared by extrusion of
wheat germ and chicory roots.

Fadel HH, Abdel Mageed MA, Lotfy SN.

Chemistry of Flavour and Aroma Department, National Research Centre, Dokki,
Cairo, Egypt.

A mixture of roasted chicory roots and wheat germ (1:1 w/w) was subjected to
extrusion processing for preparation of coffee substitute. Comparative studies
concerning sensory characteristics and headspace volatiles were carried out
between genuine coffee and a freshly prepared coffee substitute. The sensory
evaluation revealed similarities between the two samples. The comparative odour
profile analysis showed that the sweetish/caramel-like note scored higher in our
coffee substitute sample than in real coffee, whereas the other odour quality
attributes showed an opposite trend. The high quality of the fresh coffee
substitute was correlated to the presence of volatiles that are responsible for
the fresh coffee aroma, such as: 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylfuran
and 2,3-butanedione in high concentration. Storage of coffee substitute samples
revealed a noticeable decrease in concentration of the Strecker aldehydes and
diketones and a remarkable increase in phenolic compounds, whereas pyrazine and
furan derivatives showed no linear changes during storage. The ratio of
2,3-butanedione/2-methylfuran (B/M) was used as an indicator for aging of coffee
substitute samples. The variation in this ratio (B/M) during storage for 6
months was consistent with that of the odour profile analysis.

PMID: 17136511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

12: Plant Biotechnol J. 2004 Jul;2(4):321-7.

Production of tailor-made fructans in sugar beet by expression of onion
fructosyltransferase genes.

Weyens G, Ritsema T, van Dun K, Meyer D, Lommel M, Lathouwers J, Rosquin I,
Denys P, Tossens A, Nijs M, Turk S, Gerrits N, Bink S, Walraven B, Lefebvre M,
Smeekens S.

Advanta Biotechnology Department, SES Europe N.V./S.A., Industriepark,
Soldatenplein Z2 no. 15, B-3300 Tienen, Belgium.

The consumption of fructans as a low caloric food ingredient or dietary fibre is
rapidly increasing due to health benefits. Presently, the most important fructan
source is chicory, but these fructans have a simple linear structure and are
prone to degradation. Additional sources of high-quality tailor-made fructans
would provide novel opportunities for their use as food ingredients. Sugar beet
is a highly productive crop that does not normally synthesize fructans. We have
introduced specific onion fructosyltransferases into sugar beet. This resulted
in an efficient conversion of sucrose into complex, onion-type fructans, without
the loss of storage carbohydrate content.

PMID: 17134393 [PubMed - in process]

13: Can J Microbiol. 2006 Oct;52(10):924-33.

Dietary fructooligosaccharides alter the cultivable faecal population of rats
but do not stimulate the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria.

Gourgue-Jeannot C, Kalmokoff ML, Kheradpir E, Kwan J, Lampi BJ, McAllister M,
Brooks SP.

Bureau of Nutritional Research, Food Directorate, Health Products and Foods
Branch, Health Canada, Banting Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

The effect of fructans on the cultivable faecal community of Bio Breeding rats
fed diets containing 5% (m/v) food-grade fructooligosaccharide (FOS) was
investigated. Culturing of faecal material using chicory inulin as the sole
carbohydrate source revealed the presence of a greater diversity of
inulin-utilizing bacterial species in FOS-fed rats as compared with the control
rats, although both contained species which effectively utilized inulin. The
majority of cultivable inulin-utilizing species fell within the Clostridium
coccoides group and Clostridium leptum subgroup, some of which were related to
previously cultured butyrate-producing bacteria from the intestines of various
animals. The impact of FOS on the growth of the indigenous bifidobacteria
community and three inulin-utilizing isolates was assessed using real-time
polymerase chain reaction. While dietary FOS was found to stimulate the growth
of all three inulin-utilizing isolates, no growth stimulation of the indigenous
bifidobacteria community occurred over the duration of the feeding trial.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17110960 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Nov 15;54(23):8926-35.

Cellulase and protease preparations can extract pectins from various plant

Panouille M, Thibault JF, Bonnin E.

INRA-BIA, BP 71627, 44316 Nantes Cedex 3, France.

The use of protease and cellulase preparations to extract pectins from plant
byproducts (chicory, cauliflower) was investigated. Different enzymatic
preparations were characterized by their activities toward proteins, cellulose,
and pectins. These preparations were then tested regarding pectin extraction,
and extraction conditions (nature and concentration of enzyme, incubation time)
were optimized. Enzymatic and acidic extractions were compared and also combined
in sequential extractions. This study shows that it is possible to extract
pectins by using cellulases and proteases. Enzymes can extract pectins with a
higher yield ( approximately 35%) than acid (approximately 28%) but
enzyme-extracted pectins have a smaller molar mass (300,000 g/mol) than
acid-extracted pectins (500,000 g/ mol). Different hypotheses are tested and
discussed to explain this mass difference.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17090143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Vet Microbiol. 2007 Jan 31;119(2-4):152-63. Epub 2006 Oct 17.

The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip
worm infections in pigs.

Thomsen LE, Knudsen KE, Jensen TK, Christensen AS, Moller K, Roepstorff A.

Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Department of Veterinary
Pathobiology, KVL, Dyrlaegevej 100, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. [email protected]

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting
fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip
worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredients were
composed. Both diets were based on triticale and barley and supplemented with
either rape seed cake (Diet 1) or dried chicory root and sweet lupins (Diet 2).
The study had a three-factorial design, with eight groups of pigs receiving Diet
1 or Diet 2, +/-B. hyodysenteriae, and +/-T. suis. Pigs fed Diet 2 and
challenged with B. hyodysenteriae did not develop swine dysentery and B.
hyodysenteriae was not demonstrated in any of the pigs during the study. In
contrast, 94% of the B. hyodysenteriae challenged pigs fed Diet 1 showed
clinical symptoms of swine dysentery and all the pigs were shedding B.
hyodysenteriae in faeces at some points in time during the experiment. The
number of T. suis was lower in pigs fed Diet 2 compared to pigs fed Diet 1, but
the differences were not significant. Pigs on Diet 1 and challenged with both
pathogens showed clinical symptoms of SD for a longer period than pigs
inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae only. The study showed that diets supplemented
with highly fermentable carbohydrates from dried chicory roots and sweet lupins
can protect pigs against developing swine dysentery, but do not have any
significant influence on T. suis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17049759 [PubMed - in process]

16: Parasitology. 2007 Feb;134(Pt 2):299-307. Epub 2006 Oct 11.

The use of chicory for parasite control in organic ewes and their lambs.

Athanasiadou S, Gray D, Younie D, Tzamaloukas O, Jackson F, Kyriazakis I.

Animal Nutrition and Health Department, Scottish Agricultural College, West
Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. [email protected]

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential benefits of
grazing lactating ewes and their lambs on chicory (Cichorium intybus). Fifty-six
certified organic twin-rearing ewes were either drenched with an anthelmintic or
not, within 2 days after parturition and were grazed upon either grass/clover or
chicory pastures. Around 12 weeks after parturition a subset of 12 lambs per
treatment was slaughtered for worm number and parasite species determination.
The faecal egg counts of lambs from undrenched ewes grazing on chicory were
significantly lower than those of lambs from undrenched ewes grazing on grass.
Lambs grazing on chicory had similar abomasal worm counts as those grazing on
grass at 12 weeks of age; the predominant species was Teladorsagia circumcincta.
There was no difference between the intestinal worm counts in lambs grazing on
grass or chicory, with Trichostrongylus vitrinus being the predominant species.
Liveweight gains over the 126-day experimental period were significantly higher
in lambs from drenched than those from undrenched ewes. Lambs from undrenched
ewes grazing on chicory had higher liveweight gains compared to those from
undrenched ewes grazing on grass. Although chicory grazing did not affect ewe
nematode egg excretion, it resulted in lower egg counts in lambs and improved
their liveweight gains to the same level as those deriving from drenched ewes.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17032469 [PubMed - in process]

17: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 20;54(19):7167-74.

Use of a Plackett-Burman experimental design to examine the impact of extraction
parameters on yields and compositions of pectins extracted from chicory roots
(Chicorium intybus L.).

Robert C, Devillers T, Wathelet B, Van Herck JC, Paquot M.

Faculte Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, Unite de Chimie
Biologique Industrielle, Passage des Deportes 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
[email protected]

Chicory root pectin was isolated by acid extraction followed by alcohol
precipitation. Because the extraction conditions have important effects on the
features of pectins, an experimental design was used to study the influence of
17 different extraction parameters on yield and composition of pectin: pH,
temperature, time of extraction, solid/liquid ratio, and different pretreatments
of the pulps before extraction. Twenty extractions were conducted and examined
for their significance on yield and sugar content using the Plackett-Burman
factorial design. The acid extraction of chicory roots resulted in an average
yield of 11% containing 86% of sugars. It was found that extraction temperature,
time, protease pretreatment, water purity, and water washing of pulps
significantly affected yield and pectin composition with an increase of yield
and purity of pectin in harsher extraction conditions.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16968078 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: Environ Pollut. 2007 Jan;145(2):459-66. Epub 2006 Jul 11.

In situ biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects of mixed industrial emissions
using the Tradescantia micronucleus and pollen abortion tests with wild life
plants: demonstration of the efficacy of emission controls in an eastern
European city.

Misik M, Micieta K, Solenska M, Misikova K, Pisarcikova H, Knasmuller S.

Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural
Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1, Slovakia.

Aim of the study was to monitor changes of genotoxic activity of urban air
caused by an incinerator and a petrochemical plant in Tradescantia micronucleus
(Trad-MCN) and pollen fertility assays with wild plants (Chelidonium majus,
Clematis vitalba, Cichorium intybus, Linaria vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia).
While in the first sampling period (1997-2000) significantly (on average 80%)
more MN were found at the polluted site in comparison to controls from a rural
area, no significant effects were observed during a later period (between 2003
and 2005). A similar pattern was observed in the pollen abortion assays in which
the most pronounced effects were found in chicory and false acacia. The
differences of the results obtained in the two periods can be explained by a
substantial reduction of air pollution by use of new technologies. In particular
the decrease of SO(2) emissions may account for the effects seen in the present

PMID: 16815607 [PubMed - in process]

19: Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006 Jun;19(6):607-13.

The role of several multidrug resistance systems in Erwinia chrysanthemi

Maggiorani Valecillos A, Rodriguez Palenzuela P, Lopez-Solanilla E.

Departamento de Biotecnologia, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.
Ingenieros Agronomos, Avda. Complutense S/N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.

The role of several multidrug resistance (MDR) systems in the pathogenicity of
Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 was analyzed. Using the blast algorithm, we have
identified several MDR systems in the E. chrysanthemi genome and selected two
acridine resistance (Acr)-like systems, two Emr-like systems, and one member of
the major facilitator super-family family to characterize. We generated mutants
in genes encoding for these systems and analyzed the virulence of the mutant
strains in different hosts and their susceptibility to antibiotics, detergents,
dyes, and plant compounds. We have observed that the mutant strains are
differentially affected in their virulence in different hosts and that the
susceptibility to toxic substances is also differential. Both Acr systems seem
to be implicated in the resistance to the plant antimicrobial peptide thionin.
Similarly, the emr1AB mutant is unable to grow in the presence of the potato
protein tuber extract and shows a decreased virulence in this tissue. These
results indicate that the function of these systems in plants could be related
to the specificity to extrude a toxic compound that is present in a given host.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16776294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

20: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jul 19;106(3):429-41. Epub 2006 May 2.

"The herbs that have the property of healing...,": the phytotherapy in Don

Lopez-Munoz F, Alamo C, Garcia-Garcia P.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alcala, C/Juan
Ignacio Luca de Tena 8, 28027 Madrid, Spain. [email protected]

Don Quixote, the most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, represents a
documentary source widely used among those specialists who intend to deepen in
the knowledge of the late Renaissance society. In this sense, Don Quixote has
been also studied from a medical perspective, including a general therapeutical
view (oils, ointments, balms, poultices, syrups and other pharmacy
preparations). We have tackled Don Quixote from the phytotherapeutic and
ethnopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we
intend to study the medicinal plants used during the Cervantine time for the
treatment de multiples diseases (sedatives like opium, laxatives and emetics
like hellebore, tonics and irritants) and we analyze the specific herbal
therapies (balms, purgatives and emetics, ointments and poultices), which
Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, the rhubarb root (Rheum spp.
or Rumex spp.) should be highlighted, as well as the seeds of gopher spurge
(Euphorbia lathyris), chicory (Cichorium intybus) and rosemary (Rosmarinus
officinalis), primary component of the famous Balsam of Fierabras. Also, we have
examined the possible scientific influences, which might have inspired Cervantes
in this field, mainly the work of Andres Laguna (Dioscorides' Materia Medica).

Publication Types:
Historical Article

Personal Name as Subject:
de Cervantes M

PMID: 16757137 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

21: J Environ Sci Health B. 2006;41(4):459-70.

Arsenic uptake and accumulation in curly endives (Cichorium endivia L.)
irrigated with contaminated water.

Calvo C, Bolado S, Alvarez-Benedi J, Andrade MA.

Instituto Tecnologico Agrario de Castilla y Leon, Junta de Castilla y Leon,
Valladolid, Spain. [email protected]

Arsenic accumulation in vegetables for direct human consumption represents a
concern for food safety purposes. This potential problem can be of economic
importance particularly in much appreciated, high-quality horticultural
products. In this work, a greenhouse set of experiments were conducted to
evaluate possible phytotoxic effects and arsenic accumulation in the production
of curly endives with arsenic contaminated water.Two concentration levels (0.5
mg/L and 1.0 mg/L) and two arsenic species (As+3 and As+5) were considered. Dry
mass production tended to be reduced as As+3 concentration increased in
irrigation water. However, As+5 treatments did not show significant dry mass
production differences with a blank (control experiment). As accumulation in
plant increased with As concentration in irrigation waters, following a linear
trend. Nevertheless, the increase of accumulated As was not statistically
significant for As+5 at 0.5 mg/L. Calculated biological absorption coefficients
resulted in higher than previous values reported in the literature, which was
attributed here to the source of arsenic (irrigation water). Considering field
values for As+5/As+3 ratio and averaged concentrations in water, the obtained
results support that there is not a short-or medium-term risk to food safety in
the curly endive crop in the region of Castilla y Leon (Spain).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16753964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Mycorrhiza. 2006 Sep;16(6):397-405. Epub 2006 May 18.

Effects of anthracene on development of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and
contribution of the symbiotic association to pollutant dissipation.

Verdin A, Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui A, Fontaine J, Grandmougin-Ferjani A, Durand R.

Laboratoire de Mycologie/Phytopathologie/Environnement, Universite du Littoral
Cote d'Opale, Calais, France.

The influence of anthracene, a low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbon (PAH), on chicory root colonization by Glomus intraradices and the
effect of the root colonization on PAH degradation were investigated in vitro.
The fungus presented a reduced development of extraradical mycelium and a
decrease in sporulation, root colonization, and spore germination when exposed
to anthracene. Mycorrhization improved the growth of the roots in the medium
supplemented containing 140 mg l(-1) anthracene, suggesting a positive
contribution of G. intraradices to the PAH tolerance of roots. Anthracene
disappearance from the culture medium was quantified; results suggested that
nonmycorrhizal chicory roots growing in vitro were able to contribute to
anthracene dissipation, and in addition, that mycorrhization significantly
enhanced anthracene dissipation. These monoxenic experiments demonstrated a
positive contribution of the symbiotic association to anthracene dissipation in
the absence of other microorganisms. In addition to anthracene dissipation,
intracellular accumulation of anthracene was detected in lipid bodies of plant
cells and fungal hyphae, indicating intracellular storage capacity of the
pollutant by the roots and the mycorrhizal fungus.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16708214 [PubMed - in process]

23: J Dairy Sci. 2006 Jun;89(6):2158-67.

Intake and performance of lactating cows grazing diverse forage mixtures.

Soder KJ, Sanderson MA, Stack JL, Muller LD.

USDA/Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management
Research Unit, University Park, PA 16802-3702, USA. [email protected]

Twenty multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation grazed pastures of 4 forage
mixtures in a 12-wk study repeated during 2 grazing seasons to determine if
forage mixture complexity affected intake and productivity of lactating dairy
cows. The forage mixtures were 1) orchardgrass plus white clover [2 species
(SP)]; 2) orchardgrass, white clover, and chicory (3SP); 3) orchardgrass, tall
fescue, perennial ryegrass, red clover, birdsfoot trefoil, and chicory (6SP);
and 4) 6SP mixture plus white clover, alfalfa, and Kentucky bluegrass (9SP).
Total herbage intake was similar among forage mixtures, averaging 12.0 kg/d
across all forage mixtures and years. Milk production and composition were not
affected by forage mixture or year, and averaged 34.6 kg/d, 3.4%, and 2.8% for
milk production, milk fat percentage, and milk protein percentage, respectively.
The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk fat was higher for cows that grazed
the 3SP, 6SP, and 9SP mixtures than from cows that grazed the 2SP mixture (1.02
vs. 0.87 g of conjugated linoleic acid/100 g of fatty acids, respectively).
Blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and nonesterified fatty acids were not
affected by forage mixture and averaged 69.2 mg/dL, 13.4 mg/dL, and 277.5
muEq/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that altering the
forage mixture in pastures did not affect dry matter intake, milk production, or
blood metabolite profiles of lactating cows. The use of complex mixtures of
forages in grazing systems should not affect dairy cow performance.

PMID: 16702282 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Mutat Res. 2006 Jun 16;605(1-2):1-6. Epub 2006 May 15.

In situ monitoring of clastogenicity of ambient air in Bratislava, Slovakia
using the Tradescantia micronucleus assay and pollen abortion assays.

Misik M, Solenska M, Micieta K, Misikova K, Knasmuller S.

Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural
Sciences, Revova 39, 81102 Bratislava 1, Slovakia.

Aim of this study was to monitor the genotoxic effects of polluted air in
Bratislava (Slovakia) with the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MN) test. In situ
monitoring was carried out at five locations during two seasons (years 2003 and
2004). Flower pots with Tradescantia paludosa (clone 03) plants were exposed for
6-8 weeks at the different sites each year. The highest MN levels were observed
in the vicinity of an agrochemical factory (3.1 times higher than background
level in 2003 and 2.7 times higher in 2004). Lower effects were seen when plants
were exposed to urban traffic emissions or in the vicinity of a glass-producing
plant (the MN frequencies ranged between 2.8 and 4.4 per 100 tetrads,
respectively, while the control frequencies were 2.1-2.6 per 100 tetrads);
exposure near a petrochemical plant had no significant effects. In pollen
abortion assays, three wild growing species were used, namely, chicory
(Cichorium intybus L.), old man's beard (Clematis vitalba L.) and common
toadflax (Linaria vulgaris Mill.). Again, the strongest effects were observed
close to the agrochemical industry (reduction of fertile pollen by 5.6%, 11.1%
and 8.3% in chicory, old mans beard and in toadflax, respectively). Cichorium
intybus was the most sensitive species and the number of abortive pollen grains
was 5.1 times higher in specimens collected near the agrochemical factory than
that seen at the control location. These observations indicate that contaminated
urban air has an impact on the fertility of wild plants. Furthermore, it is
interesting that the same rank order of effects was seen in pollen abortion
assays as in the Trad-MN test (agrochemical industry>technical glass
industry>/=traffic>city incinerator/petrochemical plant). These results confirm
the sensitivity of the Tradescantia MN test and pollen abortion assays for the
detection of air pollution, and show that distinct differences exist in
genotoxicity of different sources of pollutants.

PMID: 16702021 [PubMed - in process]

25: J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2006 Jun;90(5-6):200-7.

Effect of chicory products with different inulin content on rat caecum

Juskiewicz J, Glazka I, Krol B, Zdunczyk Z.

Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of
Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.

A 4-week experiment carried out on rats addressed the analysis of physiological
properties of model casein diets supplemented with 5% cellulose or different
preparations of chicory roots: flour, pulp, high- and low-molecular inulin
(IN(HM) and IN(LM) respectively). Of all preparations, only pulp did not induce
the hypertrophy of caecum walls or an increase in the bulk of caecal digesta.
Chicory preparations lowered caecal pH and ammonia concentration (except IN(LM)
preparation), evoked increased hydration of caecal digesta and protein content.
The highest concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) was observed in rats fed
a diet containing chicory pulp and IN(HM), whereas the lowest VFA concentration
was reported after the administration of an IN(LM)-containing diet. The VFA pool
was the highest in rats receiving a diet supplemented with chicory flour. All
preparations examined diminished the coefficient of protein digestibility but
not decrease nitrogen retention. The lowest levels of glucose and total
cholesterol, at concurrently the highest level of HDL fraction, were recorded in
serum of rats fed IN(LM). A distinct increase in intestinal wall and intestinal
digesta, as well as the highest production of VFA and the lowest pH of caecal
digesta indicate that chicory flour ingested to a semi-synthetic diet had the
most profitable effect on the functioning of rat caecum, compared with other
chicory products. Compared with the IN(HM), the preparation of IN(LM) increased
caecal wall hypertrophy without increasing VFA production, still simultaneously
increasing ammonia content and pH of caecal digesta, decreasing the total
cholesterol concentration and increasing HDL content in serum.

PMID: 16684140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2005;70(3):101-9.

Pseudomonads associated with midrib rot and soft rot of butterhead lettuce and

Cottyn B, Vanhouteghem K, Heyrman J, Bleyaert P, Van Vaerenbergh J, De Vos P,
Hofte M, Maes M.

Department of Crop Protection, Agricultural Research Centre Burg. Van
Gansberghelaan 96, BE-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium. [email protected]

During the past ten years, bacterial soft rot and midrib rot of glasshouse-grown
butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) and field-grown endive
(Cichorium endivia L.) has become increasingly common in the region of Flanders,
Belgium. Severe losses and reduced market quality caused by bacterial rot
represent an important economical threat for the production sector. Symptoms of
midrib rot are a brownish rot along the midrib of one or more inner leaves,
often accompanied by soft rot of the leaf blade. Twenty-five symptomatic lettuce
and endive samples were collected from commercial growers at different locations
in Flanders. Isolations of dominant bacterial colony types on dilution plates
from macerated diseased tissue extracts yielded 282 isolates. All isolates were
characterized by colony morphology and fluorescence on pseudomonas agar F
medium, oxidase reaction, and soft rot ability on detached chicory leaves.
Whole-cell fatty acid methyl esters profile analyses identified the majority of
isolates (85%) as belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, which included members
of the family Enterobacteriaceae (14%) and of the genera Pseudomonas (73%),
Stenotrophomonas (9%), and Acinetobacter (3%). Predominant bacteria were a
diverse group of fluorescent Pseudomonas species. They were further
differentiated based on the non-host hypersensitive reaction on tobacco and the
ability to rot potato slices into 4 phenotypic groups: HR-/P- (57 isolates),
HR-/P+ (54 isolates), HR+/P (16 isolates) and HR+/P+ (35 isolates). Artificial
inoculation of suspensions of HR-, pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads in the
leaf midrib of lettuce plants produced various symptoms of soft rot, but they
did not readily cause symptoms upon spray inoculation. Fluorescent pseudomonads
with phenotype HR+ were consistently isolated from typical dark midrib rot
symptoms, and selected isolates reproduced the typical midrib rot symptoms when
spray-inoculated onto healthy lettuce plants.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16637164 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 19;107(2):254-8. Epub 2006 Mar 17.

Analgesic and sedative activities of lactucin and some lactucin-like
guaianolides in mice.

Wesolowska A, Nikiforuk A, Michalska K, Kisiel W, Chojnacka-Wojcik E.

Department of New Drugs Research, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of
Sciences, 12 Smetna Str., 31-343 Krakow, Poland.

Lactucin (1) and its derivatives lactucopicrin (2) and 11beta,13-dihydrolactucin
(3), which are characteristic bitter sesquiterpene lactones of Lactuca virosa
and Cichorium intybus, were evaluated for analgesic and sedative properties in
mice. The compounds showed analgesic effects at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg in the
hot plate test similar to that of ibuprofen, used as a standard drug, at a dose
of 30 mg/kg. The analgesic activities of the compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg in
the tail-flick test were comparable to that of ibuprofen given at a dose of 60
mg/kg. Lactucopicrin appeared to be the most potent analgetic of the three
tested compounds. Lactucin and lactucopicrin, but not 11beta,13-dihydrolactucin,
also showed sedative properties in the spontaneous locomotor activity test.

PMID: 16621374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1772-8.

Influence of cultivation site on sesquiterpene lactone composition of forage
chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

Foster JG, Clapham WM, Belesky DP, Labreveux M, Hall MH, Sanderson MA.

Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S.
Department of Agriculture, 1224 Airport Road, Beaver, West Virginia 25813-9423,
USA. [email protected]

The forage potential of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has not been realized in
southern West Virginia (WV) because ruminants are reluctant to consume the
herbage. Chicory contains bitter sesquiterpene lactones that can adversely
impact palatability. This study was undertaken to determine whether
sesquiterpene lactone concentrations in chicory grown in southern WV differ from
those in chicory grown in central Pennsylvania (PA) where chicory is grazed
readily. Herbage was collected in 1997 and 1998 from cultivars Grasslands Puna
(Puna), INIA le Lacerta (Lacerta), and Forage Feast established at research
sites near State College, PA, and Beckley, WV. The total concentration of
sesquiterpene lactones in WV-grown cultivars was 0.58% (dry matter basis) in
Puna, 0.59% in Lacerta, and 0.79% in Forage Feast in 1997 and ranged from 1.03
(Lacerta) to 1.52% (Forage Feast) in 1998. In PA-grown cultivars, sesquiterpene
lactones represented 0.16 (Puna), 0.18 (Lacerta), and 0.27% (Forage Feast) of
the forage dry matter in 1997 and ranged from 0.32 (Lacerta) to 0.55% (Forage
Feast) in 1998. Concentrations of lactucin, lactucopicrin, and total
sesquiterpene lactones in Forage Feast exceeded those in the other cultivars
grown at the same site. The lowest concentrations of lactucopicrin and total
sesquiterpene lactones observed among WV-grown cultivars were higher (2-fold or
more) than the highest concentrations present in cultivars grown the same year
in PA. Mineral analyses of soils from the two cultivation sites indicate that P
availability may influence sesquiterpene lactone composition of chicory herbage.
Results provide a foundation for future studies of environmental effects on
sesquiterpene lactone composition and palatability of chicory herbage.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16506832 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Vet Parasitol. 2006 Jun 15;138(3-4):280-90. Epub 2006 Feb 21.

The effects of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium
intybus) when compared with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) on ovine
gastrointestinal parasite development, survival and migration.

Marley CL, Cook R, Barrett J, Keatinge R, Lampkin NH.

Institute of Rural Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3AL, UK.
[email protected]

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of birdsfoot trefoil
and chicory on parasitic nematode development, survival and migration when
compared with perennial ryegrass. In experiment one, sheep faeces, containing
10,385 Cooperia curticei eggs were added to 25 cm diameter pots containing
birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or ryegrass, and the pots maintained under optimal
conditions for nematode parasite development. Replicate pots of each forage type
were destructively sampled on day 8, 16, 20, 28 and 37 to collect the nematode
larvae. When forages were compared on a dry matter basis, by day 16 there were
31% and 19% fewer larvae on birdsfoot trefoil and chicory than on ryegrass,
respectively (P<0.01). In the second experiment, replicate 1m(2) field plots of
birdsfoot trefoil, chicory and ryegrass were sub-sampled on day 14, 21, 35 and
49 for larval counts following the application of sheep faeces containing
585,000 Teladorsagia circumcincta eggs to each plot on day 0. Results showed
there were a minimum of 58% and 63% fewer infective stage parasitic larvae on
birdsfoot trefoil and chicory, respectively, compared with ryegrass on day 14
and 35 when forages were compared on a forage dry matter, plot area sampled and
leaf area basis (P<0.01). Overall, these results indicate that the number of
infective stage larvae on birdsfoot trefoil and chicory pasture was reduced by
the effect of their sward structure on the development/survival/migration of
ovine parasitic nematodes. These effects may be one of the ways in which these
forages may affect parasitic infections in grazing livestock.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16495015 [PubMed - in process]

30: Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2005 Sep;2(3):185-93.

Erratum in:
Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2006 Mar;3(1):89.

Application of the in combo screening approach for the discovery of non-alkaloid
acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Cichorium intybus.

Rollinger JM, Mocka P, Zidorn C, Ellmerer EP, Langer T, Stuppner H.

Institute of Pharmacy / Pharmacognosy, Josef-Moeller-Haus, Innrain 52c, Austria.
[email protected]

Because of the direct correlation of cholinergic deficit and the severity of
dementia, Alzheimer's disease is preferentially treated with
acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors to supplement the acetylcholine level. In
this study we focused on non-alkaloid AChE inhibitors from natural sources in
order to discover new lead structures. In the course of in vitro extract
screening of Tyrolean plants using an enzyme assay with Ellman's reagent, the
dichloromethane extract of chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) showed a
pronounced inhibitory effect on AChE. At a concentration of 1 mg extract/ml an
inhibition of 70% was measured. Based on a 3D multi-conformational
molecular-structure database consisting of secondary metabolites from C. intybus
known from the relevant literature, virtual screening filtering experiments were
conducted using both a feature-based pharmacophore model and a docking
procedure. Some low molecular weight sesquiterpenoids exhibited distinct
interactions with the pharmacophore model. In order to verify the applicability
of this computer-aided strategy, an activity-guided fractionation of the chicory
root extract was performed, which resulted in the isolation of two sesquiterpene
lactones, 8-deoxylactucin and lactucopicrin, showing significant and
dose-dependent inhibitory activity on AChE (IC(50) of 308.1 microM [CI(95) 243.9
- 405.3 microM] and 150.3 microM [CI(95) 100.8 - 188.1 microM], respectively).
The two isolates were correctly predicted within the virtual screening process
which corroborates the potential of the computer-assisted in combo screening
approach for the discovery of the anti-cholinesterase compounds from C. intybus.

PMID: 16472227 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: J Exp Bot. 2006;57(4):775-89. Epub 2006 Jan 31.

Cloning and functional analysis of a high DP fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl
transferase from Echinops ritro (Asteraceae): comparison of the native and
recombinant enzymes.

Van den Ende W, Clerens S, Vergauwen R, Boogaerts D, Le Roy K, Arckens L, Van
Laere A.

KU Leuven, Laboratory of Molecular Plant Physiology, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31,
B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. [email protected]

Inulin-type fructans are the simplest and most studied fructans and have become
increasingly popular as prebiotic health-improving compounds. A natural
variation in the degree of polymerization (DP) of inulins is observed within the
family of the Asteraceae. Globe thistle (Echinops ritro), artichoke (Cynara
scolymus), and Viguiera discolor biosynthesize fructans with a considerably
higher DP than Cichorium intybus (chicory), Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem
artichoke), and Dahlia variabilis. The higher DP in some species can be
explained by the presence of special fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferases
(high DP 1-FFTs), different from the classical low DP 1-FFTs. Here, the
RT-PCR-based cloning of a high DP 1-FFT cDNA from Echinops ritro is described,
starting from peptide sequence information derived from the purified native high
DP 1-FFT enzyme. The cDNA was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. A
comparison is made between the mass fingerprints of the native, heterodimeric
enzyme and its recombinant, monomeric counterpart (mass fingerprints and
kinetical analysis) showing that they have very similar properties. The
recombinant enzyme is a functional 1-FFT lacking invertase and 1-SST activities,
but shows a small intrinsic 1-FEH activity. The enzyme is capable of producing a
high DP inulin pattern in vitro, similar to the one observed in vivo. Depending
on conditions, the enzyme is able to produce fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as
well. Therefore, the enzyme might be suitable for both FOS and high DP inulin
production in bioreactors. Alternatively, introduction of the high DP 1-FFT gene
in chicory, a crop widely used for inulin extraction, could lead to an increase
in DP which is useful for a number of specific industrial applications. 1-FFT
expression analysis correlates well with high DP fructan accumulation in vivo,
suggesting that the enzyme is responsible for high DP fructan formation in

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16449376 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

32: Biochem J. 2006 May 1;395(3):457-62.

Crystal structure of inactivated Thermotoga maritima invertase in complex with
the trisaccharide substrate raffinose.

Alberto F, Jordi E, Henrissat B, Czjzek M.

Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR6098, CNRS,
Universites Aix-Marseille I & II, Case 932, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288
Marseille Cedex 9, France.

Thermotoga maritima invertase (beta-fructosidase), a member of the glycoside
hydrolase family GH-32, readily releases beta-D-fructose from sucrose, raffinose
and fructan polymers such as inulin. These carbohydrates represent major carbon
and energy sources for prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The invertase cleaves
beta-fructopyranosidic linkages by a double-displacement mechanism, which
involves a nucleophilic aspartate and a catalytic glutamic acid acting as a
general acid/base. The three-dimensional structure of invertase shows a
bimodular enzyme with a five bladed beta-propeller catalytic domain linked to a
beta-sandwich of unknown function. In the present study we report the crystal
structure of the inactivated invertase in interaction with the natural substrate
(raffinose) at 1.87 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The structural analysis of the
complex reveals the presence of three binding-subsites, which explains why T.
maritima invertase exhibits a higher affinity for raffinose than sucrose, but a
lower catalytic efficiency with raffinose as substrate than with sucrose.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16411890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2005;70(2):135-8.

Reflectance indices indicative for changes in water contents of chicory leaves.

Francois IM, De Proft M.

Laboratorium voor Plantenteelt, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee,

PMID: 16366292 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

34: Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005 Nov;18(11):1205-14.

PecS and PecT coregulate the synthesis of HrpN and pectate lyases, two virulence
determinants in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

Nasser W, Reverchon S, Vedel R, Boccara M.

Unite de Microbiologie et Genetique UMR CNRS-INSA-UCBL 5122 Domaine Scientifique
de la Doua, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I Batiment A Lwoff, Villeurbanne,
France. [email protected]

Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3937 is a necrotrophic bacterial plant pathogen.
Pectinolytic enzymes and, in particular, pectate lyases play a key role in soft
rot symptoms; however, the efficient colonization of plants by E. chrysanthemi
requires additional factors. These factors include HrpN (harpin), a heat-stable,
glycine-rich hydrophilic protein, which is secreted by the type III secretion
system. We investigated the expression of hrpN in E. chrysanthemi 3937 in
various environmental conditions and different regulatory backgrounds. Using
lacZ fusions, hrpN expression was markedly influenced by the carbon source,
osmolarity, growth phase, and growth substrate. hrpN was repressed when
pectinolysis started and negatively regulated by the repressors of pectate lyase
synthesis, PecS and PecT. Primer extension data and in vitro DNA-protein
interaction experiments support a model whereby PecS represses hrpN expression
by binding to the hrpN regulatory region and inhibiting transcript elongation.
The results suggest coordinated regulation of HrpN and pectate lyases by PecS
and PecT. A putative model of the synthesis of these two virulence factors in E.
chrysanthemi during pathogenesis is presented.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16353555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: J Exp Bot. 2006;57(1):81-9. Epub 2005 Dec 9.

Polymorphism and modulation of cell wall esterase enzyme activities in the
chicory root during the growing season.

Thonar C, Liners F, Van Cutsem P.

Unite de Recherche en Biologie cellulaire vegetale, Facultes Universitaires
Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.

Pectins are major components of the primary plant cell wall. They can be both
methylesterified and acetylesterified and de-esterification occurs by specific
esterases. Proteins extracted by NaCl treatment from root cell walls of two
chicory varieties (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Nausica and Arancha) sampled in an
experimental field every 2 weeks between July 2002 and January 2003 were
analysed by isoelectrofocalization, semi-denaturing SDS-PAGE, and quantitative
assays for their esterase activity. Zymograms showed that chicory root pectin
methylesterases belong to a multigene family. The isoelectric points of the
pectin methylesterase isoforms ranged from pI 3.8 to pI 9.0. Concerning
acetylesterases, only acidic isoforms between pI 4.1 and pI 5.2 were observed,
but a large polymorphism of this class of enzymes could be identified in one
variety. The results indicate that the root pectin methylesterase activity of
the Nausica variety was correlated with ambient temperature, while no
significant effect of temperature could be detected on any acetylesterase

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16339785 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Parasitology. 2006 Mar;132(Pt 3):419-26. Epub 2005 Dec 7.

The effect of chicory ( Cichorium intybus ) and sulla ( Hedysarum coronarium )
on larval development and mucosal cell responses of growing lambs challenged
with Teladorsagia circumcincta.

Tzamaloukas O, Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Huntley JF, Jackson F.

Animal Nutrition and Health Department, Scottish Agricultural College, West
Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. [email protected]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of grazing different
bioactive forages on acquired immunity against Teladorsagia circumcinta
infection. The development of immunity was assessed by following the response of
trickle-infected lambs grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus; IC), sulla (Hedysarum
coronarium; IS) or grass/clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens; IGC), to a
single challenge infection. Parasite-naive lambs, grazing grass/clover, were
also challenged with the single infection dose providing the uninfected control
(UGC) group. Trickle infection significantly reduced worm establishment,
inhibited larval development and increased mucosal mast cell (MMC) and globule
leucocyte (GL) cells. Grazing treatment (chicory, sulla or grass/clover)
significantly affected adult worm (P<0.05), late-L4 (P<0.01) and mid-L4 (P<0.01)
larval-stage recoveries of the trickle-infected lambs, with IGC group always
carrying higher worm burdens than either IC or IS lambs. MMC and GL cells of
trickle-infected lambs were positively correlated with the proportion of
early-L4 worms recovered and negatively correlated with both the proportion of
adult worms recovered and the total worm establishment, suggesting that the
observed effects were due to an enhanced immune response. The results suggest
elevated immune responses against T. circumcincta infections in growing lambs
grazing on either sulla or chicory compared to those grazing on grass/clover,
probably due to differences in forage nutritional values.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16332288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2004 Dec 27;51(1):143-53.

Prebiotic effects of chicory inulin in the simulator of the human intestinal
microbial ecosystem.

de Wiele TV, Boon N, Possemiers S, Jacobs H, Verstraete W.

Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent University, Coupure
Links 653, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

The prebiotic potential of native chicory inulin was assessed in the Simulator
of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) by monitoring microbial
community from the colon compartments, its metabolic activity and community
structure. Inulin addition selected for a higher short chain fatty acid
production with shifts towards propionic and butyric acid. Conventional
culture-based techniques and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis
analysis showed no remarkable changes in the overall microbial community from
the colon compartments of the SHIME, whereas selective effects were seen for
lactic acid bacteria. Quantitative PCR with bifidobacteria-specific primers
revealed a significant increase with more than 1 log CFU ml(-1) from the
proximal to distal colon, in contrast to culture-based techniques, which only
showed a minor bifidogenic effect in the ascending colon. Our results indicate
that inulin purports prebiotic effects from the proximal to distal colon and
that real-time PCR is a more precise technique to detect differences in
bifidobacterial populations whereas conventional culturing techniques are much
more variable.

PMID: 16329863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Nov 30;53(24):9465-71.

Antioxidant characterization of some Sicilian edible wild greens.

Salvatore S, Pellegrini N, Brenna OV, Del Rio D, Frasca G, Brighenti F, Tumino

Department of Public Health, University of Parma, 39 Via Volturno, 43100 Parma,

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that many antioxidants and the total
antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet may protect against cancers and
cardiovascular disease. Common fruits and vegetables are good sources of
antioxidants, although in some Mediterranean areas traditional wild greens are
responsible for a significant percentage of total dietary antioxidant intake. In
the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of
Ragusa (Sicily), a high number of subjects were found to frequently eat wild
greens, including Sinapis incana and Sinapis nigra, Diplotaxis erucoides,
Cichorium intybus, Asparagus acutifolius, and Borrago officinalis. On the basis
of these observations, detailed characterization of single antioxidant
components (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and ascorbic acid) and
the TAC of these edible wild traditional plants was performed. The wild plants
examined were found to be very rich in antioxidants, such as flavonoids and
carotenoids, with high TAC values, suggesting that the importance of these
vegetables, not only in the traditional but even in the contemporary diet, needs
to be emphasized.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16302763 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: J Biosci Bioeng. 2000;90(6):648-53.

Enhancement of growth and coumarin production in hairy root cultures of witloof
chicory (Cichorium intybus local) under the influence of fungal

Bais HP, Govindaswamy S, Ravishankar GA.

Department of Plant Cell Biotechnology, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore 570 013, India.

Studies were conducted to determine the possible production of coumarins in
hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus local under the influence
of microbial agents. Pythium aphanidermatum and Phytopthora parasitica var.
nicotiana were cultured and their mycelial and medium filtrate were used for the
elicitation of coumarin production. The media filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0%
v/v added to the MS basal medium led to the maximum growth of hairy roots of C.
intybus, which was 1.57-fold higher than the untreated control on the 28th day
of culture, along with maximum esculin and esculetin yields which were 4.06- and
3.71-fold higher than the control on the 28th day. The yields of esculin and
esculetin in hairy root cultures of chicory strongly correlated with growth. To
check the effect of these fungal elicitors on endogenous polyamine metabolism,
titers of total endogenous polyamines were analyzed. It was confirmed that the
media filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v concentration resulted in maximum
accumulation of total endogenous polyamines, wherein endogenous spermine titers
were found to be maximum as compared to endogenous spermidine and putrescine
titers on the 28th day. Total endogenous spermine in the case of 1.0% MF v/v P.
parasitica was 1.3-fold higher than that of the control on the 28th day of
culture. Maximum growth index with greater length of primary root (17.61+/-0.18
cm) and greater number of secondary and tertiary roots was recorded for the
medium filtrate of P. parasitica at 1.0% v/v concentration. This study also
provided an insight into the morphological changes in terms of branching
patterns, occurring in roots under the influence of these fungal elicitors.

PMID: 16232926 [PubMed]

40: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Oct 19;53(21):8169-75.

Red chicories as potent scavengers of highly reactive radicals: a study on their
phenolic composition and peroxyl radical trapping capacity and efficiency.

Rossetto M, Lante A, Vanzani P, Spettoli P, Scarpa M, Rigo A.

Dipartimento di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Padova, via G. Colombo 3, 35121
Padova, Italy.

Eight varieties of Cichorium genus vegetables (five heavily red colored, one red
spotted, and two fully green) were investigated for their phenolic content (by
HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry) and for their antioxidant activity. In
particular, the capacity (that is, the amount of trapped peroxyl radicals) and
the efficiency (that is, the amount of antioxidant necessary to halve the
steady-state concentration of peroxyl radicals) were measured. All of the
studied chicories are characterized by the presence of a large amount of
hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, whereas the red color is due to
cyanidin glycosides. The presence of these phenolics in red chicories confers to
them an exceptionally high peroxyl radical scavenging activity in terms of both
capacity and efficiency, particularly in their early stage of growth, and makes
this popular and low-cost foods comparable or superior to many foods having
well-known antioxidant properties such as red wine, blueberry, and tomato.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16218660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Microbiology. 2005 Oct;151(Pt 10):3337-47.

Tol-Pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of Erwinia chrysanthemi
affecting cell morphology and virulence.

Dubuisson JF, Vianney A, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Lazzaroni JC.

Unite de Microbiologie et Genetique, UMR 5122 CNRS-INSA-UCBL, Universite Claude
Bernard Lyon I, bat. Andre Lwoff, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France.

The tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of
Gram-negative bacteria. These genes were first described in Escherichia coli,
and more recently in several other species. They are involved in the
pathogenesis of E. coli, Haemophilus ducreyi, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella
enterica. The role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was
investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi,
assuming that this organism might be a good model for such a study. The whole
Er. chrysanthemi tol-pal region was characterized. Tol-Pal proteins, except
TolA, showed high identity scores with their E. coli homologues. Er.
chrysanthemi mutants were constructed by introducing a uidA-kan cassette in the
ybgC, tolQ, tolA, tolB, pal and ybgF genes. All the mutants were hypersensitive
to bile salts. Mutations in tolQ, tolA, tolB and pal were deleterious for the
bacteria, which required high concentrations of sugars or osmoprotectants for
their viability. Consistent with this observation, they were greatly impaired in
their cell morphology and division, which was evidenced by observations of cell
filaments, spherical forms, membrane blebbing and mislocalized bacterial septa.
Moreover, tol-pal mutants showed a reduced virulence in a potato tuber model and
on chicory leaves. This could be explained by a combination of impaired
phenotypes in the tol-pal mutants, such as reduced growth and motility and a
decreased production of pectate lyases, the major virulence factor of Er.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16207916 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Phytomedicine. 2005 Sep;12(9):619-24.

The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind,
placebo-controlled first approach.

Huseini HF, Alavian SM, Heshmat R, Heydari MR, Abolmaali K.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medicinal Plants, No. 97, Bozorgmehr
St., Ghods St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran, Iran. [email protected]

Cirrhosis is the irreversible sequel of various disorders that damage liver
cells permanently over time. Presently, the use of herbal medicines for
prevention and control of chronic liver diseases is in the focus of attention
for both the physicians and the patients; the reasons for such shift toward the
use of herbals include the expensive cost of conventional drugs, adverse drug
reactions, and their inefficacy. In the present study, the efficacy of herbal
medicine Liv-52 (consisting of Mandur basma, Tamarix gallica and herbal extracts
of Capparis spinosa, Cichorium intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna and
Achillea millefolium) on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo
for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients referred to Tehran Hepatic Center. The
outcome measures included child-pugh score, ascites, serum alanine
aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total billirubin,
albumin, prothrombin time, platelet and white blood cells counts. The indices
were recorded in all patients before and after 6 months of drug or placebo
treatment. The results demonstrated that the patients treated with Liv-52 for 6
months had significantly better child-pugh score, decreased ascites, decreased
serum ALT and AST. In placebo administered patients all the clinical parameters
recorded at beginning of the study were not significantly different than after 6
months. We conclude that Liv-52 possess hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic
patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic,
anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the
component herbs.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16194047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Mycopathologia. 2005 Aug;160(1):85-91.

Chicory extracts from Cichorium intybus L. as potential antifungals.

Mares D, Romagnoli C, Tosi B, Andreotti E, Chillemi G, Poli F.

Department of Natural and Cultural Resources, University of Ferrara, Porta
Mare 2, I-44100, Ferrara, Italy. [email protected]

In this work extracts from roots of the common vegetable Cichorium intybus L.,
highly appreciated for its bitter taste, were studied to investigate their
possible biological activity on fungi from a variety of ecological environments:
some are parasites on plants (phytopathogens) or of animals and humans
(zoophilic and anthropophilic dermatophytes), others live on the soil and only
seldom parasitize animals (geophilic dermatophytes). The extracts were
ineffective on geophilic species and on tested phytopathogens, with the
exception of Pythium ultimum, whereas they inhibited the growth of zoophilic and
anthropophilic dermatophytes, in particular Trichophyton tonsurans var.
sulfureum, whose treatment caused morphological anomalies, here observed by
scanning electron microscopy. This behaviour is discussed on the basis of the
presence in the chicory extract of the two main sesquiterpene lactones,
8-deoxylactucin and 11 beta,13-dihydrolactucin.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16160773 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

44: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6497-502.

Evaluation of the phenolic content in the aerial parts of different varieties of
Cichorium intybus L.

Innocenti M, Gallori S, Giaccherini C, Ieri F, Vincieri FF, Mulinacci N.

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Firenze, Via Ugo Schiff 6,
50019 Sesto, Florence, Italy.

Fresh aerial parts of different chicory varieties: green chicory (c.v.
"Catalogna"), two red chicory varieties ("radicchio rosso di Chioggia" and
"radicchio rosso di Treviso"), and Witloof or Belgian endive were analyzed by
HPLC/DAD/MS. The chromatographic fingerprint was diagnostic for each variety. A
monocaffeoyl tartaric acid, chlorogenic acid, and chicoric acid were detected in
all the varieties, while cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3-O-(6'' malonyl)
glucoside, and cyanidin 3-O-(6'' malonyl) glucoside were the main phenolic
compounds in the red varieties. The flavonoidic compounds, quercetin
3-O-glucuronide and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, were absent in the Witloof sample.
The phenolic compounds from total leaves were the same as those obtained from
only the colored parts; nevertheless, the total amount was remarkably lower with
a decrease of up to 80% for Belgian endive. Chemical stability at high
temperature was observed for the phenolic fraction from the green variety after
decoction at 100 degrees C for 30 min.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16076140 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6448-54.

Purification and characterization of soluble Cichorium intybusVar. silvestre

Daglia M, Aceti C, Giorgetti S, Papetti A, Gazzani G.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of
Pavia, Via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

A water-soluble lipoxygenase enzyme (EC; LOX) occurring in the red
cultivar produced in the geographical area of Chioggia (Italy) of Cichorium
intybus var. silvestre was isolated and characterized. The molecular mass of the
enzyme was estimated to be 74,000 Da by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide
gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography. The isoelectric point was
pH 6.85. The optimum values of pH, ionic strength, and temperature, shown by
isoresponse surface calculated by a randomized multilevel factorial design, were
7.58, 30 mM, and 38.5 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme showed high
specificity toward linoleic acid, and the study of the variation of linoleic
acid concentration between 30 and 300 microM, in the presence of Tween 20 at a
concentration lower than the critical micelle concentration (0.01 v/v), resulted
in a typical Michaelis-Mentem curve with KM and Vmax values of 1.49 x 10(-4) M
and 2.049 microM min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The biochemical properties, the
kinetic parameters found, and the carotene-bleaching activity shown in aerobic
conditions seem to indicate that the isolated enzyme is a lipoxygenase type III
according to the indications given for soybean isoenzymes.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16076133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: N Z Vet J. 2002 Dec;50(6):244-51.

Novel forages for growth and health in farmed deer.

Barry TN, Hoskin SO, Wilson PR.

Institute of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University,
Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand. [email protected]

AIMS: This paper reviews recent research on the use of new forages in deer
farming that may be useful for increasing growth in weaner deer for venison
production, increasing the trace element status of deer, and for developing
systems less reliant on chemical inputs, notably of anthelmintics used to
control internal parasites. GROWTH: Grazing on pure swards of red clover
(Trifolium pratense) or chicory (Chicorium intybus) increased weaner growth
during autumn by 26-47% and during spring by 10-14%, relative to red deer
(Cervus elaphus) grazed on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) /white clover
(Trifolium repens) pasture (0.8/0.2). Pre-weaning growth during lactation was
increased by approximately 20%. These increases were due to increased rate of
degradation of feed particles in the rumen, leading to higher digestibility and
higher voluntary feed intakes (VFI). Red clover and chicory produce a greater
proportion of their total dry matter (DM) during late summer and autumn than
perennial ryegrass/white clover pastures, and are therefore better aligned with
the seasonal feed requirements of deer. Grazing on the legume, sulla (Hedysarum
coronarium), in autumn and spring increased the growth of weaner deer by 33% and
10%, respectively, relative to pasture-fed animals. PARASITES: Plants containing
substantial concentrations of secondary compounds such as condensed tannins (CT)
show promise for reducing problems caused by internal parasites. CT present in
some legumes and the presence of low concentrations of both CT and sesquiterpene
lactones in chicory are reviewed. Feeding sulla containing 35g CT /kg DM reduced
abomasal nematode establishment and tended to reduce lungworm (Dictyocaulis
eckerti) larval counts in faeces. Relative to weaner deer grazing pasture,
weaner deer grazing chicory during autumn required fewer anthelmintic treatments
without depressing growth rates. CT extracted from a range of legumes, and CT
and sesquiterpene lactones extracted from chicory reduced the in vitro motility
of both lungworm and gastrointestinal nematode larvae. The beneficial effects of
CT-containing forages on the ability of young deer to manage internal parasite
infections could be due to: indirect effects of CT resulting in increased
amino-acid absorption, better meeting demands of the immune system; direct
inhibitory effects of CT on parasite larvae and; taller plant morphology,
reducing the ingestion of infective larvae. The effects of CT depend upon both
their structure and CT Condensed tannins DM Dry matter L1 First-stage larvae L3
Infective third-stage larvae LWG Liveweight gain ME Metabolisable energy OM
Organic matter OMD Organic matter digestibility VFIVoluntary food intake
concentration in the plant, which vary between growing conditions, plant
varieties and species. TRACE ELEMENTS: Chicory contained higher concentrations
of copper and cobalt than perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture grown on the
same farm, and deer grazing chicory had higher liver concentrations of both
copper and vitamin B12. These forages may contribute to maintaining adequate
trace element status in deer. CONCLUSIONS: Grazing systems that include legumes
and herbs such as sulla, red clover and chicory can be used to substantially
increase the growth of weaner deer for venison production whilst maintaining
deer health and reducing requirements for chemical inputs. For maximum plant
persistence and animal responses, these plants should be grown and managed as
special-purpose forages and not used in seed mixtures with perennial grasses.

PMID: 16032280 [PubMed]

47: Ceska Slov Farm. 2005 May;54(3):145-50.

[Optimization of isolation of inulin from Cichorium intybus L. and some of its
uses in social practice]

[Article in Slovak]

Augustin J.

Slovenska technicka univerzita v Bratislave, Fakulta potravinarskej technologie,
Katedra potravinarskej technologie. [email protected]

The study is concerned with the technological processing of chicory Cichorium
intybus in order to isolate the fructan polysaccharide inulin (C6H10O5) and the
optimization of the individual production steps of extraction (the method of
purification of the raw material prior to the extraction itself and purification
of the final product. temperature of the extraction mixture, exposure period of
the extraction agent, effect of pH, optimization of the module for the
determination of the most suitable volume of the extraction agent, determination
of the most suitable ratio of the volume of ethanol in the extraction of inulin
from the reaction medium). The obtained experimental results are compared and
evaluated with regard to quality (whiteness) and the yield of the obtained final
product. The paper is also concerned with several possible uses of inulin in
pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetological, food industrial, and fodder production

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15945463 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48: Chemosphere. 2005 Dec;61(9):1288-92.

Uptake and degradation of DDT by hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus and
Brassica juncea.

Suresh B, Sherkhane PD, Kale S, Eapen S, Ravishankar GA.

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore 570013, India. [email protected]

Hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus and Brassica juncea were used for their
ability to uptake and degrade DDT
(1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl)ethane). After 24 h of 14C DDT
treatment, only 12-13% of the total applied radioactivity was detected in the
culture media, indicating the efficient uptake of DDT by the hairy roots. The
majority of the applied radioactivity was associated with the roots. DDT was
degraded to various other products such as DDD, DDE and DDMU, along with some
unknown compounds by hairy root cultures, which were detected by thin layer
chromatography (TLC) and autoradiography. The rate of in situ degradation was
found to be higher during the initial stages of culture and the residual 14C DDT
in the roots was found to decrease from 77% to 61% over a period of 10-days.
There was no spontaneous degradation of 14C DDT in media lacking hairy root
cultures or in media with autoclaved hairy roots. This suggests that endogenous
root enzymes play a role in the breakdown of 14C DDT. These results suggest the
potential applicability and advantage of using these plant species for
phytoremediation of persistent xenobiotics such as DDT in an eco-friendly and
efficient manner for environmental clean up.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15885743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49: Br J Nutr. 2005 Apr;93 Suppl 1:S73-90.

Inulin-type fructans and reduction in colon cancer risk: review of experimental
and human data.

Pool-Zobel BL.

Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute for Nutritional Sciences,
Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Germany. [email protected]

Inulin-type fructans (beta(2,1)fructans) extracted from chicory roots (Cichorium
intybus) are prebiotic food ingredients, which in the gut lumen are fermented to
lactic acid and SCFA. Research in experimental animal models revealed that
inulin-type fructans have anticarcinogenic properties. A number of studies
report the effects of inulin-type fructans on chemically induced pre-neoplastic
lesions (ACF) or tumours in the colon of rats and mice. In twelve studies, there
were twenty-nine individual treatment groups of which twenty-four measured
aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and five measured tumours. There was a significant
reduction of ACF in twenty-one of the twenty-four treatment groups and of tumour
incidence in five of the five treatment groups. Higher beneficial effects were
achieved by synbiotics (mixtures of probiotics and prebiotics), long-chain
inulin-type fructans compared to short-chain derivatives, and feeding high-fat
Western style diets. Inulin-type fructans reduced tumour incidence in APC(Min)
mice in two of four studies and reduced growth and metastasising properties of
implanted tumour cells in mice (four studies). The effects have been reported to
be associated with gut flora-mediated fermentation and production of butyrate.
In human cells, inulin-derived fermentation products inhibited cell growth,
modulated differentiation and reduced metastasis activities. In conclusion,
evidence has been accumulated that shows that inulin-type fructans and
corresponding fermentation products reduced the risks for colon cancer. The
involved mechanisms included the reduction of exposure to risk factors and
suppression of tumour cell survival. Thus, this specific type of dietary fibre
exerted both blocking agent and suppressing agent types of chemopreventive

Publication Types:

PMID: 15877900 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50: Plant Cell Rep. 2005 Jun;24(4):246-9. Epub 2005 Apr 5.

Furofuran lignans from a callus culture of Cichorium intybus.

Malarz J, Stojakowska A, Szneler E, Kisiel W.

Department of Phytochemistry, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of
Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343 Krakow, Poland. [email protected]

Three new and one known furofuran lignans--syringaresinol derivatives--along
with the known phenylpropanoids cichoriin and syringin were isolated from a
callus tissue of Cichorium intybus. The compounds were characterised by spectral
methods. This is the first report on the presence of furofuran lignans in
Cichorium species.

PMID: 15809887 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51: J Exp Bot. 2005 May;56(415):1389-95. Epub 2005 Apr 4.

Growth, fructan yield, and quality of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) as related
to photosynthetic capacity, harvest time, and water regime.

Monti A, Amaducci MT, Pritoni G, Venturi G.

Department of Agroenvironmental Science and Technologies, University of Bologna,
Viale G Fanin 44/46, I-40127, Bologna, Italy. [email protected]

Fructans are polymers that are widely used in several industrial applications.
In the last few years they have received increasing interest because of their
positive effects on health. At present, fructans are mostly supplied by chicory,
which is only grown and processed in The Netherlands, France, and Belgium. It
would therefore be an attractive concept to expand its cultivation to the
southern European countries, although water shortage and high temperatures may
hinder its growth and yield. So far, few experiments have been carried out on
the effects of water, so the present research was focused on the course of
growth and fructan quality in rainfed (W(0)) and well-watered (W(1)) conditions.
The positive effects of water restoration mostly concerned the above-ground dry
weight (ADW), whereas the root dry weight (RDW) was less influenced. No
significant differences on RDW were found in 1999, whereas it was 14% higher (P
<0.01) in W(1) in 2000. The effect of water was very clear on assimilate
allocation: the overall priority at the whole plant scale seemed to be root
structures, then storage reserves, and finally ADW. Therefore, the fructan
content was higher in W(0), and insignificant differences between W(0) and W(1)
were found on fructan yield at the final harvests. The only significant effect
of the water regime on fructans was to speed up their storage. The leaf
photosynthetic capacity (A) was poorly affected by water availability, whereas
it appeared consistently modulated by leaf temperature and leaf nitrogen
content. Stomatal conductance appeared to be mostly affected by the soil water
content and it was mostly related to A up to about 300 mmol m(-2) s(-1). The
fructan chain length (DP) was not affected by water regime. Besides, DP classes
showed a normal statistical distribution; skewness and kurtosis significantly
changed only when the harvest was very late. Equally, a very late harvest time
significantly lowered DP.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15809283 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52: J Physiol Pharmacol. 2005 Mar;56 Suppl 1:115-24.

Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical

Schaffer S, Schmitt-Schillig S, Muller WE, Eckert GP.

Institute of Pharmacology (ZAFES), Biocenter Niederursel, University of
Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. [email protected]

Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of
the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the
beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate
from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content
of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary
depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local
Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver
rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in
order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential.
The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects
for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection.
Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for
the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different
locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the
extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest
that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant
activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the
geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant

PMID: 15800389 [PubMed - in process]

53: N Z Vet J. 2004 Dec;52(6):311-9.

Advances in pasture management for animal productivity and health.

Lambert MG, Clark DA, Litherland AJ.

AgResearch Grasslands, Private Bag 11008, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

A wide range of management techniques is available to enhance quantity and
quality of forage supply to grazing animals throughout the annual production
cycle. Within broad limits, dry matter (DM) production is relatively insensitive
to management of defoliation frequency, severity and duration. However
defoliation management has effects on feed quality which can be enhanced, in
particular, by control of pasture growth in the spring through maintenance of
relatively low average pasture masses. Treading damage can have significant
immediate and ongoing effects on pasture production and farmers can use a range
of management techniques to minimise these. Fertiliser application practices
have a potent influence on pasture production and seasonality of that
production. Available soil nitrogen is the primary nutrient deficiency limiting
production in New Zealand's characteristically grass-dominant pastures. Nitrogen
fertiliser usage has increased markedly in recent years, particularly to grow
substantially greater amounts of forage during the cool season, and this trend
looks set to continue. However, the use of nitrogen fertiliser has important
environmental implications. Pasture renewal and forage crop use has also
increased in recent years. Care needs to be taken in conducting cost-benefit
analyses, selecting the options that best meet the needs, and in establishment
and subsequent management practices. Ryegrass (perennial and hybrids) and white
clover remain the primary choice for permanent pasture renewal, the availability
of safe endophytes having largely alleviated effects of endophyte toxicosis.
Special-purpose mixtures are used, especially in dry environments. Italian
ryegrasses, brassicas and chicory are common choices for forage crops. A range
of management techniques can be used to alleviate deleterious effects of some
forages, including ryegrass endophyte toxicosis, facial eczema, and toxins
associated with Fusarium fungi. Generally these techniques are not totally
effective. More research is required to increase our understanding of these
disorders, and in order to develop more effective and reliable management

PMID: 15768131 [PubMed - in process]

54: J Bacteriol. 2005 Mar;187(6):2157-62.

Role of the PhoP-PhoQ system in the virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi strain
3937: involvement in sensitivity to plant antimicrobial peptides, survival at
acid Hh, and regulation of pectolytic enzymes.

Llama-Palacios A, Lopez-Solanilla E, Rodriguez-Palenzuela P.

Departamento de Biotechnologia-UPM, ETS Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid, Spain.

Erwinia chrysanthemi is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes soft-rot
diseases in a broad number of crops. The PhoP-PhoQ system is a key factor in
pathogenicity of several bacteria and is involved in the bacterial resistance to
different factors, including acid stress. Since E. chrysanthemi is confronted by
acid pH during pathogenesis, we have studied the role of this system in the
virulence of this bacterium. In this work, we have isolated and characterized
the phoP and phoQ mutants of E. chrysanthemi strain 3937. It was found that: (i)
they were not altered in their growth at acid pH; (ii) the phoQ mutant showed
diminished ability to survive at acid pH; (iii) susceptibility to the
antimicrobial peptide thionin was increased; (iv) the virulence of the phoQ
mutant was diminished at low and high magnesium concentrations, whereas the
virulence of the phoP was diminished only at low magnesium concentrations; (v)
in planta Pel activity of both mutant strains was drastically reduced; and (vi)
both mutants lagged behind the wild type in their capacity to change the
apoplastic pH. These results suggest that the PhoP-PhoQ system plays a role in
the virulence of this bacterium in plant tissues, although it does not
contribute to bacterial growth at acid pH.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15743964 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: J Environ Manage. 2005 Mar;74(4):339-48. Epub 2004 Dec 24.

The effect of olive mill wastewater on seed germination after various
pretreatment techniques.

Komilis DP, Karatzas E, Halvadakis CP.

Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitilinis 50, 11364 Athens,
Greece. [email protected]

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) management has been a major issue of environmental
concern for olive oil producing countries. OMW can be a serious nuisance, when
disposed of untreated, due to its significantly high organic load, its
phytotoxic properties and its relatively low biodegradability. Field and plant
irrigation with raw or pretreated OMW is an easy and relatively inexpensive
method to treat and dispose of OMW. Typical pretreatment techniques could be
comprised of phase separation through a settling basin, dilution with water,
aeration to promote biological degradation and pH neutralization. A full
factorial experimental design approach was used here to study the main effects
and interactions of the above four pretreatment techniques on the germination of
tomato and chicory seeds. Results of the study showed that the most
statistically significant technique affecting OMW phytotoxicity is water
dilution. The next most significant technique was aeration. In particular,
phytotoxicity decreased with increased OMW dilution with water, when OMW was
aerated and without pH adjustment. pH neutralization resulted in increased
phytotoxicity. Settling did not significantly decrease the phytotoxicity of
settled OMW and is therefore not considered necessary in an OMW management
system in which plant irrigation is the goal. The interaction of aeration and pH
was, marginally, the most significant two-way interaction for tomato seeds,
while no interactions were significant when chicory seeds were used.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15737458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Arch Anim Nutr. 2004 Dec;58(6):483-93.

Gastrointestinal and immunological responses of senior dogs to chicory and

Grieshop CM, Flickinger EA, Bruce KJ, Patil AR, Czarnecki-Maulden GL, Fahey GC

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, USA.

Thirty-four senior dogs (pointers 8-11 years, beagles 9-11 years) were used to
evaluate the effects of oligosaccharides on nutritional and immunological
characteristics. Dogs were randomly allotted to treatments [1% chicory (CH), 1%
mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS), 1% chicory + 1% MOS (CM), or no supplementation
(control, CON)] in a parallel design with a 4 week baseline period followed by a
4 week treatment period. Dietary supplementation with MOS or CM tended (P =
0.07) to increase food intake due, in part, to an increase in fermentable fibre
and a decrease in energy content of the diet. Although wet faecal output
increased (P < 0.05) for dogs supplemented with MOS or CM, when corrected for
food intake, no differences were noted. The CM treatment increased (P < 0.05)
faecal score (1 = hard and dry, 5 = watery liquid), although these scores
remained in a desirable range (3 to 3.5). Chicory supplementation increased (P =
0.07) fat digestibility. Chicory or MOS increased (P < or = 0.05) faecal
bifidobacteria concentrations 0.4 and 0.5 log10 cfu/g DM, respectively, compared
to the CON, while MOS decreased (P < 0.05) faecal E. coli concentrations.
Oligosaccharides did not affect white blood cell (WBC) concentrations, but CH
and CM tended to increase (P = 0.10) neutrophil concentrations compared to
control dogs. Peripheral lymphocyte concentrations were decreased in dogs
supplemented with MOS (P = 0.06) and CM (P < 0.05). Chicory and MOS alter faecal
microbial populations and certain indices of the immune system of senior dogs.

PMID: 15732581 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: Int J Parasitol. 2005 Mar;35(3):329-35. Epub 2005 Jan 18.

The consequences of short-term grazing of bioactive forages on established adult
and incoming larvae populations of Teladorsagia circumcincta in lambs.

Tzamaloukas O, Athanasiadou S, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Coop RL.

Animal Nutrition and Health Department, Scottish Agricultural College, West
Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. [email protected]

The objective of this study was to investigate the consequences of short-term
grazing on bioactive forages on (i) the viability and fecundity of established
adult Teladorsagia circumcincta population and (ii) the establishment and
development of incoming T. circumcincta infective larvae. Forty-eight, parasite
naive, 3-month old, grazing lambs were artificially infected with 8000 infective
larvae of T. circumcincta on day 1 of the experiment. On day 21 p.i., lambs were
allocated to one of three bioactive forage grazing treatments; chicory
(Cichorium intybus), sulla (Hedysarum coronarium), lotus (Lotus pedunculatus),
and the control grass/clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens) forage. On day 28
of the experiment a second dose of 8000 T. circumcincta infective larvae was
administered to the lambs to investigate the effects of forages on the ability
of infective larvae to establish within the host. All animals were slaughtered
for worm recovery on day 35, while liveweight gain, feacal egg counts (FEC) and
total worm egg output were monitored regularly throughout the experiment.
Although FEC or total egg output were similar among the groups, adult worm
burdens at slaughter were significantly affected (P<0.05) by forage treatment
during the 2 week grazing period. Lambs grazing chicory had the lowest adult
worm burdens and significantly lower numbers of male worms compared to those
grazing on grass/clover (P<0.01), while the lambs grazing on sulla or lotus had
similar adult populations to grass/clover fed animals. The results from the worm
recoveries of the second dose (immature worm burdens) were affected by
physiologically and/or immunologically mediated mechanisms, which reduced larval
establishment in all treatments. Nevertheless, immature worm burdens at
slaughter were similar between chicory, sulla and grass/clover group, while the
immature worm recoveries from the lotus group were significantly higher (P<0.05)
compared to those from lambs grazing grass/clover. Overall, the results of the
present study support the view that chicory can be a promising candidate species
in pasture management practices to control T. circumcincta burdens.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15722084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: Vet Parasitol. 2005 Feb 28;127(3-4):233-43. Epub 2004 Dec 22.

Testing for direct anthelmintic effects of bioactive forages against
Trichostrongylus colubriformis in grazing sheep.

Athanasiadou S, Tzamaloukas O, Kyriazakis I, Jackson F, Coop RL.

Animal Nutrition and Health Department, Scottish Agricultural College, West
Mains Road, Edinburgh, Scotland EH9 3JG, UK. [email protected]

The aim of the present study was to investigate potential direct anthelmintic
effects of forages that contain plant secondary metabolites (PSM) towards the
intestinal nematode Trichostrongylus colubriformis. For this purpose, we
introduced an experimental design, which enabled us to investigate the direct
anthelmintic effects of PSM-rich forages, without significant interference of
possible indirect immunological effects of PSM. Sixty parasite naive sheep were
infected with 8000 T. colubriformis L(3) on day 1 of the experiment. On day 28,
sheep entered one of the experimental plots, which consisted of four PSM-rich
forages and one control: Lotus pedunculatus (lotus), Hedysarium coronarium
(sulla), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and
Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens (grass/clover). On day 35 of the experiment, all
sheep were re-infected with 8000 T. colubriformis L(3) and were killed on day
42. By day 42, all parasites of the primary infection would have been recovered
as adults, whereas those of the secondary challenge would have only developed to
the fourth stage larvae within a week (i.e. days 35-42). The first batch of
larvae would enable us to investigate possible direct anthelmintic effects of
PSM-rich forages against adult T. colubriformis, whereas the second one whether
grazing on the PSM-rich forages could affect the establishment of the incoming
infective larvae. Sheep grazing on lotus tended to have a lower FEC compared to
sheep grazing on grass/clover (P = 0.06), whereas daily faecal output was higher
in sheep grazing lotus compared to those grazing on the other forages (P <
0.05). As a consequence, daily egg output was similar in all sheep. Grazing on
the PSM-rich forages for a period of 2 weeks did not affect the immature and
adult parasite populations. Although the present experimental design enabled us
to test the experimental hypothesis, the lack of evidence on a direct
anthelmintic effect of PSM-rich forages can not be considered conclusive, as the
composition of PSM-rich forages is variable within and across grazing seasons.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Controlled Clinical Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15710524 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: Plant J. 2005 Feb;41(3):400-11.

X-ray diffraction structure of a plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 protein:
fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa of Cichorium intybus.

Verhaest M, Ende WV, Roy KL, De Ranter CJ, Laere AV, Rabijns A.

Laboratorium voor Analytische Chemie en Medicinale Fysicochemie, Faculteit
Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, K.U. Leuven, E. Van Evenstraat 4, B-3000 Leuven,

Fructan 1-exohydrolase, an enzyme involved in fructan degradation, belongs to
the glycosyl hydrolase family 32. The structure of isoenzyme 1-FEH IIa from
Cichorium intybus is described at a resolution of 2.35 A. The structure consists
of an N-terminal fivefold beta-propeller domain connected to two C-terminal
beta-sheets. The putative active site is located entirely in the beta-propeller
domain and is formed by amino acids which are highly conserved within glycosyl
hydrolase family 32. The fructan-binding site is thought to be in the cleft
formed between the two domains. The 1-FEH IIa structure is compared with the
structures of two homologous but functionally different enzymes: a levansucrase
from Bacillus subtilis (glycosyl hydrolase family 68) and an invertase from
Thermotoga maritima (glycosyl hydrolase family 32).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15659099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Feb 18;327(3):742-9.

Inhibition of the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase-2 by chicory

Cavin C, Delannoy M, Malnoe A, Debefve E, Touche A, Courtois D, Schilter B.

Quality and Safety Department, Nestle Research Center, P.O. Box 44,
Vers-chez-les-Blanc, CH-1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland.
[email protected]

Chicory is a major source of fructans with reported prebiotic-bifidogenic
properties. In the present study, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of
chicory were investigated. Ethyl acetate chicory root extract produced a marked
inhibition of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in human colon carcinoma
HT29 cells treated with the pro-inflammatory agent TNF-alpha. Two independent
mechanisms of action were identified: (1) a drastic inhibition of the induction
by TNF-alpha of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expression and (2) a direct
inhibition of COX enzyme activities with a significantly higher selectivity for
COX-2 activity. The inhibition of TNF-alpha-dependent induction of COX-2
expression was mediated by an inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. A major
sesquiterpene lactone of chicory root, the guaianolide 8-deoxylactucin, was
identified as the key inhibitor of COX-2 protein expression present in chicory
extract. Altogether, the data presented strongly support chicory root as a
promising source of functional food ingredient, combining prebiotic and
anti-inflammatory properties.

PMID: 15649409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Fitoterapia. 2004 Dec;75(7-8):737-9.

Antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus.

Petrovic J, Stanojkovic A, Comic Lj, Curcic S.

Faculty of Science, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia and Montenegro.

Antibacterial activity of the water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of
Cichorium intybus was investigated. All the tested extracts showed antibacterial
activity, the ethyl acetate extract being the most active. Water extract
inhibits Agrobacterium radiobacter sp. tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora,
Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. aeruginosa.

PMID: 15567253 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):455-7.

Antimalarial activity of lactucin and lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones
isolated from Cichorium intybus L.

Bischoff TA, Kelley CJ, Karchesy Y, Laurantos M, Nguyen-Dinh P, Arefi AG.

Department of Pharmacy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
[email protected]

Folklore reports from Afghanistan prior to the wars described the use of aqueous
root extracts of Cichorium intybus (L.) as a light-sensitive plant remedy for
malaria. Preparative isolation and bioassay against HB3 clone of strain
Honduras-1 of Plasmodium falciparum identified the previously known
light-sensitive sesquiterpene lactones Lactucin and Lactucopicrin to be
antimalarial compounds.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15507374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: Phytother Res. 2004 Aug;18(8):670-3.

Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric
potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

Rani P, Khullar N.

Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India.

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of
traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant
extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against
multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown
by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica
granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and
Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia
belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia
catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum,
Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and
Butea monosperma.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15476301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Aug 11;52(16):5109-16.

Lettuce and chicory byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolic extracts.

Llorach R, Tomas-Barberan FA, Ferreres F.

Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of
Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 4195, Murcia 30080, Spain.

A process to obtain enriched antioxidant phenolic extracts from lettuce (baby,
romaine, and iceberg cultivars) and chichory byproducts as a way to valorize
these byproducts was developed. Two extraction protocols using water and
methanol as solvent were used. Amberlite XAD-2 nonionic polymeric resin was used
to purify the extracts. The extraction yield, phenolic content, and phenolic
yield were evaluated as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extracts (DPPH,
ABTS, and FRAP assays). Baby and romaine lettuce byproducts showed the highest
water extract yields [27 and 26 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fresh
weight (fw), respectively], whereas baby and iceberg lettuce showed highest
methanol extract yields (31 and 23 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct
fw, respectively). Methanol extraction yielded a raw extract with a high
phenolic content, the baby and chicory extracts being the richest with
approximately 50 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract. Regarding the
purified extracts, water extraction yielded a higher phenolic content, baby and
chicory being also the highest with mean values of approximately 190 and 300 mg
of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract, respectively. Both raw and purified
extracts from baby and chicory showed the higher antioxidant contents (DPPH,
ABTS, and FRAP assays). The antioxidant capacity was linearly correlated with
the phenolic content. The results obtained indicate that lettuce byproducts
could be, from the industrial point of view, an interesting and cheap source of
antioxidant phenolic extracts to funcionalize foodstuffs.

PMID: 15291483 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: J Anim Sci. 2004 Jun;82(6):1678-84.

Excretion of major odor-causing and acidifying compounds in response to dietary
supplementation of chicory inulin in growing pigs.

Rideout TC, Fan MZ, Cant JP, Wagner-Riddle C, Stonehouse P.

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario
N1G 2W1, Canada.

The excretion of major odor-causing and acidifying compounds in response to
dietary supplementation of chicory inulin extract was investigated with six
Yorkshire barrows, with an average initial BW of 30 kg, according to a balanced
two-period cross-over design. The animals were fed a control diet containing no
inulin extract and a treatment diet with 5% inulin extract (as-fed basis) at the
expense of cornstarch. Each diet was formulated (as-fed basis) to contain 16% CP
from corn (51%) and soybean meal (29%). Each experimental period lasted 14 d,
with 10 d for dietary adaptation and 4 d for collection of fecal and urine
samples. The fecal samples were analyzed for four major classes of odor-causing
and acidifying compounds: 1) VFA; 2) N-containing compounds, including total N
and ammonia; 3) volatile sulfides measured as hydrogen sulfide units; and 4)
phenols and indoles, including p-cresol, indole, and skatole. Supplementation of
chicory inulin at 5% had no effects on the fecal excretion of VFA (P = 0.29),
ammonia (P = 0.96), total volatile sulfides (P = 0.56), p-cresol (P = 0.56), and
indole (P = 0.75). Fecal excretion of total N (inulin = 6.13 vs. control = 5.10
g/kg DMI) was increased (P < 0.05), whereas urinary total N excretion (inulin =
15.1 vs. control = 16.4 g/[pig x d]) was not affected (P = 0.17) by the inulin
supplementation compared with the control group. Furthermore, fecal excretion of
skatole (inulin = 9.07 vs. control = 18.93 mg/kg DMI) was decreased (P < 0.05)
by the inulin supplementation compared with the control group. In conclusion,
dietary supplementation of 5% chicory inulin extract is effective in decreasing
the fecal excretion of skatole in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal diets.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15216994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66: J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jun 16;52(12):3780-3.

Enrichment of higher molecular weight fractions in inulin.

Moerman FT, Van Leeuwen MB, Delcour JA.

Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Food
Chemistry, K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.
[email protected]

Inulin (general formulas GFn and Fm, with G = anhydroglucose and F =
anhydrofructose) naturally occurs as a homologous series of oligo- and
polysaccharides with different chain lengths. For reasons of growing interest in
the food and pet food industries, the short chain inulins have to be separated
from their long chain analogues because their properties (digestibility,
prebiotic activity and health promoting potential, caloric value, sweetening
power, water binding capacity, etc.) differ substantially. To study these
properties in relation to the number average degree of polymerization (DPn),
ultrafiltration, specific crystallization from aqueous solution, and
precipitation from solvent/water mixtures were used to enrich native chicory and
dahlia inulin in the higher molecular weight fractions. Depending on the
membrane module used, the DPn of chicory inulin (DPn = 8.1) and dahlia inulin
(DPn = 29) could be increased by ultrafiltration to a maximum value of,
respectively, 22 and 43. With crystallization from aqueous solutions (25 degrees
C), similar results were obtained but at a much higher yield. Finally, long
chain inulin could be precipitated from aqueous solutions in the presence of
high concentrations of methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Acetone demonstrated to
be the best solvent system to increase the DPn, followed by ethanol and
methanol. However, for safety reasons and food purposes, ethanol was evaluated
to be the best choice. With ethanol, the DPn could be raised to 25 for chicory
inulin and up to 40 for dahlia inulin.

PMID: 15186097 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67: J Exp Bot. 2004 Jun;55(401):1325-33. Epub 2004 May 7.

Expression analysis of a chicory fructan 1-exohydrolase gene reveals complex
regulation by cold.

Michiels A, Van Laere A, Van den Ende W, Tucker M.

Laboratory for Molecular Plant Physiology, Institute of Botany and Microbiology,
KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. [email protected]

The gene for a recently identified cDNA, 1-FEH IIa, encoding a fructan
1-exohydrolase was isolated and cloned from Cichorium intybus and a 1149 bp
promoter fragment was characterized. An analysis of the genomic 1-FEH IIa
sequence indicated that the gene (FEHIIa) consists of six introns and seven
exons, which is similar to plant invertase genes. Like invertase genes, FEHIIa
also contains the 9 nt mini-exon encoding the tripeptide DPN. A database search
for cis-acting response elements within its promoter identified multiple
elements that appear to have relevance to cold-induced expression of the gene in
field-grown roots. Promoter analysis by transient expression assay demonstrated
that the FEHIIa gene promoter is highly expressed in etiolated Cichorium leaves
and cold-stored roots, which correlated well with the high level expression
detected by RNA blot analysis. Cold also enhanced FEHIIa reporter gene
expression in green leaves, however, the reporter gene activity was much lower
compared with similar induction experiments in etiolated leaves. Promoter
deletion analysis demonstrated the presence of potential cold-responsive ABRE
and/or CRT/DRE elements in the -22 to -172 region, while regions -933 to -717
and -493 to -278 contain elements that can down-regulate expression at the
conditions used. Characterization of the FEHIIa promoter may provide tools to
study cold-induced expression and to increase freezing tolerance in agricultural

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 15133058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004 Apr;31(1):153-63.

Comparative analysis of NBS domain sequences of NBS-LRR disease resistance genes
from sunflower, lettuce, and chicory.

Plocik A, Layden J, Kesseli R.

Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125-3393, USA.

Plant resistance to many types of pathogens and pests can be achieved by the
presence of disease resistance (R) genes. The nucleotide binding site-leucine
rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class of R-genes is the most commonly isolated class of
R-genes and makes up a super-family, which is often arranged in the genome as
large multi-gene clusters. The NBS domain of these genes can be targeted by
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using degenerate primers. Previous
studies have used PCR derived NBS sequences to investigate both ancient R-gene
evolution and recent evolution within specific plant families. However,
comparative studies with the Asteraceae family have largely been ignored. In
this study, we address recent evolution of NBS sequences within the Asteraceae
and extend the comparison to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Using multiple
sets of primers, NBS fragments were amplified from genomic DNA of three species
from the family Asteraceae: Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lactuca sativa
(lettuce), and Cichorium intybus (chicory). Analysis suggests that Asteraceae
species share distinct families of R-genes, composed of genes related to both
coiled-coil (CC) and toll-interleukin-receptor homology (TIR) domain containing
NBS-LRR R-genes. Between the most closely related species, (lettuce and chicory)
a striking similarity of CC subfamily composition was identified, while
sunflower showed less similarity in structure. These sequences were also
compared to the A. thaliana genome. Asteraceae NBS gene subfamilies appear to be
distinct from Arabidopsis gene clades. These data suggest that NBS families in
the Asteraceae family are ancient, but also that gene duplication and gene loss
events occur and change the composition of these gene subfamilies over time.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 15019616 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Mar;60(Pt 3):553-4. Epub 2004 Feb

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of fructan
1-exohydrolase IIa from Cichorium intybus.

Verhaest M, Van den Ende W, Yoshida M, Le Roy K, Peeraer Y, Sansen S, De Ranter
CJ, Van Laere A, Rabijns A.

Laboratorium Voor Analytische Chemie en Medicinale Fysicochemie, Faculteit
Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, K.U. Leuven, E. Van Evenstraat 4, B-3000 Leuven,

Fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa (1-FEH IIa), a plant enzyme involved in fructan
breakdown, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method
at 277 K. The crystals are tetragonal, belonging to space group P4(1)2(1)2 or
P4(3)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 139.83, b = 139.83, c = 181.94 A.
Calculation of the Matthews coefficient indicates there to be two or three
molecules in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron radiation was used to collect a
complete native data set to a resolution of 2.35 A.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14993690 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Mol Microbiol. 2004 Mar;51(5):1361-74.

The RhaS activator controls the Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 genes rhiN, rhiT and
rhiE involved in rhamnogalacturonan catabolism.

Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N.

Unite de Microbiologie et Genetique-Composante INSA, UMR CNRS-INSA-UCB 5122, bat
Lwoff, 10 rue Dubois, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex,
France. [email protected]

Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic
degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The linear regions of pectin are
composed of an acidic sugar, D-galacturonic acid. The ramified regions of pectin
also include neutral sugars, and are rich in L-rhamnose residues. E.
chrysanthemi is able to degrade these polysaccharides, polygalacturonate and
rhamnogalacturonate. In E. chrysanthemi, the production of pectinases acting on
linear regions is induced in the presence of polygalacturonate by a mechanism
involving the repressor KdgR. The induction of the two adjacent E. chrysanthemi
genes, designated rhiT and rhiN, is maximal after the simultaneous addition of
both polygalacturonate and L-rhamnose. The rhiT product is homologous to the
oligogalacturonide transporter TogT of E. chrysanthemi. The rhiN product is
homologous to various proteins of unknown function, including a protein encoded
by the plant-inducible locus picA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Both rhiT and
rhiN are highly induced during plant infection. Various data suggest that RhiT
and RhiN are involved in rhamnogalacturonate catabolism. RhiN is able to degrade
the oligomers liberated by the rhamnogalacturonate lyase RhiE. The induction of
the rhiTN operon in the presence of polygalacturonate results from control by
the repressor KdgR. The additional induction of these genes by rhamnose is
directly mediated by RhaS, a protein homologous to the activator of rhamnose
catabolism in Escherichia coli. The virulence of an E. chrysanthemi rhaS mutant
towards different host plants was clearly reduced. In this phytopathogenic
bacterial species, RhaS positively regulates the transcription of the rhaBAD
operon, involved in rhamnose catabolism, of the rhiE gene and of the rhiTN
operon. The regulator RhaS plays a larger role in E. chrysanthemi than in other
enterobacteria. Indeed, the RhaS control is not restricted to the catabolism of
rhamnose but is extended to the degradation of plant polysaccharides that
contain this sugar.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14982630 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71: Vet Parasitol. 2003 Dec 1;118(1-2):93-107.

The effect of dietary forage on the development and survival of helminth
parasites in ovine faeces.

Marley CL, Cook R, Barrett J, Keatinge R, Lampkin NH, McBride SD.

Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3AL, Wales,
UK. [email protected]

Studies in New Zealand and the UK have shown that lambs grazing birdsfoot
trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) have reduced
parasite intensities compared to lambs grazing ryegrass swards. However, data in
the literature on the influence of forages on helminth parasites is equivocal
and the underlying mechanisms by which different forage diets may affect these
parasites have not been fully determined. The aim of the experiments reported
here was to investigate the hypothesis that the consumption of these forages
does not affect the hatching and development of helminth eggs in the faeces
subsequently produced by the host animal. Lambs grazed monoculture swards of
birdsfoot trefoil, chicory, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum)/red clover
(Trifolium pratense) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)/white clover
(Trifolium repens) for 5 weeks and faecal samples collected on days 14, 21, 28
and 35 directly from the rectum of each lamb were used to prepare replicate
cultures for each forage type on each occasion. The experiment was repeated over
two consecutive years but ryegrass/red clover was not included in Year 2. The
dry matter of all faeces was made constant and the faeces were cultured at 27
degrees C for 7 days, before larvae were extracted, counted and identified
according to genus or, where possible, species. Overall, the results showed that
forage diet had no effect on egg hatchability but significantly affected the
development/survival of infective helminth larvae in the faeces of the host
animal. Furthermore, feeding birdsfoot trefoil to lambs was found to increase
the percentage of helminth parasites that reached the infective stage in the
subsequent faeces compared to other forages. Further work is needed to assess
whether this would increase the number of larvae on birdsfoot trefoil swards
overall under field conditions and to understand the implications of these
findings in an applied farming system.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14651879 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: Plant Cell. 2003 Dec;15(12):2866-84. Epub 2003 Nov 20.

Terpenoid metabolism in wild-type and transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

Aharoni A, Giri AP, Deuerlein S, Griepink F, de Kogel WJ, Verstappen FW,
Verhoeven HA, Jongsma MA, Schwab W, Bouwmeester HJ.

Plant Research International, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
[email protected]

Volatile components, such as terpenoids, are emitted from aerial parts of plants
and play a major role in the interaction between plants and their environment.
Analysis of the composition and emission pattern of volatiles in the model plant
Arabidopsis showed that a range of volatile components are released, primarily
from flowers. Most of the volatiles detected were monoterpenes and
sesquiterpenes, which in contrast to other volatiles showed a diurnal emission
pattern. The active terpenoid metabolism in wild-type Arabidopsis provoked us to
conduct an additional set of experiments in which transgenic Arabidopsis
overexpressing two different terpene synthases were generated. Leaves of
transgenic plants constitutively expressing a dual linalool/nerolidol synthase
in the plastids (FaNES1) produced linalool and its glycosylated and hydroxylated
derivatives. The sum of glycosylated components was in some of the transgenic
lines up to 40- to 60-fold higher than the sum of the corresponding free
alcohols. Surprisingly, we also detected the production and emission of
nerolidol, albeit at a low level, suggesting that a small pool of its precursor
farnesyl diphosphate is present in the plastids. Transgenic lines with strong
transgene expression showed growth retardation, possibly as a result of the
depletion of isoprenoid precursors in the plastids. In dual-choice assays with
Myzus persicae, the FaNES1-expressing lines significantly repelled the aphids.
Overexpression of a typical cytosolic sesquiterpene synthase resulted in the
production of only trace amounts of the expected sesquiterpene, suggesting tight
control of the cytosolic pool of farnesyl diphosphate, the precursor for
sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis. This study further demonstrates the value of
Arabidopsis for studies of the biosynthesis and ecological role of terpenoids
and provides new insights into their metabolism in wild-type and transgenic

PMID: 14630967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 Feb;55(1):67-74.

Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as
traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet.

El SN, Karakaya S.

Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Izmir,
Turkey. [email protected]

This study aimed at evaluating the antioxidative activity of nine different
families of greens. Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Anchusa azurea
(bugloss), Daucus carota (wild carrot), Sonchus oleraceus (sowthistle), Papaver
rhoeas (corn poppy), Malva sylvestris (blue mallow), Foeniculum vulgare
(fennel), Cichorium intybus (chicory) and Salicornia europaea (jointed
glasswort) are native to the Mediterranean and are commonly consumed as a salad
or an ingredient in some recipes. The antioxidative activities, including the
radical scavenging effects, inhibition of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and
Fe(2+)-chelating activity, were studied. All samples showed antioxidant activity
as a radical scavenger in the experiment using the DPPH* radical. The ratio
between the slopes of the kinetic model was used to compare antioxidant
efficiency of different greens. Greens also possessed antioxidative activity
toward H(2)O(2). Especially, greens exhibited a marked scavenging effect on
H(2)O(2) at 0.2 g/ml concentration. The Fe(2+) ion-chelating activities of the
samples except jointed glasswort were greater than 70%. The antioxidant activity
of samples with different methods based on the inhibition of different reactions
could not be compared. The current dietary guidelines include recommendations
for an increase in the consumption of plant foods. Greens should provide an
optimal supply of antioxidant substances in the diet.

PMID: 14630594 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74: Medicina (Kaunas). 2003;39 Suppl 2:25-9.

[Technology and analysis of "Askoeziuofito" tablets]

[Article in Lithuanian]

Bernatoniene J, Savickiene N, Savickas A, Bernatonis D.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kaunas University of Medicine, A. Mickeviciaus 9, 3000
Kaunas, Lithuania.

The objective of this work is to produce chewable tablets out of Echinacea
purpurea liquid extract (1:1) and ascorbic acid: to create the technology, to
select methods of analysis and to examine stability. The paper describes the
technology of tablets: a method of condensation is chosen; the influence of
additional substances over tableting is established; pressing characteristics of
tableting mixtures are examined. The quality of tablets is evaluated in terms of
appearance and technological rates: average tablet mass, hardness against
pressure, hardness against wearing, time of disintegration, and speed of
ascorbic acid secretion. The identity of ascorbic acid, ferments and
hydroxycinamon acid was established. Quantities of ascorbic and chicory acids
were defined. The tablets produced were named "Askoeziuofito" tablets. The name
consists of abbreviated terms of ascorbic acid, Echinacea plant and
phytochemical preparation.

PMID: 14617854 [PubMed - in process]

75: Parasitol Int. 2003 Sep;52(3):209-18.

Effects of condensed tannins and crude sesquiterpene lactones extracted from
chicory on the motility of larvae of deer lungworm and gastrointestinal

Molan AL, Duncan AJ, Barry TN, McNabb WC.

AgResearch Limited, Grasslands Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
[email protected]

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of condensed tannins
(CT) and an extract containing crude sesquiterpene lactones (CSL) from chicory
(Cichorium intybus) on the motility of the first-(L1) and third-stage (L3)
larvae of deer lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus and the L3 larvae of
gastrointestinal nematodes in vitro, using the larval migration inhibition (LMI)
assay. The CT and CSL had a profound effect on the motility of the larvae
displayed by their ability to inhibit larval passage through nylon mesh sieves.
Incubation of lungworm L1 larvae in rumen fluid (collected from deer fed
pasture) containing 100, 400 and 1000 microg CT/ml, inhibited 12, 28 and 41% of
the larvae from passing through the sieves, respectively, while the incubation
of L3 larvae with rumen fluid (pH 6.6) containing the same concentrations
inhibited 26, 37 and 67% of L3 larvae from passing through the sieves,
respectively. Gastrointestinal larvae seem more susceptible to CT than lungworm
larvae especially at higher concentrations. CT inhibited 27, 56 and 73% of
gastrointestinal larvae from passing through the sieves when used at a
concentration of 100, 400 and 1000 microg/ml, respectively. CT were more
effective (P<0.001) at reducing the motility of lungworm L1 and L3 larvae when
added to the rumen fluid than when added to the abomasal fluid (pH 3.0).
Addition of 2 microg polyethylene glycol/microg CT eliminated the inhibitory
effect of CT against L1 and L3 larvae especially during incubation in rumen
fluid, confirming the effect as due to CT. The CSL extract also showed similar
inhibitory activity against L1 and L3 lungworm and L3 gastrointestinal larvae in
both fluids, indicating that this extract was not affected by the pH of the
fluid, and was more effective against L3 than L1 lungworm larvae. Condensed
tannins appeared to be more effective than CSL at inactivating L1 and L3
lungworm and L3 gastrointestinal larvae in rumen fluid, but CSL were
particularly effective against L3 lungworm larvae in abomasal fluid. Activity of
these secondary compounds explains the reduced parasite problem of young deer
grazing chicory.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14550476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76: J Bacteriol. 2003 Oct;185(19):5772-8.

Erwinia chrysanthemi tolC is involved in resistance to antimicrobial plant
chemicals and is essential for phytopathogenesis.

Barabote RD, Johnson OL, Zetina E, San Francisco SK, Fralick JA, San Francisco

Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409,

TolC is the outer-membrane component of several multidrug resistance (MDR)
efflux pumps and plays an important role in the survival and virulence of many
gram-negative bacterial animal pathogens. We have identified and characterized
the outer-membrane protein-encoding gene tolC in the bacterial plant pathogen
Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16. The gene was found to encode a 51-kDa protein with
70% identity to its Escherichia coli homologue. The E. chrysanthemi gene was
able to functionally complement the E. coli tolC gene with respect to its role
in MDR efflux pumps. A tolC mutant of E. chrysanthemi was found to be extremely
sensitive to antimicrobial agents, including several plant-derived chemicals.
This mutant was unable to grow in planta and its ability to cause plant tissue
maceration was severely compromised. The tolC mutant was shown to be defective
in the efflux of berberine, a model antimicrobial plant chemical. These results
suggest that by conferring resistance to the antimicrobial compounds produced by
plants, the E. chrysanthemi tolC plays an important role in the survival and
colonization of the pathogen in plant tissue.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 13129948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77: Plant Physiol. 2003 Sep;133(1):391-401.

Properties of fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferases from chicory and globe
thistle, two Asteracean plants storing greatly different types of inulin.

Vergauwen R, Van Laere A, Van den Ende W.

K.U. Leuven, Laboratory for Developmental Biology, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Remarkably, within the Asteraceae, a species-specific fructan pattern can be
observed. Some species such as artichoke (Cynara scolymus) and globe thistle
(Echinops ritro) store fructans with a considerably higher degree of
polymerization than the one observed in chicory (Cichorium intybus) and
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus). Fructan:fructan
1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) is the enzyme responsible for chain elongation of
inulin-type fructans. 1-FFTs were purified from chicory and globe thistle. A
comparison revealed that chicory 1-FFT has a high affinity for sucrose (Suc),
fructose (Fru), and 1-kestose as acceptor substrate. This makes redistribution
of Fru moieties from large to small fructans very likely during the period of
active fructan synthesis in the root when import and concentration of Suc can be
expected to be high. In globe thistle, this problem is avoided by the very low
affinity of 1-FFT for Suc, Fru, and 1-kestose and the higher affinity for inulin
as acceptor substrate. Therefore, the 1-kestose formed by Suc:Suc
1-fructosyltransferase is preferentially used for elongation of inulin
molecules, explaining why inulins with a much higher degree of polymerization
accumulate in roots of globe thistle. Inulin patterns obtained in vitro from
1-kestose and the purified 1-FFTs from both species closely resemble the in vivo
inulin patterns. Therefore, we conclude that the species-specific fructan
pattern within the Asteraceae can be explained by the different characteristics
of their respective 1-FFTs. Although 1-FFT and bacterial levansucrases clearly
differ in their ability to use Suc as a donor substrate, a kinetic analysis
suggests that 1-FFT also works via a ping-pong mechanism.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12970504 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78: Yakugaku Zasshi. 2003 Jul;123(7):593-8.

[Vasorelaxant activity of caffeic acid derivatives from Cichorium intybus and
Equisetum arvense]

[Article in Japanese]

Sakurai N, Iizuka T, Nakayama S, Funayama H, Noguchi M, Nagai M.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara,
Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan.

The vasorelaxant activities of chicoric acid (Compound 1) from Cichorium intybus
and dicaffeoyl-meso-tartaric acid (Compound 2) from Equisetum arvense L. in
isolated rat aorta strips were studied. Compound 1 is a diester composed of
(S,S)-tartaric acid and caffeic acid, and 2 is composed of its meso type. Both 1
and 2 showed slow relaxation activity against norepinephrine (NE)-induced
contraction of rat aorta with/without endothelium. These compounds did not
affect contraction induced by a high concentration of potassium (60 mM K+),
while they inhibited NE-induced vasocontraction in the presence of nicardipine.
These results show that the inhibition by 1 and 2 of NE-induced vasocontraction
is due to a decrease in calcium influx from the extracellular space caused by
NE. In addition, dicaffeoyl tartaric acids showed vasorelaxant activity,
regardless of their stereochemistry.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
In Vitro

PMID: 12875242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Aug;87(2-3):237-40.

Antihepatotoxic activity of seeds of Cichorium intybus.

Ahmed B, Al-Howiriny TA, Siddiqui AB.

Antihepatotoxic Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, 110062, New Delhi, India.
[email protected]

The different fractions of alcoholic extract and one phenolic compound AB-IV of
seeds of Cichorium intybus Linn were screened for antihepatotoxic activity on
carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage in albino rats. The degree of
protection was measured using biochemical parameters like aspartate transaminase
(AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), and total
protein (TP). The methanol fraction and compound AB-IV were found to possess a
potent antihepatotoxic activity comparable to the standard drug Silymarin
(Silybon-70). The histopathological study of the liver was also carried out,
wherein the methanolic fraction and compound AB-IV showed almost complete
normalization of the tissues as neither fatty accumulation nor necrosis was

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12860315 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80: ScientificWorldJournal. 2002 Jun 26;2:1750-61.

Induction of 1-FEH in mature chicory roots appears to be related to low
temperatures rather than to leaf damage.

Van den Ende W, Van Laere A.

Department of Biology, Laboratory for Developmental Biology, Botany Institute,
KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
[email protected]

Large-scale inulin production from chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) is
hampered by the induction of 1-FEH activity (fructan 1-exohydrolase) and
concomitant fructose production in autumn, coincident with a period with low
night temperatures that cause leaf damage. To understand whether leaf damage per
se is sufficient for 1-FEH induction and fructan breakdown, we defoliated mature
chicory plants at a preharvest stage (September 10) and investigated the changes
in carbohydrate levels and 1-FEH activities. Also, the activities of 1-SST
(sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase, EC, 1-FFT (fructan:fructan
1-fructosyl transferase, EC, and acid invertase (EC were
determined. Defoliation did not result in a prompt fructan breakdown and
increase in 1-FEH activity, but after 10 days fructan breakdown and 1-FEH
activities became higher in the defoliated plants. Defoliation resulted in a
sharp decrease in 1-SST activity over the first 24 h. Afterwards, root 1-SST
activities of defoliated plants remained at a lower level than in control
plants. 1-FFT and invertase activities were not affected by defoliation. It can
be concluded that defoliation of plants at the preharvest stage by itself did
not induce the same rapid changes as observed in naturally induced October roots
by low temperature (harvest stage). Taken together with our finding that 1-FEH
is not induced in chicory roots when plants are transferred to the greenhouse
early autumn (minimal temperature 14 degrees C), we conclude that low
temperatures might be essential for 1-FEH induction.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12806168 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81: ScientificWorldJournal. 2002 May 11;2:1281-95.

Fructan biosynthetic and breakdown enzymes in dicots evolved from different
invertases. Expression of fructan genes throughout chicory development.

Van den Ende W, Michiels A, De Roover J, Van Laere A.

Department of Biology, Laboratory for Developmental Biology, Botany Institute,
KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
[email protected]

Fructans are fructose-based oligo- and polymers that serve as reserve
carbohydrates in many plant species. The biochemistry of fructan biosynthesis in
dicots has been resolved, and the respective cDNAs have been cloned. Recent
progress has now succeeded in elucidating the biochemistry and molecular biology
of fructan biodegradation in chicory, an economically important species used for
commercial inulin extraction. Unlike fructan biosynthetic genes that originated
from vacuolar-type invertase, fructan exohydrolases (FEHs) seem to have evolved
from a cell-wall invertase ancestor gene that later obtained a low iso-electric
point and a vacuolar targeting signal. Expression analysis reveals that fructan
enzymes are controlled mainly at the transcriptional level. Using chicory as a
model system, northern analysis was consistent with enzymatic activity
measurements and observed carbohydrate changes throughout its development.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12805911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Mar;27(3):209-10.

[Studies on chemical constituents of root of Cichorium intybus]

[Article in Chinese]

He Y, Guo YJ, Gao YY.

National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products,
Beijing 100050, China. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents in the root of Cichorium intybus.
METHOD: The compounds were isolated and identified by column chromatography and
NMR, IR, MS data. RESULT: Twelve compounds were isolated and identified.
CONCLUSION: 2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido-(3,4-b)indole-3-carboxylic acid was
isolated from the Cichorium genus for the first time, azelaic acid and
daucosterol were isolated from the the plant for the first time.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12774404 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83: Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2003 May;131(1):19-24.

Oral allergy syndrome to chicory associated with birch pollen allergy.

Cadot P, Kochuyt AM, van Ree R, Ceuppens JL.

Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University
of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: A few cases of IgE-mediated chicory allergy with oral, cutaneous,
and/or respiratory symptoms are reported. We present 4 patients with inhalant
birch pollen allergy and oral allergy syndrome to chicory. IgE-binding proteins
in chicory and cross-reactivity with birch pollen were studied. METHODS: Chicory
extract was prepared and immunoblotting was used to study IgE reactivity and
cross-reactions with birch pollen. RESULTS: The pattern of IgE binding to
chicory was variable among the patients, with protein bands recognized at 18,
21, 40, 52 and 71 kD. Bet v 1-like proteins were detected in chicory by
monoclonal antibody binding. Chicory-birch pollen cross-reactivity, as studied
in 2 patients from whom enough serum was available, could be demonstrated but
did not involve the Bet v 1 protein family. In one of these cases, a 51-kD
protein of birch pollen was found to be responsible for cross-reactivity.
CONCLUSIONS: Chicory should be added to the list of foods that can cross-react
with birch pollen and cause the birch pollen-associated oral allergy syndrome.
Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12759485 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84: Theor Appl Genet. 2003 Aug;107(4):713-8. Epub 2003 May 15.

Distinction between cultivated and wild chicory gene pools using AFLP markers.

Van Cutsem P, du Jardin P, Boutte C, Beauwens T, Jacqmin S, Vekemans X.

Facultes Universitaires de Namur, Unite de Recherche en Biologie Cellulaire
Vegetale, 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur, Belgium.
[email protected]

The cultivation area of industrial chicory, Cichorium intybus L. cv Sativum,
coincides with the natural distribution area of its wild relative, C. intybus
L., which could lead to gene flow between wild and cultivated types. The genetic
diversity within and between the two types has therefore been studied using AFLP
genotyping of samples from 12 wild populations collected in Belgium and ten
commercial varieties. The genotyping of 233 individuals allowed the
identification of 254 AFLP markers. Similar levels of genetic diversity were
observed within wild populations and cultivated varieties, suggesting the
absence of any strong bottleneck in the history of the cultivated types. The
phylogenetic analysis pointed to a monophyletic origin of cultivated varieties
as compared to the local wild populations studied, hence the two types of
chicory form two separate gene pools. The genotyping of some individuals sampled
in ruderal sites clearly showed that they belong to the cultivated gene pool,
which suggests the existence of feral or weedy types. The low differentiation
observed among wild populations indicates that gene flow might be important in
this species.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12750776 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85: J Plant Physiol. 2003 Mar;160(3):303-9.

cDNA-AFLP display for the isolation of differentially expressed genes during
chicory root development.

Goupil P, Mahamoud YS, Poulain J, Windels D, Crete P, Huss B, Rambour S.

Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Physiologie et Genetique
Moleculaire Vegetales, Batiment SN2, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
[email protected]

To identify genes expressed during root enlargment during the early vegetative
growth of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), we used the cDNA-AFLP technology. The
radial pattern of chicory roots was investigated by histological analysis to
determine the spatial vascular cambium setting. In young plantlets, serial root
sections showed that differentiation of secondary tissues occurred along a
gradient extending from the apex to the crown. The cDNA-AFLP technique was
carried out on total mRNAs extracted from root tissues producing secondary
structures and root tissues developing primary structures only. This study
reports on the isolation of two transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) referred to
as Y-16 and Y-21. Sequence analysis at the protein level showed that Y-16
carries a sequence highly homologous (93% identities) to the amino acid
transporter-like protein 1 (AATL 1) from Arabidopsis and Y-21 presents 72%
identity to AAD25141.1 Arabidopsis protein. The expression pattern of both these
TDFs was analysed by northern blot and showed an over-expression during early
development of chicory roots.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12749087 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86: Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):311-4.

Glutathione S-transferases and malondialdehyde in the liver of NOD mice on
short-term treatment with plant mixture extract P-9801091.

Petlevski R, Hadzija M, Slijepcevic M, Juretic D, Petrik J.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and
Haematology, University of Zagreb, Croatia.

Changes in the concentration of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and
malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed in the liver of normal and diabetic NOD mice
with and without treatment with the plant extract P-9801091. The plant extract
P-9801091 is an antihyperglycaemic preparation containing Myrtilli folium
(Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum of fi cinale Web.), Cichorii
radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.),
Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus
vulgaris L.), Millefoliiherba (Achillea millefolium L.), Mori folium (Morus
nigra L.), Valerianae radix (Valeriana of ficinalis L.) and Urticae herba et
radix (Urtica dioica L). Hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus is responsible for
the development of oxidative stress (via glucose auto-oxidation and protein
glycation), which is characterized by increased lipid peroxide production (MDA
is a lipid peroxidation end product) and/or decreased antioxidative defence (GST
in the liver is predominantly an alpha enzyme, which has antioxidative
activity). The catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver was significantly
reduced in diabetic NOD mice compared with normal NOD mice (p < 0.01), while the
concentration of MDA showed a rising tendency (not significant). The results
showed that statistically significant changes in antioxidative defence occurred
in the experimental model of short-term diabetes mellitus. A 7-day treatment
with P-9801091 plant extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg body mass led to a
significant increase in the catalytic concentration of GSTs in the liver of
diabetic NOD mice (p < 0.01) and a decrease in MDA concentration (not
significant), which could be explained by its antihyperglycaemic effect.
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 12722130 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87: Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 2002;67(2):217-26.

Microfungi on compositae in the Ruhr Basin.

Ale-Agha N, Feige GB, Dachowski M.

Universitat Essen, FB 9 Botanik Universitatsstr. 5, D-45117 Essen, Germany.

Forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the Compositae
occurring in several locations in the Ruhr Basin in North Rhine-Westphalia. Many
fungi belong to the Ascomycetes (Erysiphales, Diaporthales, Dothideales,
Leotiales and Pleosporales) and to the Deuteromycetes (Melanconiales, Moniliales
and Sphaeropsidales). Other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to
the Basidiomycetes (Uredinales) and to the Oomycetes (Peronosporales). Some
recorded microfungi have been discovered on new hosts in North Rhine-Westphalia
and also in Germany for the first time. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are
Ascochyta spec. Libert on Matricaria recutita L., Phoma exigua var. linicola
(Naumov & Vassilevski) Maas on Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) W. D. J. Koch,
Phomopsis achillea (Sacc.) Hohn. on Achillea ageratum L., Diaporthe aff. arctii
(Lasch) Nitschke on Solidago canadensis L. and on Achillea ageratum L.,
Lophiostoma caulium (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on Anthemis tinctoria L. and Ophiobolus
fructicum (Rob. ex Desm.) on Serratula tinctoria L. New for Germany are
Ophiobolus cirsii (P. Karst.) Sacc. on Cichorium intybus L., Phomopsis cirsii
Grove on Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Pleospora kansensis J. P. Ellis & M. B.
Ellis and Pleospora phaeocomoides cf. var. infectoria on Centaurea jacea L.

PMID: 12701426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

88: Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 2002;67(2):85-98.

Monitoring the persistence of genes deriving from genetically modified plants in
the soil environment.

Degand I, Laporte J, Pussemier L.

VAR, Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre, Leuvensesteenweg, 17, 3080
Tervuren, Belgium.

To study the gene persistence in the soil environment, soil samples were
collected from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and chicory (Cichorium intybus)
experimental fields just before harvest. They were homogenized, mixed and stored
at constant humidity in a non-heated room. Sub-samples of soils were
subsequently collected at regular intervals, dried and sieved through a 1.8-mm
mesh before DNA was extracted. Specific primers were then used for the detection
of plant DNA by hot start PCR. Results reveal that, under laboratory conditions,
transgenic and non-transgenic sugar beet DNA was still detected after 25 days
incubation in the soil taken from a sugar beet experimental plot while detection
of chicory DNA was still possible after 50 days incubation in soil taken from
the chicory experimental plot. This might be in correlation with the stronger
resistance of chicory radicles to decomposition as compared to radicles from
sugar beets.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12701409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Chemosphere. 2003 Feb;50(5):595-601.

Investigations of the determination and transformations of diazinon and
malathion under environmental conditions using gas chromatography coupled with a
flame ionisation detector.

Bavcon M, Trebse P, Zupancic-Kralj L.

Laboratory for Environmental Research, Nova Gorica Polytechnic, Vipavska 13,
P.O. Box 301, 5001-SI Nova Gorica, Slovenia.

Degradation of two model insecticides, diazinon and malathion, and their
degradation products 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol--IMP (diazinon
hydrolysis product) and malaoxon (malathion oxidation product) was compared and
studied in the environment. The pesticides and their metabolites were extracted
from samples (water, soil, chicory) with ethyl acetate and subsequently the
extracts were analyzed by GC/FID. It was shown that hydrolysis is the major
process in the degradation of these pesticides in water. In fact, 95% of
diazinon was degraded, and only 10% of malathion was oxidised. In soil 30% of
diazinon exposed to the sunlight was decomposed by photolysis, whereas in soil
left in the darkness no degradation products were observed. In soil left under
environmental conditions, 90% of diazinon was degraded and 40% from its initial
concentration was transformed into IMP. The concentrations of the pesticides
after 21 days on chicory were under maximal allowable concentration, which is
0.5 ppm for malathion and for diazinon. The concentration of malaoxon was more
than twice as high as the allowable value, which is for the sum of malathion and
malaoxon 3 ppm.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12685735 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90: Vet Parasitol. 2003 Feb 28;112(1-2):147-55.

The effect of birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and chicory (Cichorium
intybus) on parasite intensities and performance of lambs naturally infected
with helminth parasites.

Marley CL, Cook R, Keatinge R, Barrett J, Lampkin NH.

Institute of Rural Studies, University of Wales, Aberystwyth SY23 3AL, UK.
[email protected]

Conventionally, farmers rely upon the routine use of anthelmintics to control
helminth parasites and their use has proved highly cost-effective. However,
several factors, including the emergence of helminths resistant to
pharmaceutical anthelmintics, are forcing farmers to seek alternative approaches
to parasite control. Studies in New Zealand have shown that some alternative
forages may reduce parasitic infestation in sheep. In the current study, it was
found that under UK environmental conditions lambs with naturally acquired
helminth infections grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus) and birdsfoot trefoil
(Lotus corniculatus) had fewer helminth parasites than sheep grazing
ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne/Trifolium repens). Twelve pure-bred Lleyn
male lambs grazed replicated 0.5ha plots of birdsfoot trefoil, chicory or
ryegrass/white clover for 5 weeks. Liveweight and faecal egg counts (FECs) were
determined weekly and eight lambs per forage were slaughtered at the end of the
trial to determine total helminth intensities. Lambs grazing birdsfoot trefoil
had a lower FEC on day 7 (P<0.05) and fewer total adult helminths than those
grazing the other forages on day 35 (P<0.01). Lambs grazing chicory did not have
significantly lower FEC than lambs grazing other forages but these lambs were
found to have fewer total adult abomasal helminths than lambs grazing
ryegrass/white clover (P<0.001). As the performance of grazing lambs is
inversely correlated with the intensity of helminth parasites, these alternative
forages could be used to improve the liveweight gain of lambs produced in the
UK. Overall, the results support the contention that alternative forages could
have a positive role in the control of helminth parasites in sheep, subject to
successful agronomic development and integration of these forages into whole
farm systems.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12581592 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91: Biol Cell. 2002 Nov;94(7-8):545-52.

InsP(3)-mediated calcium release induced by heterologous expression of total
chicory Leaf RNA.

Debarbieux-Deleporte M, Delbreil B, Collin T, Delcourt P, Vasseur J, Prevarskaya
N, Ouadid-Ahidouch H.

Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire, SN3, INSERM EMI 0228, Universite des
Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 cedex, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

A calcium dependent-chloride current (I(ni)) was recorded in Xenopus oocytes
injected with total RNA from chicory leaf tissues, following depolarization from
-35 to +60 mV. However, the signal transduction mechanism mediating I(ni) is
unknown. The development of this current was mimicked by intracellular injection
of the second messenger InsP(3) in control (non-injected) oocytes. Moreover,
InsP(3) injection after I(ni) rundown did not reinitiate the current. The same
phenomenon was observed following a second injection into control oocytes.
Measurement of InsP(3) production in injected oocytes showed a net increase in
the InsP(3) level on depolarization. Moreover, extracellular application of
caffeine (5 mM) significantly reduced the number of oocytes displaying I(ni).
Also, extracellular application of U-73122, a potent PLC inhibitor, clearly
reduced the occurrence of I(ni). These data provide the first evidence that the
calcium homeostasis mechanism induced by heterologous expression of total RNA
from chicory leaves involves the InsP(3) signaling pathway.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12566227 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2002 Nov-Dec;57(11-12):994-7.

Sesquiterpene lactones in a hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus.

Malarz J, Stojakowska A, Kisiel W.

Department of Phytochemistry, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of
Sciences, Smetna Street 12, 31-343 Krakow, Poland. [email protected]

A transformed root culture of Cichorium intybus L. (Asteraceae) was found to
produce sesquiterpene lactones of guaiane and germacrane type. Lactucopicrin,
8-desoxylactucin and three sesquiterpene lactone glycosides: crepidiaside B,
sonchuside A and ixerisoside D were isolated from the roots. The yield of
8-desoxylactucin reached 0.03 g l(-1) at the early stationary phase of the

PMID: 12562083 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93: Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Jun;39(6):564-71.

Permeabilization and in situ adsorption studies during growth and coumarin
production in hairy root cultures of Cichorium intybus L.

Bais HP, Sudha G, Suresh B, Ravishankar GA.

Department of Plant Cell Biotechnology, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore 570 013, India.

Effect of addition of a permeabilizing agent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and a
solid adsorbent, XAD -7, on growth and coumarin production in hairy root
cultures of C. intybus was studied. Continuous permeabilization of the hairy
root cultures of C. intybus with DMSO has been shown to be an effective strategy
for enhanced release of coumarins while preserving the root viability. DMSO at
0.2% (v/v) level showed the maximum growth and coumarin production but was less
as compared to control on day 28. Treatment of cells with increasing
concentrations of DMSO (0.3 - 0.6 % v/v) to hairy root cultures of C. intybus,
showed an inverse relationship with growth and coumarin production. Growth and
production of coumarins increased with 1% media filtrate (MF) of cultures of
Phytopthora parasitica var. nicotiana treatment. It was observed that treatment
with DMSO (0.2% v/v) and 1% MF of P. parasitica showed the better growth and
coumarin production with an increased release of coumarins as compared to the
control and other treatments. It was observed that treatment of hairy root
cultures with XAD-7 resulted in lesser growth and coumarin production as
compared to control during the culture period. Addition of XAD-7 along with 1%
MF of P. parasitica showed enhanced growth, coumarin production and increased
adsorption as compared to control and lone XAD-7 treatment. Combined addition of
DMSO/XAD-7 with fungal elicitor showed synergistic response in terms of biomass
and coumarin production. Excretion of coumarins in both the cases was dependent
on the presence of DMSO/XAD-7. These results showed that continuous
permeabilization of hairy root cultures of C. intybus by using DMSO at 0.2%
(v/v) level coupled with 1% MF of P. parasitica maintained viability of tissues
and produced coumarins at higher level.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12562020 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94: Fitoterapia. 2002 Dec;73(7-8):730-3.

Tumour inhibitory activity of chicory root extract against Ehrlich ascites
carcinoma in mice.

Hazra B, Sarkar R, Bhattacharyya S, Roy P.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032,
India. [email protected]

The tumour-inhibitory effect of an ethanolic extract of chicory root was studied
against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice; significant results were obtained at
doses from 300 to 700 mg/kg. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12490244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95: J Nutr. 2002 Dec;132(12):3599-602.

Dietary chicory inulin increases whole-body bone mineral density in growing male

Roberfroid MB, Cumps J, Devogelaer JP.

Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
[email protected]

Chicory inulin is a natural linear fructan that is not digested in the upper
part of the gastrointestinal tract but is fermented in the cecocolon. It
enhances calcium absorption in rats and improves femur and tibia mineral
contents in gastrectomized or ovariectomized rats. We studied the effect of
inulin (0, 5 and 10 g/100 g diet) on whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC),
whole-body bone area (WBBA) and whole-body bone mineral density (WBBMD) in live,
growing male rats fed diets containing 0.2, 0.5 or 1 g Ca/100 g. Three
experiments, each corresponding to one of the different dietary Ca
concentrations, were performed using male Wistar rats (n = 108; 4 wk old). WBBMC
was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry every 4 wk up to wk 22. Inulin
increased WBBMC (P < 0.05) and WBBMD (P < 0.001) significantly but not WBBA at
all ages and all dietary calcium concentrations. This is the first report to
demonstrate that chicory inulin not only increases calcium absorption but also
increases mineral parameters in whole-body bones.

PMID: 12468594 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96: Food Chem Toxicol. 2003 Jan;41(1):49-59.

Toxicological profile of carboxymethyl inulin.

Johannsen FR.

Environmental, Safety and Health, Solutia, Inc., 575 Maryville Centre Drive, St.
Louis, MO 63141, USA. [email protected]

Carboxymethylinulin (CMI), formed by carboxylation of a natural carbohydrate
obtained from the chicory plant, is particularly effective in sequestration of
hard water cations, and thus serves as a unique anti-scalant which could find
uses in food processing. A series of toxicological studies has been performed to
investigate its toxiciologic properties following repeated exposure, possible
sensitization, and its potential to elicit genotoxic activity; all studies
conformed to internationally accepted safety test guidelines currently in force.
Subacute (4-week) oral toxicity was investigated in groups of rats exposed via
gavage to 0, 50, 150 and 1000 mg/kg/day CMI. No treatment-related effects were
observed in body weight, food consumption, mortality, hematology, clinical blood
chemistry, organ weights or gross or microscopic pathology up to the highest
dose (1000 mg/kg/day) tested. Motor activity, as observed in a functional
observation battery, was elevated in high-dose females, and is not considered of
significance toxicologically. Lack of adverse toxicity seen with CMI at this
dosage is consistent with a similar lack of significant toxicity exhibited by
other dietary carbohydrates (sorbitol, sucrose, glucose), oligofructoses
(inulin/FOS) and carboxylated cellulose in repeated-dose rat studies at
approximately the same dosage. No evidence of dermal sensitization was observed
in groups of guinea pigs following CMI testing by the Magnusson-Kligman
maximization test methodology. No mutagenic activity was observed when CMI was
tested in four Salmonella strains-TA1535, TA1537, TA98 and TA100-or in
Escherichia coli WP2uvrA bacterial point mutation assays or in an in vitro
Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosomal aberration assay. The results obtained in
the present study with CMI are consistent with similar data derived on numerous
dietary carbohydrate fibers generally recognized as safe in the human diet.

PMID: 12453728 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97: J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Dec;83(3):241-4.

In vivo gastroprotective effects of five Turkish folk remedies against
ethanol-induced lesions.

Gurbuz I, Ustun O, Yesilada E, Sezik E, Akyurek N.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Etiler, 06330
Ankara, Turkey.

Through evaluation of the data accumulated in Data Bank of Turkish Folk Remedies
(TUHIB), five plant remedies, which are used to treat stomach ache were selected
to test for their anti-ulcerogenic potency. In order to confirm the claimed
activities, either decoction or methanol extracts were prepared from the roots
of Asphodelus aestivus and Cichorium intybus, herbs of Equisetum palustre and
Viscum album ssp. album and fruits of Laurus nobilis, according to their
folkloric application way and tested for their effects on ethanol-induced
gastric ulcer model in rats. Pharmacological experiments clearly demonstrated
that the relevant extracts of all the plants given orally showed significant
stomach protection against this model of ulcerogenesis. Results were further
evaluated by using histopathological techniques.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12426092 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2002 Nov 7;30(4):939-45.

Anti- and pro-oxidant activity of water soluble compounds in Cichorium intybus
var. silvestre (Treviso red chicory).

Papetti A, Daglia M, Gazzani G.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of
PAVIA, Via Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

The anti- and pro-oxidant activity of water soluble components in Cichorium
intybus var. silvestre was investigated. This vegetable is domestically known as
Treviso red chicory recalling its cultivation in the area of Treviso (Italy).
The vegetable juices, obtained by centrifugation of the vegetable and treated at
2 and 102 degrees C, were assessed for their antioxidant activity (AA) using the
micellar model system linoleic acid-beta-carotene. The obtained juice at 2
degrees C possessed either anti- or pro-oxidant activity. The boiled juice
showed only strong AA, proving that the vegetable pro-oxidant components were
thermally instable. Juice components were fractionated by sequential dialysis
(1000-300000 Da membrane cut-off), SPE, GFC, and RP-HPLC techniques showing the
presence of several highly antioxidant components with different molecular
weight (MW), and polar features in Treviso red chicory. The pro-oxidant fraction
capable of masking the presence of the antioxidant components in the vegetable
juice is retained by a MW>300000 Da dialysis membrane.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12408883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99: Fitoterapia. 2002 Oct;73(6):544-6.

A new coumarin glucoside ester from Cichorium intybus.

Kisiel W, Michalska K.

Department of Phytochemistry, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of
Sciences, 12 Smetna Str, Pl-31-343 Krakow, Poland. [email protected]

Cichoriin-6'-p-hydroxyphenyl acetate, a new natural product, was isolated from
chicory leaves. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12385886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100: Can J Microbiol. 2002 Aug;48(8):759-63.

Fermentation of chicory fructo-oligosaccharides in mixtures of different degrees
of polymerization by three strains of bifidobacteria.

Perrin S, Fougnies C, Grill JP, Jacobs H, Schneider F.

Laboratoire de Biochimie des Bacteries Gram+, Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy I,
Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.

We estimated and compared the action of three selected strains of bifidobacteria
in a semi-synthetic medium for different degrees of polymerization of
fructo-oligosaccharides contained in three commercial products derived from
chicory inulin: Fibrulose F97 (shorter chains), Fibruline Instant (native
chains), Fibruline LC (longer chains). Biomass and production of lactate and
acetate were greater when the substrate contained mostly shorter chain
fructo-oligosaccharides. Shorter chains were first to be consumed, and one
strain could use longer chains. As the degree of polymerization increased,
residual fructo-oligosaccharides increased after growth of the strains, and the
rate of consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides decreased.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12381033 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101: J Chem Ecol. 2002 Aug;28(8):1623-8.

Occurrence of p-nonylphenol isomers in wild species of Cichorium endivia subsp.

Dembitsky VM, Goldshlag P, Srebnik M.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry & Natural Products School of Pharmacy,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. [email protected]

p-Nonylphenol isomers and other aromatic compounds were found in roots and
stalks of the plant Cichorium endivia subsp. divaricatum. These compounds were
characterized by high-resolution capillary GC-MS.

PMID: 12371814 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102: Vet Rec. 2002 Sep 21;151(12):348-53.

Effects of grazing undrenched weaner deer on chicory or perennial ryegrass/white
clover pasture on the viability of gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworms.

Schreurs NM, Molan AL, Lopez-Villalobos N, Barry TN, McNabb WC.

Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University,
Palmerston North, New Zealand.

This study determined the in vitro effects on the viability of internal
parasites of grazing undrenched weaner deer on either chicory (Cichorium
intybus) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)/white clover (Trifolium repens)
pasture. One experiment investigated the hatching and development of
gastrointestinal nematode eggs and larvae, and the development and motility of
L1 lungworm (Dictyocaulus eckerti) larvae, and a second experiment used larval
migration inhibition assays to test the viability of L1 lungworm larvae
extracted from the faeces of weaner deer grazed on either chicory or pasture
when they were incubated with rumen and abomasal fluids from fistulated deer
also grazing on chicory or pasture. The incubations were undertaken with and
without added condensed tannins purified from chicory and with or without
polyethylene glycol (PEG) to bind the tannins. Chicory had no effect on the
hatching and development of gastrointestinal nematode eggs and larvae. Grazing
chicory reduced the number of lungworm larvae developing to the L3 stage, and L1
lungworm larvae from the faeces of chicory-grazed deer were less viable in rumen
and abomasal fluid than larvae from pasture-grazed animals. Abomasal fluid was
significantly (P < 0.001) less inhibitory to the migration of L1 lungworms than
rumen fluid. When the larvae were incubated in rumen and abomasal fluids from
chicory-grazed deer, their passage through sieves was significantly (P < 0.001)
reduced in comparison with when they were incubated in the fluids from
pasture-grazed deer Adding condensed tannins to rumen fluid increased the
inhibition of the migration of L1 lungworm larvae but PEG removed this
inhibition; this effect was not observed with abomasal fluid.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12371691 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103: Phytother Res. 2002 Aug;16(5):467-73.

In vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic Albanians
in southern Italy.

Pieroni A, Janiak V, Durr CM, Ludeke S, Trachsel E, Heinrich M.

Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy, University of
London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK.
[email protected]

A total of 27 extracts from non-cultivated and weedy vegetables traditionally
consumed by ethnic Albanians (Arbereshe) in the Vulture area (southern Italy)
were tested for their free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) in the DPPH
(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) screening assay, for their in vitro
non-enzymatic inhibition of bovine brain lipid peroxidation and for their
inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO). In both antioxidant assays strong activity
was shown for Leopoldia comosa (bulbs, syn.: Muscari comosum) and Centaurea
calcitrapa (young whorls). In the lipid peroxidation assay, extracts from leaves
of Origanum heracleoticum, Urtica dioica and Tordylium apulum showed a
remarkable inhibitory activity (> 50%), too. In the case of Leopoldia comosa and
Origanum heracleoticum this activity was comparable to quercetin (at a
concentration of 50 microM) and Rhodiola rosea extract. Extracts from
non-cultivated Cichorium intybus, Chondrilla juncea and Stellaria media showed
strong in vitro inhibition of xanthine oxidase, with an activity higher than
that of a reference extract from Ledum groenlandicum. These findings suggest
that weedy vegetables may be useful antioxidants of interest in the prevention
of ageing related diseases, CNS disorders and as potential sources of
phytomedicines against hyperuricaemia and gout. Copyright 2002 John Wiley &
Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12203269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104: J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4743-8.

Preparative continuous annular chromatography (P-CAC) enables the large-scale
fractionation of fructans.

Finke B, Stahl B, Pritschet M, Facius D, Wolfgang J, Boehm G.

Numico Research Germany, Bahnstrasse 14-30, D-61381 Friedrichsdorf, Germany.
[email protected]

Fructans (fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) are of increasing physiological
and nutritional interest due to their health-promoting effects. Fructans
originally extracted from chicory roots were separated by continuous annular and
fixed-bed conventional gel chromatography. Both columns were packed with
Toyopearl HW 40 (S) and eluted with deionized water. A multicomponent
fractionation was established to obtain single oligosaccharides in a low
molecular weight range up to a chain length of five and fractions containing an
overall size distribution in the high molecular weight range up to a chain
length of 90 monosaccharide units. The productivity and resolution of the
continuous annular size exclusion chromatograph (40 cm bed height) were
investigated and compared with those of the fixed-bed counterpart (2 x 100 cm
bed height). The eluting fractions were analyzed by high-pH anion-exchange
chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The productivity
of the annular system was found to be 25-fold higher than the conventional
system. Thus, annular chromatography exemplified for the fractionation of
fructans is a powerful method for the large-scale and continuous fractionation
of oligomeric and polymeric carbohydrates.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12166954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105: J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jul 31;50(16):4696-704.

Anti- and pro-oxidant water soluble activity of Cichorium genus vegetables and
effect of thermal treatment.

Papetti A, Daglia M, Gazzani G.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of
Pavia, via Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Both the pro- and antiradical water soluble activity, toward DPPH(*), ROO(*),
OH(*) radicals found in seven diet vegetables belonging to the Cichorium genus,
and the effects of boiling, freezing, and freeze-drying on such activities were
investigated. The vegetables were three red cultivars of Cichorium intybus var.
silvestre from three different areas of production, that is, chicory from
Chioggia, Treviso, and Verona, C. intybus var. foliosum (Belgian chicory), C.
endivia var. latifolium (escarole), C. endiviavar. crispum ("crispa"), and a
hybrid vegetable obtained by the cross between C. intybus var. silvestre and C.
endivia var. latifolium (chicory from Castelfranco). The juices obtained by
simple centrifugation of vegetables operating at 2 or 25 degrees C and submitted
to the thermal technological treatments were assessed for antiradical activity
using the DPPH(*) assay, the linoleic acid-beta-carotene system, and the
deoxyribose assay. In all three assays used, each vegetable juice was shown to
possess antiradical activity; there was a significant level in the C. endivia
and the Belgian chicories and higher levels in the red C. intybus vegetables and
the hybrid vegetable. All juice behaviors in the linoleic acid-beta-carotene
system indicate that they also contain a thermally unstable component, which in
a cold medium promptly promoted and accelerated linoleic acid peroxidation,
therefore masking the presence of any thermally stable antiperoxyl radical
components. The presence of these components, which efficiently protect linoleic
acid from peroxidation, can be singled out only after inactivation by heating,
or separation by dialysis, of the pro-oxidant components. Dialysis fractions
showed that the pro-oxidant component has MW > 50000 Da and that the juices
contain a number of antioxidant components which contribute to their antiradical

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12137499 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106: Phytochemistry. 2002 Aug;60(7):691-702.

(+)-(10R)-Germacrene A synthase from goldenrod, Solidago canadensis; cDNA
isolation, bacterial expression and functional analysis.

Prosser I, Phillips AL, Gittings S, Lewis MJ, Hooper AM, Pickett JA, Beale MH.

Long Ashton Research Station, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of
Bristol, Bristol, BS41 9AF, Long Ashton, UK.

Profiling of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in extracts of goldenrod, Solidago
canadensis, by GC-MS revealed the presence of both enantiomers of germacrene D
and lesser amounts of germacrene A, alpha-humulene, and beta-caryophyllene. A
similarity-based cloning strategy using degenerate oligonucleotide primers,
based on conserved amino acid sequences in known plant sesquiterpene synthases
and RT-PCR, resulted in the isolation of a full length sesquiterpene synthase
cDNA. Functional expression of the cDNA in E. coli, as an N-terminal thioredoxin
fusion protein using the pET32b vector yielded an enzyme that was readily
purified by nickel-chelate affinity chromatography. Chiral GC-MS analysis of
products from of (3)H- and (2)H-labelled farnesyl diphosphate identified the
enzyme as (+)-(10R)-germacrene A synthase. Sequence analysis and molecular
modelling was used to compare this enzyme with the mechanistically related
epi-aristolochene synthase from tobacco.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12127586 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107: Physiol Plant. 2002 Aug;115(4):504-512.

Cloning of a vacuolar invertase from Belgian endive leaves (Cichorium intybus).

Van Den Ende W, Michiels A, Le Roy K, Van Laere A.

Department of Biology, Laboratory for Developmental Biology, Botany Institute,
KULeuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Although a lot of vacuolar invertase (EC cDNAs are available from a
diversity of plant species, up to now no sequence information is available on
invertases from any dicot fructan-containing species. Therefore, we describe the
cloning of vacuolar acid invertase cDNA from etiolated Belgian endive leaves
(Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum cv. Flash), formed throughout the forcing
process of the witloof chicory roots. Full-length cDNA was obtained by a
combination of RT-PCR, PCR and 5'- and 3' RACE RT-PCR, starting with primers
based on conserved amino acid sequences. The cloned chicory acid invertase
groups together with vacuolar type invertases and fructan biosynthetic enzymes.
A putative role for vacuolar type invertases in fructan synthesizing plants is

PMID: 12121456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

108: Int Immunopharmacol. 2002 May;2(6):733-44.

Effects of the ethanol extract of Cichorium intybus on the immunotoxicity by
ethanol in mice.

Kim JH, Mun YJ, Woo WH, Jeon KS, An NH, Park JS.

Department of Newly-Developed Drugs, Professional Graduate School of Oriental
Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chunbuk, South Korea.
[email protected]

Effects of the ethanol extract of Cichorium intybus (CIEE) on the immunotoxicity
of ethanol (EtOH) were investigated in ICR mice. Mice were divided into four
groups, and CIEE at dose of 300 mg/kg was orally administered to mice daily for
28 consecutive days, and normal mice were given vehicle. Mice treated with EtOH
were given freely with 20% w/v EtOH solution. The results of this study are
summarized as follows: The combination of CIEE and EtOH showed significant
increases in the circulating leukocytes and the relative weights of liver,
spleen and thymus, as compared with those in mice treated with EtOH alone.
However, the body weight gain was not affected. Splenic plaque forming cells
(PFC) and hemagglutination (HA) titers to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), and the
secondary IgG antibody response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were markedly
enhanced by CIEE plus EtOH treatment as compared with the treatment of EtOH
alone. In mice receiving the combination of CIEE and EtOH when compared with
EtOH alone-treated mice, there were also significant increases in delayed-type
hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction, phagocytic activity, natural killer (NK) cell
activity and cell proliferation as well as interferony (IFN-gamma) secretion. In
the case of interleukin-4 (IL-4) content, however, an insignificant induction
observed by CIEE plus EtOH treatment. These findings indicate that the
immunotoxicity induced by EtOH is significantly restored or prevented by CIEE

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12095163 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109: Br J Nutr. 2002 May;87 Suppl 2:S287-91.

Technological functionality of inulin and oligofructose.

Franck A.

ORAFTI Active Food Ingredients, Research & Development, Aandorenstraat 1, 3300
Tienen, Belgium. [email protected]

Inulin and oligofructose are functional food ingredients which offer a unique
combination of nutritional properties and important technological benefits. They
are found in many vegetables and fruits and can be industrially obtained from
chicory roots. In food formulations, inulin and oligofructose may significantly
improve organoleptic characteristics. Their incorporation allows upgrading of
both taste and mouthfeel in a wide range of food applications. Oligofructose is
highly soluble and possesses technological properties that are closely related
to those of sugar and glucose syrups. It is often used in combination with high
intensity sweeteners. Inulin has a much lower solubility, improves the stability
of foams and emulsions and shows exceptional fat-like characteristics when used
under the form of a gel in water. Fat and carbohydrate replacement with chicory
inulin and oligofructose offers the advantage of not compromising on taste and
texture, while delivering nutritionally enhanced products.

Publication Types:

PMID: 12088531 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Phytochemistry. 2002 Jun;60(4):357-9.

Anthocyanins from flowers of Cichorium intybus.

Norbaek R, Nielsen K, Kondo T.

Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Horticulture,
Kirstinebjergvej 10, DK-5792 Aarslev, Denmark. [email protected]

From the blue perianth segments of Cichorium intybus we isolated four
anthocyanins. The pigments were identified as delphinidin
3,5-di-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucoside) and delphinidin
3-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucoside)-5-O-beta-D-glucoside and the known compounds
were delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside-5-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucoside) and
delphinidin 3,5-di-O-beta-D-glucoside. In addition 3-O-p-coumaroyl quinic acid
has been identified.

PMID: 12031425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111: Environ Toxicol Chem. 2002 May;21(5):954-61.

Low metal bioavailability in a contaminated urban site.

Ge Y, Murray P, Sauve S, Hendershot W.

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University,
Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, Canada.

Bioavailability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in a metal-enriched railway yard in
Montreal, Quebec, Canada was assessed using metal speciation, plant uptake, and
microbial assays. Metal speciation of extracted soil solutions was estimated
using the Windmere Humic Aqueous Model. In soil solutions, free Cd, Ni, and Zn
ions represented as much as 80%, 72%, and 62%, respectively, of the total
dissolved metals. Copper and Pb were strongly bound by dissolved organic matter,
and metal-fulvic acid complexes represented as much as 99% of the total
dissolved metals. Three field-collected plant species (dandelion, bladder
campion, and chicory) varied in their tendency to accumulate metals in either
their leaves or roots. Chicory grown in the greenhouse had significantly higher
metal bioconcentration factors than wild chicory. Although the site studied is
considered to be contaminated, no metal pool, such as free ions or dissolved or
total soil metals, consistently predicted metal uptake by potted chicory.
Regression analysis revealed that soil total metal concentrations could
adequately predict tissue accumulations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn in bladder campion
but only Cd and Zn in dandelion. Data from microbial assays also showed that the
soil respiration was not affected by the metal contamination, but that
nitrification was inhibited for the most contaminated soils. These results
indicate that the metal bioavailability in the railway yard is low, but they
also suggest that nitrogen cycling may be affected.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12013141 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

112: Plant Physiol. 2002 May;129(1):257-68.

Biosynthesis of costunolide, dihydrocostunolide, and leucodin. Demonstration of
cytochrome p450-catalyzed formation of the lactone ring present in sesquiterpene
lactones of chicory.

de Kraker JW, Franssen MC, Joerink M, de Groot A, Bouwmeester HJ.

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB
Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Chicory (Cichorium intybus) is known to contain guaianolides, eudesmanolides,
and germacranolides. These sesquiterpene lactones are postulated to originate
from a common germacranolide, namely (+)-costunolide. Whereas a pathway for the
formation of germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid from farnesyl diphosphate
had previously been established, we now report the isolation of an enzyme
activity from chicory roots that converts the germacrene acid into
(+)-costunolide. This (+)-costunolide synthase catalyzes the last step in the
formation of the lactone ring present in sesquiterpene lactones and is dependent
on NADPH and molecular oxygen. Incubation of the germacrene acid in the presence
of 18O2 resulted in the incorporation of one atom of 18O into (+)-costunolide.
The label was situated at the ring oxygen atom. Hence, formation of the lactone
ring most likely occurs via C6-hydroxylation of the germacrene acid and
subsequent attack of this hydroxyl group at the C12-atom of the carboxyl group.
Blue light-reversible CO inhibition and experiments with cytochrome P450
inhibitors demonstrated that the (+)-costunolide synthase is a cytochrome P450
enzyme. In addition, enzymatic conversion of (+)-costunolide into
11(S),13-dihydrocostunolide and leucodin, a guaianolide, was detected. The
first-mentioned reaction involves an enoate reductase, whereas the formation of
leucodin from (+)-costunolide probably involves more than one enzyme, including
a cytochrome P450 enzyme.

PMID: 12011356 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113: Plant Physiol. 2002 May;129(1):134-44.

Isolation and characterization of two germacrene A synthase cDNA clones from

Bouwmeester HJ, Kodde J, Verstappen FW, Altug IG, de Kraker JW, Wallaart TE.

Plant Research International, Business Unit Cell Cybernetics, P.O. Box 16, 6700
AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. [email protected]

Chicory (Cichorium intybus) sesquiterpene lactones were recently shown to be
derived from a common sesquiterpene intermediate, (+)-germacrene A. Germacrene A
is of interest because of its key role in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis and
because it is an enzyme-bound intermediate in the biosynthesis of a number of
phytoalexins. Using polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers, we have
isolated two sesquiterpene synthases from chicory that exhibited 72% amino acid
identity. Heterologous expression of the genes in Escherichia coli has shown
that they both catalyze exclusively the formation of (+)-germacrene A, making
this the first report, to our knowledge, on the isolation of (+)-germacrene A
synthase (GAS)-encoding genes. Northern analysis demonstrated that both genes
were expressed in all chicory tissues tested albeit at varying levels. Protein
isolation and partial purification from chicory heads demonstrated the presence
of two GAS proteins. On MonoQ, these proteins co-eluted with the two
heterologously produced proteins. The K(m) value, pH optimum, and MonoQ elution
volume of one of the proteins produced in E. coli were similar to the values
reported for the GAS protein that was recently purified from chicory roots.
Finally, the two deduced amino acid sequences were modeled, and the resulting
protein models were compared with the crystal structure of tobacco (Nicotiana
tabacum) 5-epi-aristolochene synthase, which forms germacrene A as an
enzyme-bound intermediate en route to 5-epi-aristolochene. The possible
involvement of a number of amino acids in sesquiterpene synthase product
specificity is discussed.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12011345 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114: J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 22;50(11):3208-13.

Antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in Lebanon, against
phytopathogenic fungi.

Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, Salameh A.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences,
American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020,

Petroleum ether (PE) and methanolic extracts of nine wild plant species were
tested in vitro for their antimycotic activity against eight phytopathogenic
fungi. The efficacy of PE extracts against all pathogens tested was higher than
that of methanolic extracts. Wild marjoram (Origanum syriacum) PE extract showed
the highest and widest range of activity. It resulted in complete inhibition of
mycelial growth of six of eight fungi tested and also gave nearly complete
inhibition of spore germination of the six fungi included in the assay, namely,
Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium
oxysporum f. sp. melonis, and Verticillium dahlia. The other plant extracts
showed differential activities in the spore germination test, but none was
highly active against mycelial growth. Inula viscosa and Mentha longifolia were
highly effective (>88%) in spore germination tests against five of six fungi
tested, whereas Centaurea pallescens, Cichorium intybus, Eryngium creticum,
Salvia fruticosa, and Melia azedarach showed >95% inhibition of spore
germination in at least two fungi. Foeniculum vulgare showed the least
antimycotic activity. Fractionation followed by autobiography on TLC plates
using Cladosporium sp. as a test organism showed that O. syriacum PE extracts
contained three inhibition zones, and those of Inula viscosa and Cichorium
intybus, two, whereas the PE extracts of the remaining plants showed each one
inhibition zone. Some of the major compounds present in these inhibition zones
were identified by GC-MS. The possibility for using these extracts, or their
mixtures, to control plant diseases is discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12009988 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 Apr;68(4):1624-30.

The ybiT gene of Erwinia chrysanthemi codes for a putative ABC transporter and
is involved in competitiveness against endophytic bacteria during infection.

Llama-Palacios A, Lopez-Solanilla E, Rodriguez-Palenzuela P.

Departamento de Biotecnologia-UPM, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agronomos, E-28040 Madrid,

We investigated the role in bacterial infection of a putative ABC transporter,
designated ybiT, of Erwinia chrysanthemi AC4150. The deduced sequence of this
gene showed amino acid sequence similarity with other putative ABC transporters
of gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
as well as structural similarity with proteins of Streptomyces spp. involved in
resistance to macrolide antibiotics. The gene contiguous to ybiT, designated as
pab (putative antibiotic biosynthesis) showed sequence similarity with
Pseudomonas and Streptomyces genes involved in the biosynthesis of antibiotics.
A ybiT mutant (BT117) was constructed by marker exchange. It retained full
virulence in potato tubers and chicory leaves, but it showed reduced ability to
compete in planta against the wild-type strain or against selected saprophytic
bacteria. These results indicate that the ybiT gene plays a role in the in
planta fitness of the bacteria.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11916677 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116: Glycobiology. 2002 Feb;12(2):103-10.

Specific effects of fructo- and gluco-oligosaccharides in the preservation of
liposomes during drying.

Hincha DK, Zuther E, Hellwege EM, Heyer AG.

Max-Planck-Institut fur Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, D-14424 Potsdam,

The fructan family of oligo- and polysaccharides is a group of molecules that
have long been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing
tolerance of many plant species. However, it has been unclear whether fructans
have properties that make them better protectants for cellular structures than
other sugars. We compared the effects of fructans and glucans on membrane
stability during air-drying. Although glucans of increasing chain length were
progressively less able to stabilize liposomes against leakage of aqueous
content after rehydration, fructans showed increased protection. On the other
hand, glucans became more effective in protecting liposomes against membrane
fusion with increasing chain length, whereas fructans became less effective.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed a reduction of the gel to
liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature (T(m)) of air-dried liposomes by
approximately 25 degrees C in the presence of sucrose and maltose. For the
respective pentasaccharides, the reduction of T(m) of the lipids was 9 degrees C
lower for samples containing fructan than for those containing glucan,
indicating increased sugar--membrane interactions for the fructan compared to
the glucan. A reduced interaction of the longer-chain glucans and an increased
interaction of the respective fructans with the phospholipid head groups in the
dry state was also indicated by dramatic differences in the phosphate asymmetric
stretch region of the infrared spectrum. Collectively, our data indicate that
the fructo-oligosaccharides accumulated in many plant species under stress
conditions could indeed play an important role in cellular dehydration

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11886843 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

117: Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Dec 30;1522(3):212-6.

A glutathione S-transferase cDNA identified by mRNA differential display is
upregulated during somatic embryogenesis in Cichorium.

Galland R, Randoux B, Vasseur J, Hilbert JL.

Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Differenciation Vegetale, Universite des
Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Batiment SN2, 3e etage, 59655 Cedex,
Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

CHI-GST1, a cDNA encoding a glutathione S-transferase, was isolated by
differential display in leaf tissues of chicory, during the early stages of
somatic embryogenesis. Expression analysis of the gene by Northern blot
indicated that the transcript accumulation is specific of the leaf developing
somatic embryogenesis and is not observed in leaf tissue of the non-embryogenic

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11779636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

118: Biomacromolecules. 2001 Winter;2(4):1256-9.

Polymeric surfactants based on inulin, a polysaccharide extracted from chicory.
1. Synthesis and interfacial properties.

Stevens CV, Meriggi A, Peristeropoulou M, Christov PP, Booten K, Levecke B,
Vandamme A, Pittevils N, Tadros TF.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological
Sciences, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
[email protected]

Inulin, the polydisperse reserve polysaccharide from chicory, has been modified
by carbamoylation in organic solvents. The reaction of inulin with a range of
alkyl isocyanates resulted, after crystalization, in a variety of carbamoylated
inulins from which the interfacial properties were determined. The medium and
long chain carbamoylated inulins showed a good to very good reduction of the
interfacial tension which makes these biopolymers interesting in the field of
biodegradable surface active agents.

PMID: 11777400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119: Biomacromolecules. 2001 Spring;2(1):1-16.

Chemical modification of inulin, a valuable renewable resource, and its
industrial applications.

Stevens CV, Meriggi A, Booten K.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological
Sciences, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.

Inulin, the polydisperse reserve polyfructose from plants such as Cichorium
intybus (chicory), has been chemically modified in several ways to obtain
industrially important biodegradable compounds. This review provides an insight
on the different types of modification (neutral, anionic, and cationic
modification as well as cross-linking and slow release applications) and
describes its differences from starch and cellulose chemistry. It also
highlights the applications of various compounds cited in the literature.

Publication Types:

PMID: 11749147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

120: Arch Pharm Res. 2001 Oct;24(5):431-6.

Antioxidative effects of cichorium intybus root extract on LDL (low density
lipoprotein) oxidation.

Kim TW, Yang KS.

Department of Biochemistry, Kangweon National University, Chuncheon 200-701,

The water extract of Cichorium intybus (WECI) showed a remarkable antioxidative
effect on LDL, and inhibitory effects on the production of thiobarbituric acid
reactive substance and the Degradation of fatty acids in LDL. Vitamin E and
unsaturated fatty acids in LDL were protected by adding WECI from the effects of
metal catalyzed LDL oxidation. From the results obtained, we conclude that LDL
oxidation is inhibited in vitro by the addition of WECI, and that LDL is
protected by WECI from oxidative attack, as shown by agarose gel

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11693546 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

121: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Nov;23(11):682-3, 704.

[Chemical constituents of Cichorium intybus L.]

[Article in Chinese]

Du H, Yuan S, Jiang P.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Traditional Chinese
Medicine, Beijing 100700.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chemical constituents of Cichorium intybus.
METHOD: Constituents were separated by means of solvent extraction and
chromatography on silical gel. The structures were established by spectral
analysis and chemical evidence. RESULT: Seven compounds were isolated from the
roots of C. intybus and four of them were identified as alpha-amyrin,
taraxerone, baurenyl acetate and beta-sitosterol. CONCLUSION: All the four
compounds were obtained from the plant for the first time.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 11599348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

122: Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001 Sep;33(3):183-7.

Utilization of chicory roots for microbial endoinulinase production.

Park JP, Yun JW.

Department of Biotechnology, Taegu University, Kyungsan, Kyungbuk 712-714,

AIMS: The optimal culture conditions for endoinulinase production using chicory
roots were studied in shake-flask culture. METHODS AND RESULTS: Much higher
enzyme production was achieved with Xanthomonas sp. (15 U ml(-1)) than with
Pseudomonas sp. (3 U ml(-1)). Optimized culture conditions of Xanthomonas sp.
for endoinulinase production in flask culture were: chicory powder, 5 g l(-1);
temperature, 37 degrees C; pH, 7.0; agitation speed, 100 rev min(-1).
CONCLUSION: Maximum bacterial growth and enzyme production were 6.2 g l(-1) and
20 U ml(-1) under optimal conditions, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF
THE STUDY: Chicory roots could be used as a fermentation substrate for the
production of enndoinulinase.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11555200 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

123: Plant Physiol. 2001 Jul;126(3):1186-95.

Defoliation induces fructan 1-exohydrolase II in Witloof chicory roots. Cloning
and purification of two isoforms, fructan 1-exohydrolase IIa and fructan
1-exohydrolase IIb. Mass fingerprint of the fructan 1-exohydrolase II enzymes.

Van den Ende W, Michiels A, Van Wonterghem D, Clerens SP, De Roover J, Van Laere

Department of Biology, Laboratory for Developmental Biology, Botany Institute,
K.U. Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
[email protected]

The cloning of two highly homologous chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum cv
Flash) fructan 1-exohydrolase cDNAs (1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb) is described. Both
isoenzymes could be purified from forced chicory roots as well as from the
etiolated "Belgian endive" leaves where the 1-FEH IIa isoform is present in
higher concentrations. Full-length cDNAs were obtained by a combination of
reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and 5'- and 3'-rapid
amplification of cDNA ends using primers based on N-terminal and conserved amino
acid sequences. 1-FEH IIa and 1-FEH IIb cDNA-derived amino acid sequences are
most homologous to a new group of plant glycosyl hydrolases harboring cell
wall-type enzymes with acid isoelectric points. Unlike the observed expression
profiles of chicory 1-FEH I, northern analysis revealed that 1-FEH II is
expressed when young chicory plants are defoliated, suggesting that this enzyme
can be induced at any developmental stage when large energy supplies are
necessary (regrowth after defoliation).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11457968 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

124: Phytochemistry. 2001 Jun;57(4):523-7.

Guaianolides from Cichorium intybus and structure revision of Cichorium
sesquiterpene lactones.

Kisiel W, Zielinska K.

Department of Phytochemistry, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of
Sciences, Krakow. [email protected]

The isolation and structure elucidation of a new lactucopicrin derivative from
Cichorium intybus is described, together with the revised structures of several
sesquiterpene lactones previously isolated from Cichorium species. The known
eudesmanolide magnolialide and the known guaianolide ixerisoside D, reported for
the first time from the plant material, along with the previously known chicory
sesquiterpene lactones have been also isolated and identified.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11394851 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

125: J Bacteriol. 2001 May;183(10):3134-41.

Osmoregulated periplasmic glucan synthesis is required for Erwinia chrysanthemi

Page F, Altabe S, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N, Lacroix JM, Robert-Baudouy J, Bohin

Unite de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, UMR USTL-CNRS 8576,
Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex,

Erwinia chrysanthemi is a phytopathogenic enterobacterium causing soft rot
disease in a wide range of plants. Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) are
intrinsic components of the gram-negative bacterial envelope. We cloned the
opgGH operon of E. chrysanthemi, encoding proteins involved in the glucose
backbone synthesis of OPGs, by complementation of the homologous locus mdoGH of
Escherichia coli. OpgG and OpgH show a high level of similarity with MdoG and
MdoH, respectively, and mutations in the opgG or opgH gene abolish OPG
synthesis. The opg mutants exhibit a pleiotropic phenotype, including
overproduction of exopolysaccharides, reduced motility, bile salt
hypersensitivity, reduced protease, cellulase, and pectate lyase production, and
complete loss of virulence. Coinoculation experiments support the conclusion
that OPGs present in the periplasmic space of the bacteria are necessary for
growth in the plant host.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11325942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126: Plant Physiol. 2001 Apr;125(4):1930-40.

Biosynthesis of germacrene A carboxylic acid in chicory roots. Demonstration of
a cytochrome P450 (+)-germacrene a hydroxylase and NADP+-dependent
sesquiterpenoid dehydrogenase(s) involved in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis.

de Kraker JW, Franssen MC, Dalm MC, de Groot A, Bouwmeester HJ.

Plant Research International, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Sprouts of chicory (Cichorium intybus), a vegetable grown in the dark, have a
slightly bitter taste associated with the presence of guaianolides,
eudesmanolides, and germacranolides. The committed step in the biosynthesis of
these compounds is catalyzed by a (+)-germacrene A synthase. Formation of the
lactone ring is the postulated next step in biosynthesis of the
germacrene-derived sesquiterpene lactones. The present study confirms this
hypothesis by isolation of enzyme activities from chicory roots that introduce a
carboxylic acid function in the germacrene A isopropenyl side chain, which is
necessary for lactone ring formation. (+)-germacrene A is hydroxylated to
germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol by a cytochrome P450 enzyme, and is
subsequently oxidized to germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid by
NADP+-dependent dehydrogenase(s). Both oxidized germacrenes were detected as
their Cope-rearrangement products elema-1,3,11(13)-trien-12-ol and
elema-1,3,11(13)-trien-12-oic acid, respectively. The cyclization products of
germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol, i.e. costol, were also observed. The
(+)-germacrene A hydroxylase is inhibited by carbon monoxide (blue-light
reversible), has an optimum pH at 8.0, and hydroxylates beta-elemene with a
modest degree of enantioselectivity.

PMID: 11299372 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

127: J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 May;75(2-3):181-4.

Effect of 'antidiabetis' herbal preparation on serum glucose and fructosamine in
NOD mice.

Petlevski R, Hadzija M, Slijepcevic M, Juretic D.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Haematology, Domagojeva 2/III, Faculty of
Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia.

The antihyperglycemic effect of the Antidiabetis herbal preparation ((Myrtilli
folium (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), Taraxaci radix (Taraxacum officinale Web.),
Cichorii radix (Cichorium intybus L.), Juniperi fructus (Juniperus communis L.),
Centaurii herba (Centaurium umbellatum Gilib.), Phaseoli pericarpium (Phaseolus
vulgaris), Millefollii herba (Achillea millefolium L.), Morii folium (Morus
nigra L.), Valeriane radix (Valleriana officinalis L.), Urticae herba et radix
(Urtica dioica L.)), patent No. P-9801091 Zagreb, Croatia was investigated. Two
extracts were prepared: ethanol extract (extract 1), and ethanol extract from
which ethanol was evaporated on a rotatory evaporator at a temperature of 45
degrees C (extract 2). Extract 1 and extract 2 were administered (in experiment
1) to alloxan-induced non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in the same dose of 20
mg/kg. Blood glucose was determined before, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 min after the
preparation administration. Extract 1 and extract 2 decreased the level of blood
glucose by 10 and 20%, respectively, of the initial value (at 0 min, mean = 22.6
+/- 8.3 mmol/l). Serum levels of glucose and fructosamine were determined in NOD
mice, NOD mice administered extract 2 in a dose of 20 mg/kg of extract 2, and
NOD mice administered acarbose in a dose of 25 mg/100 g chow, in order to verify
the hypoglycemic action of extract 2 (in experiment 2). Extract 2 and acarbose
were admixed to the chow. The duration of treatment was 7 days. Significantly
lower glucose (P < 0.05) and fructosamine (P < 0.001) levels were recorded in
extract 2 treated NOD mice as compared with NOD mice. Study results showed
extract 2 to significantly decrease the level of glucose and fructosamine in
alloxan induced NOD mice. Our future studies will be focused on the search of
active principles of the extracts.

PMID: 11297848 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

128: Planta. 2001 Feb;212(3):436-43.

Sucrose assimilation during early developmental stages of chicory (Cichorium
intybus L.) plants.

Druart N, De Roover J, Van den Ende W, Goupil P, Van Laere A, Rambour S.

Laboratoire de Physiologie et Genetique Moleculaire Vegetales, Universite des
Sciences et Technologies de Lille, France.

The activities of enzymes of both sucrose and fructan metabolism were measured
in chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Turbo) plants during early vegetative
growth. From 21 to 42 d after sowing (phase I), carbohydrates were used for
structural growth and sucrose was predominantly cleaved by acid invertase
whereas neutral invertase (EC and sucrose synthase (EC
activities were low. From 49 to 63 d after sowing (phase II) a cambium formed
producing secondary tissues, concomitant with induced sucrose:sucrose
1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST; EC and fructan:fructan-1-fructosyl
transferase (EC activities, and fructan synthesis in the roots.
Accumulation of 1-SST mRNA occurred at the onset of thickening, indicating that
1-SST is controlled at a transcriptional level. Acid invertase activity
gradually increased during phase I and remained high during early phase II. It
subsequently decreased. The pattern of invertase mRNA accumulation correlated
with the enzyme activities, indicating that acid invertase is controlled at the
transcriptional level. Both acid invertase and 1-SST probably contributed to the
sink strength in the root at the beginning of phase II.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11289609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

129: Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2001 Mar;14(3):386-93.

Relative effects on virulence of mutations in the sap, pel, and hrp loci of
Erwinia chrysanthemi.

Lopez-Solanilla E, Llama-Palacios A, Collmer A, Garcia-Olmedo F,
Rodriguez-Palenzuela P.

Departamento de Biotecnologia, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, ETS Ingenieros
Agronomos, Ciudad Universitaria, Spain.

We constructed strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 with multiple mutations
involving three virulence systems in this bacterium, namely pel (coding for the
major pectate lyases pelABCE), hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity),
and sap (sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides). The relative effects on
virulence of those mutations have been analyzed on potato tubers and chicory
leaves. In potato tubers, the sap mutation (BT105) had a greater effect in the
reduction of the virulence than the pel (CUCPB5006) and hrp (CUCPB5039)
mutations. This reduction was similar to that observed in the pel-hrp double
mutant (CUCPB5037). The analysis of the strains affected in Pel-Sap (BT106),
Hrp-Sap (BT107), and Pel-Hrp-Sap (BT108) suggested that the effects of these
mutations are additive. In chicory leaves, the mutation in the sap locus
appeared to have a greater effect than in potato tubers. The competitive indices
of strains BT105, UM1005 (Pel-), CUCPB5039, and CUCPB5037 have been estimated in
vivo and in vitro. These results indicate that the mutation in the hrp locus can
be complemented in vivo by coinfection, whereas the mutations in pel and sap

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 11277436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

130: Enzyme Microb Technol. 2001 Mar 8;28(4-5):439-445.

Production of inulooligosaccharides from chicory extract by endoinulinase from
Xanthomonas oryzae No. 5.

Cho YJ, Sinha J, Park JP, Yun JW.

Department of Biotechnology, Taegu University, 712-714, Kyungbuk, South Korea

Inulooligosaccharides (IOS) production from chicory extract was carried out
using endoinulinase obtained from a new isolate, Xanthomonas oryzae No. 5. The
IOS production from chicory extract was maximum when 50 g/liter of chicory
extract was utilized as the substrate. As the substrate concentration increased,
the IOS production accordingly decreased probably due to substrate inhibition.
For a comparative study, enzyme reactions were carried out from pure inulin as
substrate. Though total IOS contents indicated higher IOS yield with pure inulin
compared to that of chicory extract, the distribution of inulooligosaccharide
components between pure inulin and chicory extract was not significantly
different; i.e. DP5 and higher oligosaccharides are major products in case of
both chicory extract and pure inulin as substrate. A considerable amount of
oligofructose (about 30%, w/w), which were originally present in chicory
extract, resulted in the change of the enzyme kinetics. A reaction pH 7 was
found to be most suitable for enzyme reaction. The initial reaction rates
increased with increasing enzyme dosage, although the relative composition of
the IOS produced remain unchanged.

PMID: 11240203 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

131: Plant J. 2000 Nov;24(4):447-56.

Cloning and functional analysis of chicory root fructan1-exohydrolase I (1-FEH
I): a vacuolar enzyme derivedfrom a cell-wall invertase ancestor? Mass
fingerprint of the 1-FEH I enzyme.

Van den Ende W, Michiels A, De Roover J, Verhaert P, Van Laere A.

K.U. Leuven, Department of Biology, Botany Institute, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 92,
B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. [email protected]

This paper describes the cloning and functional analysis of chicory (Cichorium
intybus L.) fructan 1-exohydrolase I cDNA (1-FEH I). To our knowledge it is the
first plant FEH cloned. Full-length cDNA was obtained by a combination of
RT-PCR, 5' and 3' RACE using primers based on N-terminal and conserved amino
acid sequences. Electrophoretically purified 1-FEH I enzyme was further analyzed
by in-gel trypsin digestion followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption
ionization and electrospray time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.
Functionality of the cDNA was demonstrated by heterologous expression in potato
tubers. 1-FEH I takes a new, distinct position in the phylogenetic tree of plant
glycosyl hydrolases being more homologous to cell-wall invertases (44-53%) than
to vacuolar invertases (38-41%) and fructosyl transferases (33-38%). The 1-FEH I
enzyme could not be purified from the apoplastic fluid at significantly higher
levels than can be explained by cellular leakage. These and other data suggest a
vacuolar localization for 1-FEH I. Also, the pI of the enzyme (6.5) is lower
than expected from a typical cell-wall invertase. Unlike plant fructosyl
transferases that are believed to have evolved from a vacuolar invertase, 1-FEH
I might have evolved from a cell-wall invertase-like ancestor gene that later
obtained a vacuolar targeting signal. 1-FEH I mRNA quantities increase in the
roots throughout autumn, and especially when roots are stored at low

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11115126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132: J Plant Growth Regul. 2000 Jun;19(2):238-248.

Putrescine and Silver Nitrate Influences Shoot Multiplication, In Vitro
Flowering and Endogenous Titers of Polyamines in Cichorium intybus L. cv.
Lucknow Local.

Bais HP, Sudha GS, Ravishankar GA.

Department of Plant Cell Biotechnology, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore 570 013, India

The influence of putrescine (Put) and AgNO(3) on shoot multiplication, in vitro
flowering and endogenous titers of polyamines in Cichorium intybus L. cv.
Lucknow local was investigated. Exogenous administration of Put at a
concentration of 40 mM resulted in maximum tissue response in terms of shoot
numbers (34.6 +/- 2.61) and shoot lengths (7.6 +/- 0.57 cm) on MS media
supplemented with 2-iP (2.0 mg L(-1)) and GA(3) (0.5 mg L(-1)) as observed on
the 35(th) day. Exogenous application of 40 microM AgNO(3) resulted in maximum
shoot number (36.8 +/- 2.63) and shoot lengths (7.9 +/- 0.76 cm) on day 35 on
the same media. Endogenous titers of conjugated spermidine decreased sharply
from day 7-21, whereas endogenous conjugated spermine levels peaked on day 28
(1265 +/- 94.9 nmoles g(-1) FW), after treatment with 40 mM Put. Whereas,
AgNO(3) (40 microM) fed samples resulted in higher titers of endogenous
conjugated spermine (1405 +/- 105.6 nmoles g(-1) FW, 3.62 fold over control) on
day 14. All other treatments showed decreasing endogenous levels during the
whole culture period. Both Put (40 mM) and AgNO(3) (40 microM) resulted in
floral initiation and floral development on day 28 and 14 (3.76 +/- 0.16, 4.2
+/- 0.21 flowers per shoot apices), respectively. To investigate the role of Put
(40 mM) and AgNO(3) (40 microM) on morphogenetic response and endogenous
conjugated polyamine titers in shoots of chicory, polyamine inhibitors (DFMA and
DFMO) were used. The morphogenetic response and the endogenous conjugated pool
of polyamines were diminished in DFMA and DFMO treatments, but could be restored
by addition of Put (40 mM) and AgNO(3) (40 microM). Under exogenous Put feeding,
ethylene production was reduced in shoot cultures of chicory. This study shows
for the first time the influence of polyamines on multiple shoot initiation from
axillary buds of C. intybus L. cv. Lucknow local and also indicates the
promotive effect of Put and AgNO(3) on autoregulation of polyamine biosynthesis,
thereby regulating in vitro flowering, the endogenous pool of polyamines and
shoot multiplication.

PMID: 11038231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

133: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):121-9.

Hepatoprotective effects of Turkish folk remedies on experimental liver injury.

Aktay G, Deliorman D, Ergun E, Ergun F, Yesilada E, Cevik C.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, Ankara University, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Seven plants which are used in Turkish folk medicine were studied for possible
hepatoprotective effects. These plants are Carduus acanthoides and C. nutans
(Asteraceae), Cichorium intybus (Asteraceae), Fumaria asepalae and F. vailantii
(Fumariaceae), Gentiana olivieri (Gentianaceae) and Plantago lanceolata
(Plantaginaceae). Stems, bracts and receptaculum of Cynara scolymus were used as
natural reference drugs. Effects of the ethanolic extracts were studied using
the carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. The extracts of
F. vailantii and G. olivieri significantly prevented the elevation of plasma and
hepatic malondialdehyde formation (evidence of lipid peroxidation) as well as
enzyme levels (AST and ALT) in acute liver injury, which might be ascribed to
their potent hepatoprotective activity. Liver sections were also studied
histopathologically to confirm the biochemical results.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11025147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Sep;72(1-2):167-72.

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of five herbal plants.

Amirghofran Z, Azadbakht M, Karimi MH.

Immunology Department, Medical School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, PO
BOX 71345-1798, Shiraz, Iran. [email protected]

A group of medicinal plants including, Silybum marianum, Matricaria chamomilla,
Calendula officinalis, Cichorium intybus and Dracocephalum kotschyi which grow
in Iran, were extracted with ethanol 70% and the mitogenic activity was examined
both on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes. Effect of these
extracts on proliferative responsiveness of human lymphocytes to
phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and on the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) was also
investigated. The results obtained indicated that none of the extracts had a
direct mitogenic effect on human lymphocytes or thymocytes (stimulation index,
SI<0.07). Among the plants studied, C. intybus and C. officinalis showed a
complete inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lymphocytes in the presence
of PHA (SI range 0.01-0.49). A dose dependent inhibitory effect was obtained in
the case of D. kotschyi. Extract of M. chamomilla showed almost no stimulatory
effect. A significant decrease in proliferation assay due to 0.1-10 microg/ml of
S. marianum was observed (SI<0.46, P<0.05). In MLR, a markedly stimulatory
effect with some lower concentrations of all the extracts except Dracocephalum
was detected. The highest stimulatory effect was due to 100 microg/ml of S.
marianum (SI 2.82). Treatment of mixed lymphocytes with 0.1-10 microg/ml of C.
officinalis (SI range 1.34-1.80) and 10 microg/ml of M. chamomilla and C.
intybus (SI 2.18 and 1.70, respectively) strongly increased the cell
proliferation. In conclusion, this in vitro study revealed the capacity of all
the extracts except Dracocephalum to enhance the proliferation of lymphocytes
after stimulation with the allogenic cells.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Evaluation Studies
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10967468 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

135: Biol Pharm Bull. 2000 Aug;23(8):1005-7.

Differentiation-inducing effect of magnolialide, a 1 beta-hydroxyeudesmanolide
isolated from Cichorium intybus, on human leukemia cells.

Lee KT, Kim JI, Park HJ, Yoo KO, Han YN, Miyamoto K.

College of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul, Korea.

Cichorium intybus contains two 1beta-hydroxyeudesmanolides, magnolialide and
artesin, together with several constituents. Magnolialide inhibits the growth of
several tumor cell lines and appears to induce differentiation of human leukemia
HL-60 and U-937 cells to monocyte/macrophage-like cells. Another
1beta-hydroxyeudesmanolide, artesin, and other constituents were inactive. The
content of magnolialide was shown to be highest in the leaves of Inje cultivar
among the cultivars investigated in this study.

PMID: 10963313 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

136: J Exp Bot. 2000 Mar;51(344):539-46.

Nitrate assimilation in chicory roots (Cichorium intybus L.) which acquire
radial growth.

Druart N, Goupil P, Dewaele E, Boutin JP, Rambour S.

Laboratoire de Physiologie et Genetique Moleculaire Vegetales, Universite des
Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

Nitrate assimilation was analysed in chicory plants (Cichorium intybus L. cv.
Turbo) during the early vegetative growth. Nitrate reductase (NR, EC
activity (NRA) was measured in roots and leaves at different developmental
stages. During phase I, which corresponds to the structural growth (21-42 DAS),
nitrate reduction mainly occurred in the roots. At the onset of the tuber
formation (phase II), which is characterized by the formation of a cambium
inducing a radial growth (42-63 DAS), NRA rapidly decreased in roots and
developed in leaves. A tight correlation was found between the nitrate content,
the amino acid level and NRA in roots and leaves. Northern blot and ELISA
analysis showed that both levels of NR mRNA and NR protein were not modified
during the time-course of the experiment suggesting that modification of nitrate
assimilation was not controlled at a transcriptional level. In vitro NRA assayed
in presence of either Mg2+ ions or EDTA showed that NR was influenced at least
in part by a reversible phosphorylation/dephosphorylation reaction. Okadaic
acid, a serine-threonine protein phosphatases inhibitor, strongly decreased NRA.
Conversely, staurosporine, a serine-threonine protein kinases inhibitor, did not
significantly change NRA in roots or leaves. Therefore, NRA was regulated at a
post-translational level during the early vegetative growth by modifying the
phosphorylation balance of the NR protein in chicory.

PMID: 10938810 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

137: Nutrition. 2000 Jul-Aug;16(7-8):677-9.

Chicory fructooligosaccharides and the gastrointestinal tract.

Roberfroid MB.

Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. [email protected]

Publication Types:

PMID: 10906595 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

138: Genome. 2000 Jun;43(3):470-6.

A search for diagnostic AFLP markers in Cichorium species with emphasis on
endive and chicory cultivar groups.

Kiers AM, Mes TH, van der Meijden R, Bachmann K.

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland-Universiteit Leiden Branch, The Netherlands.
[email protected]

The genus Cichorium consists of two widely cultivated species C. intybus
(chicory) and C. endivia (endive) and four wild species, C. bottae, C. spinosum,
C. calvum, and C. pumilum. A multivariate and an UPGMA (unweighted pair group
method average) analysis based on AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism)
markers were used to establish the genetic relationships among the species and
cultivar groups of C. intybus and C. endivia. At the species level, the results
correspond with previously obtained phylogenetic relationships in that C. bottae
is the most divergent species, and C. intybus and C. spinosum, as well as C.
endivia, C. pumilum, and C. calvum formed clusters. Based on the congruence
between phylogenetic and genetic analyses, unique markers were expected for all
species, however, hardly any specific marker was found except for C. bottae. The
analysis of cultivar groups of C. intybus resembled the species analysis in two
respects: (i) grouping of cultivars according to cultivar groups, and (ii) lack
of markers unique to cultivar groups. In contrast to C. intybus, the cultivar
series of C. endivia do not form distinct groups, which would reflect that
crosses have been made among the various cultivar groups. The relationships
among Cichorium species and cultivars will be useful for setting up a core
collection of Cichorium, and stress the importance of inclusion of the wild
species in the collection.

PMID: 10902710 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

139: J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2000 Aug 1;23(1):127-33.

In vitro and ex vivo anti- and prooxidant components of Cichorium intybus.

Gazzani G, Daglia M, Papetti A, Gregotti C.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of
Pavia, Italy. [email protected]

The water soluble antioxidant properties of Cichorium intybus var. Silvestre,
whose production zone is around Chioggia, Italy, were investigated. Vegetable
juices were obtained by centrifugation, and (1) filtration at 2 degrees C; (2)
filtration at 25 degrees C, and stored for 3 h; (3) boiled for 30 min at 102
degrees C, and then analysed. The antioxidant properties were evaluated in vitro
as antioxidant activity (AA) (model system beta-carotene-linoleic acid) and ex
vivo as protective activity (PA) against rat liver cell microsome lipid
peroxidation measured as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS)
generated by peroxide degradation. All the vegetable juices showed high but very
variable AA (> 83%) and PA (> 64%). After dialysis and analysis of fractions it
was shown that the vegetable contained both biological antioxidant and
prooxidant compounds. The prooxidants had MW < 3000, conversely the very active
antioxidants (PA = 100%) had MW > 15,000. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that
the most active fraction was a complex mixture of brown components at MW >

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 10898162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

140: Plant Physiol. 2000 May;123(1):71-80.

Cloning, developmental, and tissue-specific expression of sucrose:sucrose
1-fructosyl transferase from Taraxacum officinale. Fructan localization in

Van den Ende W, Michiels A, Van Wonterghem D, Vergauwen R, Van Laere A.

Department of Biology, Botany Institute, K.U., Kardinaal Mercierlaan 92, B-3001
Heverlee, Belgium. [email protected]

Sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyl transferase (1-SST) is the key enzyme initiating
fructan synthesis in Asteraceae. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we isolated
the cDNA for 1-SST from Taraxacum officinale. The cDNA-derived amino acid
sequence showed very high homology to other Asteracean 1-SSTs (Cichorium intybus
86%, Cynara scolymus 82%, Helianthus tuberosus 80%), but homology to 1-SST from
Allium cepa (46%) and Aspergillus foetidus (18%) was much lower. Fructan
concentrations, 1-SST activities, 1-SST protein, and mRNA concentrations were
compared in different organs during vegetative and generative development of T.
officinale plants. Expression of 1-SST was abundant in young roots but very low
in leaves. 1-SST was also expressed at the flowering stages in roots, stalks,
and receptacles. A good correlation was found between northern and western blots
showing transcriptional regulation of 1-SST. At the pre-flowering stage, 1-SST
mRNA concentrations and 1-SST activities were higher in the root phloem than in
the xylem, resulting in the higher fructan concentrations in the phloem. Fructan
localization studies indicated that fructan is preferentially stored in phloem
parenchyma cells in the vicinity of the secondary sieve tube elements. However,
inulin-like crystals occasionally appeared in xylem vessels.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10806226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

141: Planta. 2000 Apr;210(5):808-14.

Drought induces fructan synthesis and 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose
fructosyltransferase) in roots and leaves of chicory seedlings (Cichorium
intybus L.).

De Roover J, Vandenbranden, Van Laere A, Van den Ende W.

Department of Biology, Botany Institute, K.U. Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.

Seeds of Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum cv. Flash were sown in acid-washed
vermiculite and grown in a controlled-environment growth chamber. After 1 month
of growth, plantlets did not contain sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase
(1-SST), the key enzyme in fructan biosynthesis. No fructan could be observed.
Some of the plants were submitted to drought for 2 weeks. Glucose, fructose and
sucrose concentrations increased in roots and leaves of stressed plants and the
fructan concentration in roots and leaves was ten times higher than in control
plants. The onset of fructan synthesis coincided with the increase in 1-SST
activity in roots. Expression of the 1-SST gene could be observed in roots and
leaves of stressed plants.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10805453 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

142: J Nutr. 2000 May;130(5):1197-9.

Fn-type chicory inulin hydrolysate has a prebiotic effect in humans.

Menne E, Guggenbuhl N, Roberfroid M.

Institut Paul Lambin, Brussels, Belgium.

The partial enzymatic hydrolysis of chicory inulin (GFn; 2 < or =n < or =60)
yields an oligofructose preparation that is composed of both GFn-type and
Fn-type oligosaccharides (2 < or =n < or =7; 2 < or =m < or =7), where G is
glucose, F is fructose, and n is the number of beta(2-->1) bound fructose
moieties. Human studies have shown that feeding GFn-type oligomers significantly
modifies the composition of the fecal microflora especially by increasing the
number of bifidobacteria. The experiments reported here were used to test the
hypothesis that the Fn-type molecules have the same property. During a
controlled feeding study, 8 volunteers (5 females and 3 males) consumed 8 g/d of
an Fn-rich product for up to 5 wk. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed for
total anaerobes, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, bacteroides, coliforms and
Clostridium perfringens. Both 2 and 5 wk of oligofructose feeding resulted in a
selective increase in bifidobacteria (P<0.01). In addition, a daily intake of 8
g of the Fn-type oligofructose preparation reduced fecal pH and caused little
intestinal discomfort.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial

PMID: 10801918 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

143: Plant Mol Biol. 2000 Jan;42(2):377-86.

Cloning of beta-1,3-glucanases expressed during Cichorium somatic embryogenesis.

Helleboid S, Chapman A, Hendriks T, Inze D, Vasseur J, Hilbert JL.

Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Morphogenese Vegetales, USTL/INRA,
Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

Three different beta-1,3-glucanase cDNA fragments, CG1, CG2 and CG3, were
obtained by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from Cichorium hybrid '474' leaf fragments
cultured for 11 days under somatic embryogenesis-inducing conditions. When
expressed in Escherichia coli the proteins encoded by the three cDNAs were
recognized by antibodies raised against 38 kDa extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases
studied previously (Helleboid et al., Planta 205 (1998) 56-63). The CG2 and CG3
cDNAs may represent expressed alleles of one gene because their sequences showed
a very high identity (98.5%) and are only 70% identical with CG1. Southern blot
analysis revealed the presence of 3-4 genes coding for beta-1,3-glucanases in
the Cichorium genome. Expression analysis of the genes corresponding to the
three clones analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that CG1 mRNAs were
only detectable in Cichorium hybrid '474' leaf fragments from day 3 of somatic
embryogenesis induction, whereas CG2-CG3 mRNAs were already present in
non-induced leaf tissue of both the embryogenic hybrid '474' and a
non-embryogenic genotype. The level of CG1 mRNAs was particularly high when
embryogenic cells were dividing to produce embryos, and when the amount of
callose deposited in cell walls surrounding embryogenic cells and young embryos
decreased. These results indicate that expression of the CG1 gene is correlated
to the somatic embryogenesis process and that it encodes a 38 kDa
beta-1,3-glucanase protein that may be involved in the degradation of callose
localized around embryogenic cells and young embryos. A full-length CG1 cDNA
clone was obtained using 3' and 5' RACE-PCR, and its sequence revealed that it
encodes a beta-1,3-glucanase that is equally homologous to both class III and
class IV plant beta-1,3-glucanases.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10794537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

144: J Plant Growth Regul. 1999 Dec;18(4):159-165.

Putrescine Influences Growth and Production of Coumarins in Hairy Root Cultures
of Witloof Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow Local).

Bais HP, Sudha G, Ravishankar GA.

Department of Plant Cell Biotechnology, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore 570 013, India

The effect of putrescine (Put) on the growth and production of two coumarins,
esculin and esculetin, in hairy roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cv.
Lucknow local) was examined. To study the role of Put on growth and production
of coumarins, polyamine inhibitors, namely alpha-dl-difluromethylornithine and
alpha-dl-difluromethylarginine were used at 1 mM concentration. Put treatment at
1.5 mM produced a 1.9-fold increase in the growth of hairy roots, as well as the
production of esculin and esculetin. The treatments with polyamine (PA)
inhibitors resulted in much lower growth and production of coumarins compared
with both 1.5-mM Put treatment and the control. Both free and conjugated PAs
were studied over the whole culture period, and conjugates of all three PAs,
namely Put, spermidine, and spermine, were higher than free PAs throughout the
culture period. The treatments with PA inhibitors showed lower levels of
endogenous PAs compared with Put-treated samples. The treatment with 1.5 mM Put
showed maximum accumulation of endogenous conjugated Put (2,098 +/- 157 nmoles
gm(-1) fresh weight). The production of esculin and esculetin was strictly
correlated with growth in all treatments. Put at 1.5 mM resulted in greater
length of primary root (18.3 +/- 1.4 cm) as compared with the control (11 +/-
0.9 cm) and larger numbers of secondary and tertiary roots.

PMID: 10688704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

145: Eur J Biochem. 2000 Jan;267(2):535-40.

Plant fructans stabilize phosphatidylcholine liposomes during freeze-drying.

Hincha DK, Hellwege EM, Heyer AG, Crowe JH.

Institut fur Pflanzenphysiologie und Mikrobiologie, Freie Universitat, Berlin,
Germany. [email protected]

Fructans have been implicated as protective agents in the drought and freezing
tolerance of many plant species. A direct proof of their ability to stabilize
biological structures under stress conditions, however, is still lacking. Here
we show that inulins (linear fructose polymers) isolated from chicory roots and
dahlia tubers stabilize egg phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles
during freeze-drying, while another polysaccharide, hydroxyethyl starch, was
completely ineffective. Liposome stability was assessed after rehydration by
measuring retention of the soluble fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein and
bilayer fusion. Inulin was an especially effective stabilizer in combination
with glucose. Analysis by HPLC showed that the commercial inulin preparations
used in our study contained no low molecular mass sugars that could be
responsible for the observed stabilizing effect of the fructans. Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy showed a reduction of the gel to
liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature of dry egg PtdCho by more than
20 degrees C in the presence of inulin. A direct interaction of inulin with the
phospholipid in the dry state was also indicated by dramatic differences in the
phosphate asymmetric stretch region of the infrared spectrum between samples
with and without the polysaccharide.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 10632723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

146: J Plant Growth Regul. 1999 Aug;18(1):33-37.

Influence of Polyamines on Growth of Hairy Root Cultures of Witloof Chicory
(Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow Local) and Formation of Coumarins.

Bais HP, George J, Ravishankar GA.

Department of Plant Cell Biotechnology, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore 570 013, India

The effect of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) was examined for
growth and production of two coumarins, esculetin and esculin, in the hairy
roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow local). Of the polyamines
administered, 1.5 mm putrescine alone resulted in a 2.3-fold higher increase in
the growth of hairy roots as well as in the production of esculetin and esculin,
which was 3.37 times more than that of the control on day 21. The endogenous
level of conjugated putrescine was more than fivefold that of free putrescine
levels in untreated samples. The production of esculetin and esculin in hairy
root cultures strictly correlated with growth in all of the treatments.
Putrescine at 1.5 mm resulted in a greater length of primary root (18.29 +/-
1.37 cm) compared with the control (10.96 +/- 0.82 cm) and more secondary and
tertiary roots. This study also provides insight into the morphogenetic changes
that occur in roots in response to the external supply of polyamines.Key Words.
Cichorium intybus L. cv. Lucknow local-Hairy root

PMID: 10467017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

147: Planta. 1999 Oct;209(4):389-98.

Nitrogen-induced changes in morphological development and bacterial
susceptibility of belgian endive (Cichorium intybus L.) are genotype-dependent

Richard-Molard C, Wuilleme S, Scheel C, Gresshoff PM, Morot-Gaudry JF, Limami

INRA, Laboratoire du Metabolisme et de la Nutrition des Plantes, route de St
Cyr, F-78026 Versailles cedex, France.

Nitrogen is known to modulate plant development and resistance to pathogens.
Four selected lines (Alg, NS1, NR1 and NR2) of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)
were grown on low (0.6 mM) and high (3 mM) NO(-)(3) nutrition in order to study
the effect of N on the expression of three traits, namely, shoot/root ratio,
chicon morphology and resistance to soft rot caused by Erwinia sp. For all
genotypes, increasing N supply led to a higher shoot/root ratio, resulting from
an increased shoot biomass but with no effect on root growth. In contrast, the
effect of N on chicon morphology and resistance to bacteria was
genotype-dependent and we distinguished two groups of lines according to their
phenotypic characteristics. In the group consisting of NR1 and NR2, increasing
NO(-)(3) supply during the vegetative phase made the chicon morphology switch
from an opened to a closed type while resistance to bacteria was not affected by
N supply. In the NS1 and Alg group, the effect of N on chicon morphology was the
opposite to that observed in the NR1-NR2 group while NS1 and Alg exhibited a
partial resistance to Erwinia sp. , only expressing soft-rot disease when the N
supply reached 3 mM. Characterization by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF)
allowed the generation of 110 polymorphic bands and confirmed that the lines NR1
and NR2, on the one hand, and NS1 and Alg, on the other hand, belong to two
distinct genetic groups. The DAF results indicate that chicon morphology and
partial resistance to Erwinia sp. are complex traits which would be amenable to
quantitative trait loci analysis. The split growth phase of chicory means that
any changes in chicon related to N supply during vegetative growth were mediated
by a root-originating signal. No variation in root carbon content among
genotypes and NO(-)(3) treatments was observed. In contrast, differences in root
N content revealed the same grouping of the chicory lines, NR1 and NR2 being
systematically richer in amino acids and NO(-)(3) than NS1 and Alg. However, no
correlation existed between N compounds and chicon morphology or pathology if
all genotypes were considered together. Thus, the effect of N on plant
development and pathology as well as putative identified signals might be
specific for a genotype. Our study indicates that it is necessary to consider
the genetic variability within a species in any signalling-pathway research.

PMID: 10550619 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

148: Pharmacol Res. 1999 Jul;40(1):61-5.

Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions by
Cichorium intybus.

Kim HM, Kim HW, Lyu YS, Won JH, Kim DK, Lee YM, Morii E, Jippo T, Kitamura Y, An

College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Chonbuk, 570-749, South Korea.

We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Cichorium intybus (CIAE) on
mast cell-mediated immediate type allergic reactions. CIAE (0.1-1000 mg kg-1)
dose-dependently inhibited systemic anaphylactic reaction induced by compound
48/80 in mice. Especially, CIAE inhibited compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic
reaction 100% with the dose of 1000 mg kg-1. CIAE 1000 mg kg-1also significantly
inhibited local anaphylactic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE.
When mice were pretreated with CIAE at a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 1000
mg kg-1, the plasma histamine levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner.
CIAE (1-1000 microg ml-1) dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from the
rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE.
The level of cAMP in RPMC, when CIAE (1000 microg ml-1) was added, increased
significantly compared with that of control cells. These results indicate that
CIAE inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in vivo and
in vitro. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10378992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

149: Allergy. 1999 Feb;54(2):183-4.

Lettuce and chicory sensitization.

Escudero A, Bartolome B, Sanchez-Guerrero IM, Palacios R.

[email protected]

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 10221443 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

150: J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Dec;63(3):227-31.

Anti-hepatotoxic effects of root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus

Zafar R, Mujahid Ali S.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia
Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

The natural root and root callus extracts of Cichorium intybus were compared for
their anti-hepatotoxic effects in Wistar strain of Albino rats against carbon
tetrachloride induced hepatic damage. The increased levels of serum enymes
(aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and bilirubin observed in rats
treated with carbon tetrachloride were very much reduced in the animals treated
with natural root and root callus extracts and carbon tetrachloride. The
decreased levels of albumin and proteins observed in rats after treatment with
carbon tetrachloride were found to increase in rats treated with natural root
and root callus extracts and carbon tetrachloride. These biochemical
observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver
sections. Results of this study revealed that Cichorium intybus root callus
extract could afford a better protection against carbon tetrachloride induced
heptocellular damage as compared to the natural root extract.

PMID: 10030727 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

151: J Membr Biol. 1999 Jan 1;167(1):25-33.

A calcium homeostasis mechanism induced by heterologous expression of total RNA
from chicory leaves in Xenopus oocytes.

Debarbieux M, Ouadid-Ahidouch H, Delpierre N, Vasseur J, Prevarskaya N.

Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire, SN3, Universite des Sciences et
Technologie de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France.

Xenopus oocytes were injected with total RNA from chicory leaf tissues and then
examined by the voltage-clamp technique. A double-step voltage protocol was
used, with an initial hyperpolarization step from the holding potential of -35
to -140 mV followed by a second depolarization step to +60 mV. Two different
outward currents were observed, one noninactivating (Ini), and one inactivating
(Ii). Only the noninactivating outward current (Ini) could be induced by
depolarization from -35 to +60 mV. The mean amplitude of Ini was 2915 +/- 848 nA
(n = 11). This current, carried by chloride ions, declined nearly to the
baseline in 153 +/- 64 sec (n = 13), and was highly dependent on intracellular
calcium. After the rundown of Ini, the same oocyte was depolarized from -140 to
+60 mV. This protocol induced an inactivating outward current (Ii) with a mean
amplitude of 4461 +/- 1605 nA (n = 13). Ii was also carried by chloride ions and
dependent on extracellular calcium. Ii was strongly inhibited by 100 micron
extracellular La3+. These two types of chloride currents were also observed
after IP3 injection in control oocytes. Ini and Ii were not observed in
noninjected oocytes or water-injected oocytes. We suggest that the expression of
total chicory leaf tissue RNA in Xenopus oocytes reveals a calcium homeostasis
mechanism responsible for calcium mobilization from internal stores and
subsequent calcium entry.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9878072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152: Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 Nov 26;1443(1-2):193-7.

A nonsymbiotic hemoglobin gene is expressed during somatic embryogenesis in

Hendriks T, Scheer I, Quillet MC, Randoux B, Delbreil B, Vasseur J, Hilbert JL.

Laboratory of Plant Breeding, Agricultural University Wageningen, P. O. Box 386,
6700 AJ Wageningen, The Netherlands.

After differential screening of a cDNA library corresponding to genes expressed
during the early stages of somatic embryogenesis in leaf tissue from the
Cichorium hybrid '474' (C. intybus L., var. sativumxC. endivia L., var.
latifolia) a nonsymbiotic hemoglobin cDNA was obtained. Studies of the
expression of the gene corresponding to this clone by Northern blot analysis
suggest that in Cichorium a nonsymbiotic hemoglobin gene is specifically
expressed under somatic embryogenesis-inducing conditions, and that its
expression is not related to stress caused by wounding or tissue culture

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9838109 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153: Carbohydr Res. 1998 Aug;310(1-2):65-75.

Complex melting of semi-crystalline chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) root inulin.

Hebette CL, Delcour JA, Koch MH, Booten K, Kleppinger R, Mischenko N, Reynaers

Laboratorium voor Levensmiddelenchemie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven,
Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Heverlee,

When concentrated solutions (30-45% by weight) of inulin (degree of
polymerization 2-66, number average degree of polymerization 12) are cooled at 1
degree C/min or 0.25 degree C/min from 96 degrees C to 20 degrees C, suspensions
of semi-crystalline material in water are formed. A thermal nucleation process
was detected by optical microscopy: the 8-like shaped crystallites resulting
from primary nucleation at higher temperature are larger than those resulting
from secondary nucleation at lower temperature. Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) thermograms display melting profiles with three to four partly
overlapping endotherms that vary as a function of concentration, cooling rate
during crystallization and storage time at 25 degrees C of the crystallite
suspension. Recrystallization during melting was observed. The wide-angle X-ray
scattering patterns of the samples at 25 degrees C correspond to those of the
hydrated crystal polymorph. The structural changes during melting indicated the
existence of a single crystal polymorph throughout melting. A periodicity of 95
A, arising from alternating regions of different electron density, is detected
in the small angle X-ray scattering patterns at 25 degrees C. The stepwise
increase of the long period upon heating is related to the existence of two
types of lamellar stacks: one with a higher long period, resulting from the
primary nucleation and thus crystallized at high temperature, and a second one
with a smaller long period, formed by crystallization at lower temperature. The
lamellae formed at low temperature melt at a lower temperature than those formed
at high temperature, explaining the existence of the two DSC-endotherms.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9794072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

154: J Nutr. 1998 Oct;128(10):1731-6.

The water-soluble extract of chicory influences serum and liver lipid
concentrations, cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations and fecal lipid
excretion in rats.

Kim M, Shin HK.

Division of Toxic Metals, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 5 Nokbun-dong
Seoul, 122-704, Korea.

Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were fed diets without fiber (control) or
containing 1 or 5% chicory extract or 5% inulin for 4 wk; 0.2% cholesterol was
added to all diets. Rats fed chicory extract and inulin diets had significantly
higher serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and generally lower low
density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, thus significantly greater
ratios of HDL/LDL cholesterol compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The serum
apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-1 ratio was significantly lower in rats fed
diets containing chicory extract or inulin than that in rats fed fiber-free
diets, due to significant reductions in apolipoprotein B concentration (P <
0.05). Greater liver lipid and triglyceride concentrations were observed in rats
fed chicory extract or inulin diets compared with the controls (P < 0.05).
However, liver phospholipid and cholesterol concentrations were not
significantly different among groups (P > 0.05). Addition of 5% inulin to the
diet resulted in greater cecal weight, whereas both 5% chicory extract and 5%
inulin resulted in greater cecal propionic acid concentration compared with the
controls (P < 0.05). Rats fed chicory extract and inulin had significantly
greater fecal lipid, cholesterol and bile acid excretions than those fed
fiber-free diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the improved
lipid metabolism observed in rats fed chicory extract (mainly inulin component)
may be caused by an alteration in the absorption and/or synthesis of
cholesterol, which might result from the changes in cecal fermentation, and by
an increase in the fecal excretion of lipid, cholesterol and bile acid.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 9772143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

155: Plant Physiol. 1998 Oct;118(2):543-50.

Natural genetic transformation by agrobacterium rhizogenes . Annual flowering in
two biennials, belgian endive and carrot

Limami MA, Sun LY, Douat C, Helgeson J, Tepfer D.

Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Federation Nationale de
Producteurs d'Endive and Laboratoire du Metabolisme et de la Nutrition des
Plantes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, 78026, Versailles,
cedex, France.

Genetic transformation of Belgian endive (Cichorium intybus) and carrot (Daucus
carota) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in a transformed phenotype,
including annual flowering. Back-crossing of transformed (R1) endive plants
produced a line that retained annual flowering in the absence of the other
traits associated with A. rhizogenes transformation. Annualism was correlated
with the segregation of a truncated transferred DNA (T-DNA) insertion. During
vegetative growth, carbohydrate reserves accumulated normally in these annuals,
and they were properly mobilized prior to anthesis. The effects of individual
root-inducing left-hand T-DNA genes on flowering were tested in carrot, in which
rolC (root locus) was the primary promoter of annualism and rolD caused extreme
dwarfism. We discuss the possible adaptive significance of this attenuation of
the phenotypic effects of root-inducing left-hand T-DNA.

PMID: 9765539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

156: Plant Physiol. 1998 Aug;117(4):1381-92.

(+)-Germacrene A biosynthesis . The committed step in the biosynthesis of bitter
sesquiterpene lactones in chicory

de Kraker JW, Franssen MC, de Groot A, Konig WA, Bouwmeester HJ.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen Agricultural University,
Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen, The Netherlands (J.-W.d.K., M.C. R.F.,

The leaves and especially the roots of chicory (Cichorium intybus L. ) contain
high concentrations of bitter sesquiterpene lactones such as the guianolides
lactupicrin, lactucin, and 8-deoxylactucin. Eudesmanolides and germacranolides
are present in smaller amounts. Their postulated biosynthesis through the
mevalonate-farnesyl diphosphate-germacradiene pathway has now been confirmed by
the isolation of a (+)-germacrene A synthase from chicory roots. This
sesquiterpene cyclase was purified 200-fold using a combination of
anion-exchange and dye-ligand chromatography. It has a Km value of 6. 6 &mgr;M,
an estimated molecular mass of 54 kD, and a (broad) pH optimum around 6.7.
Germacrene A, the enzymatic product, proved to be much more stable than reported
in literature. Its heat-induced Cope rearrangement into (-)-beta-elemene was
utilized to determine its absolute configuration on an enantioselective gas
chromatography column. To our knowledge, until now in sesquiterpene
biosynthesis, germacrene A has only been reported as an (postulated)
enzyme-bound intermediate, which, instead of being released, is subjected to
additional cyclization(s) by the same enzyme that generated it from farnesyl
diphosphate. However, in chicory germacrene A is released from the sesquiterpene
cyclase. Apparently, subsequent oxidations and/or glucosylation of the
germacrane skeleton, together with a germacrene cyclase, determine whether
guaiane- or eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactones are produced.

PMID: 9701594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

157: Contraception. 1998 May;57(5):357-60.

Postcoital contraceptive activity of some indigenous plants in rats.

Keshri G, Lakshmi V, Singh MM.

Division of Endocrinology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Crude ethanolic extract of seeds of Cichorium intybus and aerial parts of
Guetterda andamanica, Memcylon lushingtonii, and Solanum crassypetalum and their
fractions were evaluated for postcoital contraceptive efficacy in adult female
Sprague-Dawley rats. The extracts were administered orally in days 1-10
postcoitum, and significant contraceptive activity was observed. On
fractionation, the activity was localized primarily in the chloroform- or
butanol-insoluble fractions. The activity in these fractions was invariably
associated with a significantly reduced number of implantations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9673844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158: Planta. 1998 May;205(1):56-63.

Extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases are induced during early somatic embryogenesis
in Cichorium.

Helleboid S, Bauw G, Belingheri L, Vasseur J, Hilbert JL.

Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Morphogenese Vegetales, USTL/INRA,
Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

In leaf tissues of the Cichorium hybrid clone '474' (C. intybus L. var. sativum
x C. endivia L. var. latifolia), the acquisition and expression of embryogenic
competence was characterised by the appearance of 15 polypeptides (Boyer et al.,
1993, Plant Sci 93: 41-53). The 38-kDa proteins were found to be abundantly
present in conditioned embryogenic medium after the first division of the
induced cells. These proteins seemed to be glycosylated as indicated by general
carbohydrate detection methods. Internal amino-acid sequences obtained after
microsequencing tryptic peptides appeared to be 36-57% homologous with plant
beta-1,3-endoglucanases. In addition, these 38-kDa proteins were recognised by
antibodies raised against the pathogenesis-related tobacco glucanase PR2a and
their beta-1,3-glucanase activity was demonstrated by direct detection in
polyacrylamide gels after electrophoresis. These results strongly suggested that
the 38-kDa somatic-embryogenesis-related (SER) polypeptides are
beta-1,3-glucanases. Moreover, the level of glucanase activity was nearly three
times higher in the medium of the embryogenic '474' line than in the medium of a
non-embryogenic line. The possible involvement of the extracellular 38-kDa
proteins in callose degradation during somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

PMID: 9599804 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

159: Pharmacol Res. 1998 Jan;37(1):31-5.

Esculetin prevents liver damage induced by paracetamol and CCL4.

Gilani AH, Janbaz KH, Shah BH.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Aga Khan University Medical College,
Karachi, Pakistan.

Esculetin, a phenolic compound found in Cichorium intybus and Bougainvllra
spectabillis was investigated for its possible protective effect against
paracetamol and CCl4-induced hepatic damage. Paracetamol produced 100% mortality
at the dose of 1 g kg-1 in mice while pre-treatment of animals with esculetin (6
mg kg-1) reduced the death rate to 40%. Oral administration of paracetamol (640
mg kg-1) produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the rise in serum enzyme
levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminotransferases (AST and ALT).
Pre-treatment of rats with esculetin (6 mg kg-1) prevented the
paracetamol-induced rise in serum enzymes. The hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 (1.5 ml
kg-1; orally) also raised serum ALP, AST and ALT levels. The same dose of
esculetin (6 mg kg-1) was able to prevent the CCl4-induced rise in serum
enzymes. Esculetin also prevented CCl4-induced prolongation in pentobarbital
sleeping time confirming hepatoprotectivity. These results indicate that
esculetin possesses anti-hepatotoxic activity and the presence of this compound
in Cichorium intybus and Bougainvllra spectabillis may explain the folkloric use
of these plants in liver damage.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 9503477 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

160: J Nutr. 1998 Jan;128(1):11-9.

The bifidogenic nature of chicory inulin and its hydrolysis products.

Roberfroid MB, Van Loo JA, Gibson GR.

Unite de Biochimie Toxicologique et Cancerologique, Department of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B1200 Brussels, Belgium.

Research data on the bifidogenic effect of beta(2-1)fructans, which at present
are commercialized in the U.S., Japan and Europe as food ingredients, are
presented. These food ingredients originate from two different sources.
Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides are synthesized from sucrose and are
composed of GFn [n beta(2-1) linked fructose moieties bound to a glucose
molecule; 2 </= n </= 4]. The longer chain length molecule inulin is extracted
with hot water from chicory roots (Cichorium intybus) and is also composed of
GFn molecules (with 2 < n < 60). Oligofructose is a partial hydrolysate of
inulin and is composed of GFn and Fm molecules (n and m indicate the number of
fructose moieties with 2 </= n, m </= 7). All types of beta(2-1)fructans are
well fermented by intestinal bacteria. For a given chain length, there is no
difference in fermentation rate between GFn- and Fm-type beta-fructans. In vitro
fermentation of inulin revealed that molecules with a chain length (degree of
polymerization or DP) > 10 are fermented on average half as quickly as molecules
with a DP < 10. All beta(2-1)fructans are bifidogenic and classified as

Publication Types:

PMID: 9430596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

161: J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Oct;58(2):131-4.

Antihepatotoxic activity of Cichorium intybus.

Gadgoli C, Mishra SH.

Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of
Baroda, Gujarat, India.

PMID: 9406902 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

162: J Bacteriol. 1997 Dec;179(23):7321-30.

Pectate lyase PelI of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 belongs to a new family.

Shevchik VE, Robert-Baudouy J, Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N.

Laboratoire de Genetique Moleculaire des Microorganismes, UMR-CNRS 5577, INSA,
Villeurbanne, France.

Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937 secretes five major isoenzymes of pectate lyases
encoded by the pel4, pelB, pelC, pelD, and pelE genes and a set of secondary
pectate lyases, two of which, pelL and pelZ, have been already identified. We
cloned the pelI gene, encoding a ninth pectate lyase of E. chrysanthemi 3937.
The pelI reading frame is 1,035 bases long, corresponding to a protein of 344
amino acids including a typical amino-terminal signal sequence of 19 amino
acids. The purified mature PelI protein has an isoelectric point of about 9 and
an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa. PelI has a preference for partially methyl
esterified pectin and presents an endo-cleaving activity with an alkaline pH
optimum and an absolute requirement for Ca2+ ions. PelI is an extracellular
protein secreted by the Out secretory pathway of E. chrysanthemi. The PelI
protein is very active in the maceration of plant tissues. A pelI mutant
displayed reduced pathogenicity on chicory leaves, but its virulence did not
appear to be affected on potato tubers or Saintpaulia ionantha plants. The pelI
gene constitutes an independent transcriptional unit. As shown for the other pel
genes, the transcription of pelI is dependent on various environmental
conditions. It is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by growth
phase, oxygen limitation, temperature, nitrogen starvation, and catabolite
repression. Regulation of pelI expression appeared to be dependent on the three
repressors of pectinase synthesis, KdgR, PecS, and PecT, and on the global
activator of sugar catabolism, cyclic AMP receptor protein. A functional KdgR
binding site was identified close to the putative pelI promoter. Analysis of the
amino acid sequence of PelI revealed high homology with a pectate lyase from
Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (65% identity) and low homology with
pectate lyases of the phytopathogenic fungus Nectria haematococca (Fusarium
solani). This finding indicates that PelI belongs to pectate lyase class III.
Using immunoblotting experiments, we detected PelI homologs in various strains
of E. chrysanthemi and E. carotovora subsp. carotovora but not in E. carotovora
subsp. atroseptica.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9393696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

163: Plant J. 1997 Mar;11(3):387-98.

Fructan of the inulin neoseries is synthesized in transgenic chicory plants
(Cichorium intybus L.) harbouring onion (Allium cepa L.) fructan:fructan

Vijn I, van Dijken A, Sprenger N, van Dun K, Weisbeek P, Wiemken A, Smeekens S.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Fructan (polyfructosylsucrose) is an important storage carbohydrate in many
plant families. fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) is a key enzyme
in the formation of the inulin neoseries, a type of fructan accumulated by
members of the Liliales. We have cloned the 6G-FFT from onion by screening a
cDNA library using barley sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) as a
probe. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high homology with plant
invertases and 6-SFT. Incubation of protein extracts from transgenic tobacco
plants with the trisaccharide 1-kestose and sucrose resulted in the formation of
neokestose and fructans of the inulin neoseries with a degree of polymerization
up to six. Introduction of the onion 6G-FFT into chicory resulted in the
synthesis of fructan of the inulin neoseries, in addition to the synthesis of
linear inulin.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9107030 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

164: Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;427:211-9.

Health benefits of non-digestible oligosaccharides.

Roberfroid MB.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain,
Brussels, Belgium.

Non-digestible oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates of the non-a-glucan
type which, because of the configuration of their osidic bonds, resist
hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes. In the colon they are
fermented by anaerobic bacteria. Among the non-digestible oligosaccharides, the
chicory fructooligosaccharides occupy a key position and, in most european
countries, they are recognised as natural food ingredients. The other major
products are the short chain fructooligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides
obtained by enzymatic synthesis using sucrose and lactose as substrates
respectively, the soybean oligosaccharides, the xylooligosaccharides produced by
partial hydrolysis of xylans and polydextrose or pyrodextrins prepared by a
chemical treatment of carbohydrates. The most well known effect of most
non-digestible oligosaccharides, and in particular of the
fructooligosaccharides, is the selective stimulation of the growth of
Bifidobacteria thus modifying significantly the composition of the colonic
microbiota. Such a modification, which has clearly been demonstrated in human
volunteers, is meant to be benificial in part because it is accompanied by a
significant reduction in the number of bacteria reported to have pathogenic
potential. Within the framework of research and development of "functional
foods", such an effect justifies a "functional claim" for fructooligosaccharides
namely "bifidogenesis". They are also typical "prebiotics". Besides their
bifidogenic effect, the chicory fructooligosaccharides have additional
nutritional properties on digestive physiological parameters like colonic pH and
stool bulking which justify their classification as dietary fibers. Moreover, in
experimental models, it has also been reported that they improve the
bioavailability of essentiel minerals and that they reduce serum triglyceridemia
by lowering hepatic lipogenesis. Such effects demonstrate interactions between
the chicory fructooligosaccharides and key functions in the body but their
significance for humans still need to be proven before being used to justify
additional claims.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9361846 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

165: Nutr Rev. 1996 Nov;54(11 Pt 2):S38-42.

Functional effects of food components and the gastrointestinal system: chicory

Roberfroid MB.

Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Brussels, Belgium.

Functional food science, as recently proposed by ILSI Europe, opens new
perspectives in nutrition and food sciences. The systematic investigation of the
interactions between food components or food ingredients and genomic,
biochemical, cellular, or physiological functions is a unique way to improve
both our knowledge and the role of nutrition in maintaining good health and in
preventing disease. However, such basic knowledge is insufficient to justify
claims, unless it is confirmed through relevant nutrition studies aimed at
demonstrating the same effect and its positive consequences in humans. In the
first stage, this demonstration will in most cases justify functional
(physiological) claims (e.g., bifidogenic effect for fructooligosaccharides,
bulking effect for nondigestible carbohydrates, protection against oxidative
stress for antioxidants) with no reference to any health benefit. A true health
claim will require, in most cases, additional studies involving large
populations and long-term trials. It is anticipated that the better we
understand the mechanism of interactions between food components and specific
biological functions, the more we will be able to demonstrate functional
effects, and the easier it will be to accumulate convincing evidence in favor of
health promotion or disease prevention. Because of both its direct contact with
eaten foods and the diversity of its functions, the GI system is a potential
target for many functional effects. Until now, only a limited number of these
effects have been investigated so as to justify functional claims. Improvement
of glucose absorption (leading to physiological glycemia and insulinemia),
modulation of GI transit time, fecal bulking, acidification of colonic content,
and control of cholesterol bioavailability are all recognized effects of dietary
fiber. Balanced colonic microflora and immunostimulation are attributed to the
consumption of probiotics. Prebiotics selectively modify the colonic microbiota
and modulate hepatic lipogenesis. According to the ILSI Europe strategy for the
development of functional foods, all these effects are of interest. Their
support by sound scientific arguments will be a necessary condition for their
implementation in food science and nutrition for the benefit of human health.

Publication Types:

PMID: 9110574 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

166: J Nutr. 1996 Sep;126(9):2236-42.

The water-soluble extract of chicory reduces glucose uptake from the perfused
jejunum in rats.

Kim M, Shin HK.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea.

Among the components of dietary fiber, the soluble fibers have been found to
impair glucose absorption. Little is known, however, about the mechanism of this
effect. The direct action of soluble fibers (chicory water-soluble extract and
inulin) on the intestinal absorption of glucose was investigated in gutperfused
rats. After equilibrium, both jejunal and ileal segments were simultaneously
perfused with an isotonic electrolyte solution (pH 7.4) containing glucose (10
mmol/L) and chicory water-soluble extract (chicory extract) or inulin (10 g/L).
Each test or control solution was perfused in random sequence, with perfusion
times of 30 min. Chicory extract or inulin in the perfusate (10 g/L) inhibited
the absorption of glucose from jejunum (P < 0.05). The observed changes in
glucose and water absorption caused by chicory extract or inulin were reversible
after switching to a fiberfree perfusate. Additionally, net water absorption
changed to secretion upon addition of chicory extract or inulin. These results
suggest that the reduction in intestinal absorption of glucose observed after
perfusion of chicory extract or inulin may be caused by viscosity-related
increases in mucosal unstirred layer thickness.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8814212 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

167: Clin Exp Allergy. 1996 Aug;26(8):940-4.

Inhalative occupational and ingestive immediate-type allergy caused by chicory
(Cichorium intybus).

Cadot P, Kochuyt AM, Deman R, Stevens EA.

Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital, Leuven, Belgium.

We report a first case of occupational allergy to chicory (Cichorium intybus) in
a vegetable wholesaler. Symptoms occurred after oral, cutaneous or inhalatory
exposure. The patient also reported reactions after ingestion of botanically
related endive (Cichorium endivia) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). We identified
the responsible allergen by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot to be a 48-kDa protein,
confined to the non-illuminated parts of the plants. No cross-reactivity was
found with mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and birch
(Betula verrucosa) pollen, which suggests that the vegetable is the primary
allergenic material.

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 8877160 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

168: Planta. 1996;200(1):20-7.

Evidence for the nitrate-dependent spatial regulation of the nitrate reductase
gene in chicory roots.

Palms B, Goupil P, de Almeida Engler J, Van der Straeten D, Van Montagu M,
Rambour S.

Laboratoire de Physiologie et Genetique, Moleculaire Vegetales, Universite des
Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.

Young chicory plants (Cichorium intybus L. var. Witloof) show a tenfold higher
nitrate reductase NR activity in roots compared to leaves. Northern analysis
revealed, besides the nitrate inducibility of the nitrate reductase gene (nia),
a higher level of expression in the roots. By modifying the external nitrate
concentration the NR activity in the leaves remained negligible whereas a
maximal activity was observed in the roots when grown in the presence of 5 mM
nitrate. Surprisingly, variation of the external nitrate concentration induced
changes in the spatial regulation of nia within the root. In-situ hybridization
mainly localized nia mRNA in the cortical cells of roots grown at low nitrate
concentrations (0.2 nM). At high nitrate concentrations (5 mM), nia mRNA was
more abundant in the vascular tissues. The root apex revealed a strong signal
under both conditions. The isolation and characterization of the NR structural
gene from chicory is also presented. Southern blot analysis revealed the
presence of a single nia gene per haploid genome of chicory.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8987617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

169: N Z Vet J. 1995 Aug;43(4):141-5.

Erratum in:
N Z Vet J. 1996 Jun;44(3):119.

A study of high lamb liver copper concentrations on some farms in Otago and

Clark RG.

Invermay Animal Health Laboratory, Private Bag 50034, Mosgiel, New Zealand.

Lamb copper status is commonly assessed by measuring copper concentrations in
four liver samples collected from lines of lambs sent to meat slaughtering
premises. High liver copper concentrations were found in lambs examined in April
and May. Five farms with two or more lamb liver copper concentrations greater
than 3000 micromol/kg on a wet matter basis and two farms with adequate copper
concentrations but less than 3000 micromol/kg in the autumn of 1992 were
selected for a more detailed investigation into the factors affecting their lamb
copper status in 1993. High liver copper status was associated with low pasture
molybdenum, grazing paddocks recently topdressed with copper sulphate,
supplementing with mineralised drenches and copperised salt licks, and the high
copper content in chicory. Lamb liver copper concentrations were significantly
(p<0.05) higher in the autumn than in the summer on two of three farms.

PMID: 16031834 [PubMed]

170: J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Mar;45(3):189-92.

Crude extracts of hepatoprotective plants, Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus
inhibit free radical-mediated DNA damage.

Sultana S, Perwaiz S, Iqbal M, Athar M.

Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard
University) Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.

The presence of plant extracts of Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus in the
reaction mixture containing calf thymus DNA and free radical generating system
protect DNA against oxidative damage to its deoxyribose sugar moiety. The effect
was dependent on the concentration of plant extracts. However, the effect of
Cichorium intybus was much pronounced as compared to the effect of Solanum
nigrum. These studies suggest that the observed hepatoprotective effect of these
crude plant extracts may be due to their ability to suppress the oxidative
degradation of DNA in the tissue debris.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7623482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

171: Environ Mol Mutagen. 1995;25(2):154-61.

Characterization of mutagenic activity in instant hot beverage powders.

Johansson MA, Knize MG, Jagerstad M, Felton JS.

Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.

Extracts of several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees
were mutagenic in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024, and YG1029 with
metabolic activation. The beverage powders induced 150 to 500 TA98 and 1,150 to
4,050 YG1024 revertant colonies/g, respectively. Increased sensitivity was
achieved using strain YG1024. No mutagenic activity was found in instant hot
cocoa products. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be
stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment.
Differential bacterial strain specificity, and a requirement for metabolic
activation suggest that aromatic amines are present. Characterization of the
mutagenic activity, using HPLC and the Ames test of the collected fractions,
showed the coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees contain several
mutagenic compounds. Known heterocyclic amines are not responsible for the major
part of the mutagenic activity. The main mutagenic activity in grain-based
coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees is due to several unidentified
compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 7698108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

172: Rev Gastroenterol Peru. 1994 Jan-Apr;14(1):27-31.

[The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae]

[Article in Spanish]

Guevara JM, Chumpitaz J, Valencia E.

Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrion, Facultad de Medicina,
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru.

Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are
used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success.
When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro"
effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The
following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela
glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga,
Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota,
Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of
the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed
no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea
officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides,
Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction
of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity
and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusion
and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect
and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8018898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

173: J Chromatogr A. 1993 Oct 22;652(2):563-9.

Quantitation of organic acids in sugar refinery juices with capillary zone
electrophoresis and indirect UV detection.

Lalljie SP, Vindevogel J, Sandra P.

Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Ghent, Belgium.

During sugar refinement, monitoring of organic acids such as formate, tartrate,
succinate, malate, glycolate and acetate in the process "juices" is important
for process control. Matrix effects can lead to problems in conventional
chromatographic ion analysis of these solutions. Capillary zone electrophoresis,
with indirect UV detection, has been shown to be a good alternative, requiring
almost no sample preparation, other than dilution, and with fast analysis time
(less than 7 min). A co-elution problem for the formate-tartrate pair could be
solved by adding small amounts of bivalent metal ions to the electrophoresis
buffer. Quantitative analyses of the organic acids in the juices from beet sugar
production and from the processing of a hydrolysed chicory root extract
(Cichorium intybus) are reported.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8287143 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

174: Carbohydr Res. 1992 Nov 4;235:303-8.

Isolation and identification of
O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-D-fru ctose, a
product of the enzymic hydrolysis of the inulin from Cichorium intybus.

De Bruyn A, Alvarez AP, Sandra P, De Leenheer L.

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, University of Gent, Belgium.

PMID: 1473110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

175: Plant Physiol. 1991 Sep;97(1):322-329.

Enzymes of Nitrogen Assimilation Undergo Seasonal Fluctuations in the Roots of
the Persistent Weedy Perennial Cichorium intybus.

Sechley KA, Oaks A, Bewley JD.

Department of Botany, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.

Chicory (Cichorium intybus), a deep rooted weed, grows in regions with temperate
climates. Seasonal partitioning of compounds between the root and shoot results
in fluctuations in the soluble carbohydrate, nitrate, amino acid, and protein
pools within the roots. The activities of nitrate reductase (NR) (EC,
glutamine synthetase (EC, NADH (EC, ferrodoxin glutamate
synthase (EC, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) (EC vary
throughout the year and coincide with seasonal alterations in nitrate, fructose,
and sucrose. During the winter, NR, glutamine synthetase and ferrodoxin
glutamate synthase activities increase in the root, while GDH displays the
opposite trend with elevated activity in the summer months. All of these enzymes
exhibit seasonal alterations in abundance as detected by Western blot analysis,
increasing during the winter and, therefore, contributing to the seasonally
dynamic protein pool. Extensive fluctuations in abundance and activity of these
enzymes in the root occur during the spring and fall and coincide with shoot
growth and senescence, respectively. Several observations indicate that
posttranslational modifications of NR and GDH are taking place throughout the
year; for example, NR is particularly unstable during the spring and fall, and
seasonal GDH activity does not correlate with protein abundance.

PMID: 16668389 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

176: Planta Med. 1991 Feb;57(1):97-98.

Polyacetylenes from the Underground Parts of Cichorium intybus.

Rucker G, Noldenn U.

Pharmazeutisches Institut der Universitat Bonn, Kreuzbergweg 26, D-5300 Bonn 1,
Federal Republic of Germany.

PMID: 17226135 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

177: Naturwissenschaften. 1983 Jul;70(7):365-6.

Spermatogenic inhibition by Cichorium intybus L. aqueous root suspension in

Roy-Choudhury A, Venkatakrishna-Bhatt H.

PMID: 6888563 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

178: Ann Microbiol (Paris). 1975 Oct-Nov;126(3):405-8.

Assay of nitrogenase activity in intact plant systems.

Jain MK, Vlassak K.

Nitrogenase activity was assayed in intact system of Cichorium intybus, a
non-leguminous commercially cultivated crop, Dahlia pinnata and Helianthus
annus, and Taraxacum officinale, a common weed plant. The assay was made in
fabricated cylinders which could accomodate pot with plants. In such kind of
assay along with rhizosphere microflora, the nitrogen fixed by phyllosphere
nitrogen fixing microflora could also be accounted, which otherwise was
difficult to be accounted for.

PMID: 1211718 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

179: J Sci Food Agric. 1974 May;25(5):535-9.

Biochemical changes in the water-soluble carbohydrates during the development of
chicory (Cichorium intybus Linn) roots.

Bhatia IS, Mann SK, Singh R.

PMID: 4847779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

180: Planta Med. 1973 Oct;24(2):133-44.

Preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of the roots of
different varieties of Cichorium intybus.

Balbaa SI, Zaki AY, Abdel-Wahab SM, el-Denshary ES, Motazz-Bellah M.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 4765451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

181: Indian J Exp Biol. 1968 Jul;6(3):193-4.

Leaf protein from the green tops of Cichorium intybus L. (Chicory).

Mahadeviah S, Singh N.

PMID: 5718541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

182: Plant Physiol. 1966 Nov;41(9):1547-1548.

Auxin-induced Expansion Growth in Disks of Chicory Root (Cichorium intybus).

Laties GG, Kent M.

Department of Botanical Sciences, University of California Los Angeles,

Expansion growth in response to auxin in chicory root slices is greater than
that reported for any other fleshy tissue. Responsiveness depends on time of
harvest and duration of root storage.

PMID: 16656437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

183: Rev Pathol Gen Physiol Clin. 1964 Apr;64:209-10.


[Article in French]


PMID: 14204680 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]

184: Pol Tyg Lek (Wars). 1957 Jul 22;12(30):1163-4.

[Effect of chicory (cichorium) on neoplastic processes in rats.]

[Article in Polish]


PMID: 13465460 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]

185: C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci. 1952 Jun 4;234(23):2304-6.

[Disorders caused by freezing and thawing of living cells of chicory (endive).]

[Article in Undetermined Language]


PMID: 12979350 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]

186: C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci. 1951 Apr 9;232(15):1436-8.

[Effects of freezing on the intercellular meatuses in the root of Cichorium
intybus L. (variety of endive).]

[Article in Undetermined Language]


PMID: 14831229 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

187: Bull Soc Chim Biol (Paris). 1951;33(10):1584-90.

[Action of certain compounds with a lactone function derived from coumarin on
the germination of chicory seeds; study of the spectra of these derivatives.]

[Article in Undetermined Language]


PMID: 14935676 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE]