Clinical Studies

Abstracts are presented below for clinical studies on Ginger.

  • Botanical Name: Zingiber Officinale

  • Ayurvedic Name: Ardaka

  • Common Name: Ginger

Zingiber Officinale

Plant Phytonutrient Profile

1: Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Feb 13; [Epub ahead of print]

Inhibition of gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori growth by
phenolic antioxidants of Zingiber officinale.

Siddaraju MN, Dharmesh SM.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Fax: +91-0821-2517233.

Ulcer is a common global problem characterized by acute gastric irritability,
bleeding, etc. due to either increased gastric cell proton potassium ATPase
activity (PPA) or perturbation of mucosal defence. Helicobacter pylori has been
identified as a major ulcerogen in addition to oxidative stress and nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs. In this paper, we report ginger-free phenolic (GRFP)
and ginger hydrolysed phenolic (GRHP) fractions of ginger (Zingiber officinale)
as potent inhibitors of PPA and H. pylori growth. GRFP and GRHP inhibited PPA at
an IC(50) of 2.9 +/- 0.18 and 1.5 +/- 0.12 mug/mL, exhibiting six- to eight-fold
better potency over lansoprazole. GRFP is constituted by syringic (38%), gallic
(18%) and cinnamic (14%) acids and GRHP by cinnamic (48%), p-coumaric (34%) and
caffeic (6%) acids as major phenolic acids. GRFP and GRHP further exhibited free
radical scavenging (IC(50) 1.7 +/- 0.07 and 2.5 +/- 0.16), inhibition of lipid
peroxidation (IC(50) 3.6 +/- 0.21 and 5.2 +/- 0.46), DNA protection (80% at 4
mug) and reducing power abilities (80-338 U/g) indicating strong antioxidative
properties. GRFP and GRHP may thus be potential in-expensive multistep blockers
against ulcer.

PMID: 17295419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2: Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(4):509-18.

Characterization and identification of diarylheptanoids in ginger (Zingiber
officinale Rosc.) using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray
ionization mass spectrometry.

Jiang H, Timmermann BN, Gang DR.

Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

In our continuing investigation of diarylheptanoids in Zingiberaceae plants
using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
(LC/ESI-MS/MS), 26 diarylheptanoids were identified from fresh ginger rhizome.
Of the 26 compounds, 15 diarylheptanoids appear to be new compounds. In
addition, the majority of these compounds (18) were acetylated, which is
different from our investigation of diarylheptanoids from turmeric, another
member of the Zingiberaceae, which did not possess any acetylated
diarylheptanoids. In all, five distinct groups (homologous series) of
diarylheptanoids were found in extracts from ginger rhizome. These groups were
differentiated by structural differences on the heptane skeletons, whereas
homologs within each group differed by substitution patterns on the aromatic
rings. Diagnostic fragmentation behavior in (+)- and (-)ESI-MS/MS analyses for
each group of homologs, as well as information regarding polarity obtained from
retention time data, allowed us to classify compounds by group and identify them
based on key structural features. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 17238228 [PubMed - in process]

3: Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Nov 29; [Epub ahead of print]

Zingiber officinale Roscoe alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol
protect the kidney against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure.

Ajith TA, Nivitha V, Usha S.

Department of Biochemistry, Amala Institute of Medical Sciences, Amala Nagar,
Thrissur, Kerala 680 555, India.

Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen molecules (ROM)
is believed to be involved in the etiology of toxicities of many xenobiotics.
Evidences suggested that ROM is involved in the nephrotoxicity of a widely used
synthetic anticancer drug cisplatin. The nephroprotective effects of ethanol
extract of Zingiber officinale alone and in combination with vitamin E
(alpha-tocopherol) were evaluated using cisplatin (single dose of 10mg/kg body
wt, i.p) induced acute renal damage in mice. The results of the study indicated
that Z. officinale significantly and dose dependently protected the
nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin. The serum urea and creatinine levels in the
cisplatin alone treated group were significantly elevated (P<0.01) with respect
to normal group of animals. The levels were reduced in the Z. officinale (250
and 500mg/kg, p.o) plus cisplatin, vitamin E (250mg/kg) plus cisplatin, and Z.
officinale (250mg/kg) with vitamin E plus vitamin E treated groups. The renal
antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT),
glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and level of reduced glutathione (GSH)
were declined; level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was elevated in the cisplatin
alone treated group. The activities of SOD, CAT GPx and level of GSH were
elevated and level of MDA declined significantly (P<0.05) in the Z. officinale
(250 and 500mg/kg) plus cisplatin and Z. officinale (250mg/kg) with vitamin E
plus cisplatin treated groups. The protective effect of Z. officinale (250mg/kg
body wt) was found to be better than that of vitamin E (250mg/kg body wt). The
results also demonstrated that combination of Z. officinale (250mg/kg) with
vitamin E (250mg/kg) showed a better protection compared to their 250mg/kg alone
treated groups. This study concluded that ethanol extract of Z. officinale alone
and in combination with vitamin E partially ameliorated cisplatin-induced
nephrotoxicity. This protection is mediated either by preventing the
cisplatin-induced decline of renal antioxidant defense system or by their direct
free radical scavenging activity.

PMID: 17210214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

4: Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Nov;44(11):892-7.

Ethanolic Zingiber officinale R. extract pretreatment alleviates
isoproterenol-induced oxidative myocardial necrosis in rats.

Ansari MN, Bhandari U, Pillai KK.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110
062, India.

Ethanolic Z. officinale (ZO) extract (200 mg/kg) pretreatment for 20 days in
isoproterenol (ISO)-treated rats significantly increased the levels of
endogenous myocardial antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and tissue
glutathione), decreased the levels of serum marker enzymes (lactate
dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase)
and increased myocardial lipid peroxides. Histological examination of rat's
heart section confirmed myocardial injury with ISO administration and near
normal pattern with ethanolic ZO extract pretreatment. The results of the
present study, for the first time, provide clear evidence that the ethanolic ZO
extract pretreatment enhances the antioxidant defense against ISO-induced
oxidative myocardial injury in rats and exhibit cardioprotective property.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17205709 [PubMed - in process]

5: J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Dec;106(12):2045-51.

Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets
in a southeastern city.

Sharpe PA, Granner ML, Conway JM, Ainsworth BE, Dobre M.

Prevention Research Center, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South
Carolina, 921 Assembly St, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. [email protected]

The sale of nonprescription weight-loss products accounts for millions of
dollars spent by Americans trying to lose weight, yet there is little evidence
for effectiveness and there are multiple safety concerns. The purpose of this
study was to determine what products, and ingredients within products, were
available at retail outlets in a metropolitan area. A purposive sampling
strategy identified 73 retail outlets. An audit form was used to collect
information from product labels. The audit identified 402 products containing
4,053 separate ingredients. The mean number of ingredients per product was
9.9+/-8.96 (range = 1 to 96). A database search was conducted regarding evidence
for effectiveness, safety precautions, and side effects for the 10 ingredients
that appeared most often across products. Modest evidence of effectiveness
exists for green tea (Camellia sinensis), chromium picolinate, and ma huang
(Ephedra major). For the remaining seven (ginger root [Zingiber officinale],
guarana [Paullinia cupana], hydroxycitric acid [Garcinia cambogia], white willow
[Salix alba], Siberian ginseng [Eleutherococcus senticosus], cayenne [Capsicum
annuum], and bitter orange/zhi shi [Citrus aurantium]), inadequate or negative
evidence exists. Although precautions and contraindications were found for all
10 ingredients, the strongest concerns in the literature appear for ma huang,
bitter orange, and guarana. Our audit revealed numerous weight-loss products
available to consumers, yet there is little evidence to support the
effectiveness of the top 10 ingredients identified and many potential adverse
reactions; therefore, food and nutrition professionals should discuss dietary
supplement use with their clients.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 17126636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: J Sep Sci. 2006 Oct;29(15):2292-5.

Determination of 6-gingerol in ginger (Zingiber officinale) using
high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

Rai S, Mukherjee K, Mal M, Wahile A, Saha BP, Mukherjee PK.

School of Natural Product Studies, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,
Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

A sensitive and accurate High-Performance TLC (HPTLC) method has been developed
to determine the quantity of 6-gingerol in rhizomes of Zingiber officinale
(family: Zingiberaceae), commonly known as ginger. Methanol extracts of rhizomes
from three different sources were used for HPTLC, n-hexane, and diethyl ether
(40:60 v/v) as the mobile phase. The Rf of 6-gingerol was found to be 0.40. The
calibration plot was linear in the range of 250-1200 ng of 6-gingerol and the
correlation coefficient of 0.9997 was indicative of good linear dependence of
peak area on concentration. The mean quantity of 6-gingerol was found to be
60.44+/-2.53 mg/g of ginger extract. The method permits reliable quantification
of 6-gingerol and good resolution and separation of 6-gingerol from other
constituents of ginger. To study the accuracy and precision of the method,
recovery studies were performed by the method of standard addition. Recovery
values from 99.79 to 99.84% showed the excellent reliability and reproducibility
of the method. The proposed HPTLC method for quantitative monitoring of
6-gingerol in ginger can be used for routine quality testing of ginger extracts.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17120812 [PubMed - in process]

7: Harefuah. 2006 Oct;145(10):738-42, 782.

[Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle]

[Article in Hebrew]

Ben-Arye E, Oren A, Ben-Arie A.

The Complementary and Traditional Medicine Unit, Department of Family Medicine,
Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
[email protected]

Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat
various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19
randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs
in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the
first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data
support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS,
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and
(Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and
more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety
of these herbal remedies.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17111709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8: Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(5):845-55.

Ginger significantly decreased the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine in rats.

Chiang HM, Chao PD, Hsiu SL, Wen KC, Tsai SY, Hou YC.

School of Cosmeceutics, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 404, ROC.

Ginger (roots of Zingiber officinale ROSCOE) is a popular spice and herbal
medicine worldwide. Cyclosporine is clinically used as an important
immunosupressant with narrow therapeutic index. This study attempted to
investigate the effect of ginger juice on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine
in rats. Rats were orally administered cyclosporine alone and in combination
with ginger juice (5 ml/kg) concomitantly, as well as 2 hours after the ginger
juice, respectively, in crossover designs. In addition, rats were intravenously
administered cyclosporine with and without an oral dose of ginger juice (5
ml/kg). The blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at determined time
points and cyclosporine concentrations were determined by a specific monoclonal
fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The pharmacokinetic parameters of
cyclosporine were calculated using a non-compartment model of WINNONLIN. The
results indicated that concomitant intake of ginger significantly decreased
C(max) and AUC(0-t) of oral cyclosporine by 70.9% and 63.1%, respectively. The
intake of ginger 2 hours before cyclosporine significantly decreased C(max) and
AUC(0-t) by 51.4% and 40.3%, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of
intravenous cyclosporine not altered by orally in combination with ginger juice.
In conclusion, ginger significantly decreased the oral bioavailability of
cyclosporine, and the interaction should occur at the absorption phase. Patients
treated with cyclosporine should be discouraged from using ginger products to
ensure the efficacy of cyclosporine.

PMID: 17080549 [PubMed - in process]

9: Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Aug;29(8):810-3.

[Protective effect of effective parts of Zingiber Offecinal on vascular
endothelium of the experimental hyperlipidemic rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Wu CX, Wei XB, Ding H, Sun X, Cheng XM.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine Shandong University, Jinan
250012, China. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To observe the influence of effective parts of Zingiber Officinale on
serum IL-6, TNF-alpha in oroler to investigate the protective effects of the
effective parts of Zingiber Officinal (EPZ) on endothelium of the experimental
hyperlipidemic rats and the mechanism of its effects. METHODS: The
hyperlipidemia model of rats was constructed by feeding high-fat forage and
filled with the effective parts of Zingiber Officinale 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 800
mg/kg every day for 13 weeks. Blood was drawn to determine both the level of
serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha. All the aortaes were taken to oberserve morphologic
change and the intima-media thickness were detected. RESULTS: The effective
parts of Zingiber Officinale could markedly decrease intima-media thickness, but
had no marked influence in the level of serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha. CONCLUSION:
The Effect Parts of Zingiber Officinale has the effect of protection of the
endothelia of hyperlipidemia rats, which has nothing with the level of serum
IL-6 and TNF-alpha.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 17076241 [PubMed - in process]

10: Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006 Nov;386(6):1863-8. Epub 2006 Sep 19.

Rapid analysis of the essential oils from dried Illicium verum Hook. f. and
Zingiber officinale Rosc. by improved solvent-free microwave extraction with
three types of microwave-absorption medium.

Wang Z, Wang L, Li T, Zhou X, Ding L, Yu Y, Yu A, Zhang H.

College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, People's Republic of

A new method of extracting essential oils from dried plant materials has been
studied. By adding a microwave-absorption medium (MAM) to a reactor,
solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) was improved and can be used to extract
essential oils from dried plant material without pretreatment. With a microwave
irradiation power of 85 W it took only approximately 30 min to extract the
essential oils completely. The whole extraction process is simple, rapid, and
economical. Three types of MAM, iron carbonyl powder (ICP), graphite powder
(GP), and activated carbon powder (ACP), and two types of dried plant material,
Illicium verum Hook. f. and Zingiber officinale Rosc., were studied. The results
were compared with those obtained by use of conventional SFME,
microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD), and conventional hydrodistillation
(HD), and the conclusion drawn was that improved SFME was a feasible means of
extracting essential oils from dried plant materials, because there were few
differences between the composition of the essential oils extracted by improved
SFME and by the other methods.

PMID: 17047940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11: J Clin Rheumatol. 2004 Oct;10(5):236-245.

A 32-Week Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Evaluation of RA-11, an
Ayurvedic Drug, on Osteoarthritis of the Knees.

Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D.

From the *Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Inlaks and Budhrani Hospital, Bharati
Hospital Medical College (Deemed University), Pune, India; daggerAverion, Inc.,
Framingham, Massachusetts; the double daggerSchool of Health Sciences,
University of Pune, India; and section signBIO-VED Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San
Jose, California.

BACKGROUND:: The ancient Indian (Asian) Ayurvedic medicinal system uses
herbomineral drugs to treat arthritis. Despite centuries of use, very few have
been tested by drug trials. RA-11 (ARTREX, MENDAR), a standardized multiplant
Ayurvedic drug (Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and
Curcuma longa) is currently used to treat arthritis. OBJECTIVE:: The objective
of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RA-11 in patients with
symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) of the knees. METHODS:: A total of 358 patients
with chronic knee pain were screened free-of-cost in "arthritis camps" in an
Indian metropolis. Ninety patients with primary OA of the knees (ACR
classification; Arthritis Rheum 1986;29:1039-1049) were found eligible
(postanalgesic washout pain visual analog score [VAS] >/=40 mm in either or both
knees on body weight-bearing activities) to enroll into a randomized,
double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel efficacy, single-center, 32-week drug
trial (80% power to detect 25% difference, P = 0.05, 2-sided). Concurrent
analgesics/nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and steroids in any form were not
allowed. Lifestyle and/or dietary restrictions, as per routine Ayurveda
practices, were not imposed. Pain VAS (maximum pain in each knee recorded by the
patient during the preceding 48 hours) and modified WOMAC (Western Ontario
McMaster University OA Index, Likert scale, version 3.0) were the primary
efficacy variables. The WOMAC section on "physical function difficulty" was
modified for Indian use and validated before the trial. Routine laboratory
testing was primarily done to monitor drug safety. At baseline, the groups
(active = 45, placebo = 45) were well matched for several measures (mean pain
VAS: active = 6.17; placebo = 6.5). RESULTS:: 1) Efficacy: Compared with
placebo, the mean reduction in pain VAS at week 16 (active = 2.7, placebo = 1.3)
and week 32 (active = 2.8, placebo = 1.8) in the active group was significantly
(P <0.05, analysis of variance [ANOVA]) better. Similarly, the improvement in
the WOMAC scores at week 16 and week 32 were also significantly superior (P
<0.01, ANOVA) in the active group. 2) Safety: Both the groups reported mild
adverse events (AE) without any significant difference. 3) Withdrawals:
Twenty-eight patients were discontinued. None reported drug-related toxicity.
The majority failed follow up/compliance. No differences were observed between
the groups. CONCLUSION:: This controlled drug trial demonstrates the potential
efficacy and safety of RA- 11 in the symptomatic treatment of OA knees over 32
weeks of therapy.

PMID: 17043520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

12: Br J Nutr. 2006 Oct;96(4):660-6.

Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen-Shalaby R, Ali M.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University,
13060-Safat, Kuwait.

In the present study, the hypoglycaemic potentials of ginger (Zingiber
officinale) were studied in rats. An aqueous extract of raw ginger was
administered daily (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for a period of 7 weeks to
streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood serum was analysed for
blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. The STZ-injected rats
exhibited hyperglycaemia accompanied with weight loss, indicating their diabetic
condition. At a dose of 500 mg/kg, raw ginger was significantly effective in
lowering serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the
ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats. The ginger
treatment also resulted in a significant reduction in urine protein levels. In
addition, the ginger-treated diabetic rats sustained their initial weights
during the treatment period. Moreover, ginger decreased both water intake and
urine output in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. The present results indicate that
raw ginger possesses hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidaemic
potential. Additionally, raw ginger is effective in reversing the diabetic
proteinuria observed in the diabetic rats. Thus, ginger may be of great value in
managing the effects of diabetic complications in human subjects.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 17010224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13: J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Feb 12;109(3):535-8. Epub 2006 Aug 15.

Anti-allergic activity of some selected plants in the Zingiberaceae family.

Tewtrakul S, Subhadhirasakul S.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical
Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand.

Ethanolic and water extracts, together with volatile oils from the rhizomes of
six selected Zingiberaceous plants, including Curcuma mangga, Kaempferia
galanga, Kaempferia parviflora, Zingiber cassumunar, Zingiber officinale and
Zingiber zerumbet were investigated for their anti-allergic activities using a
RBL-2H3 cell line. The ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Kaempferia parviflora
exhibited the most potent anti-allergic effect against antigen-induced
beta-hexosaminidase release as a marker of degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells, with
an IC(50) value of 10.9mug/ml, followed by Zingiber cassumunar (EtOH,
IC(50)=12.9mug/ml) and Curcuma mangga (water, IC(50)=36.1mug/ml). The volatile
oils of these six plants were apparently inactive (IC(50)>100mug/ml). The crude
extracts were also tested on beta-hexosaminidase activity to clarify whether
their effects were due to the inhibition of enzyme activity or of degranulation.
As a result, the plant extracts were inactive against the enzyme activity of
beta-hexosaminidase. These findings support the use in Thai traditional medicine
of these selected Zingiberaceous plants, especially Kaempferia parviflora and
Zingiber cassumunar, for treatment of allergy and allergic-related diseases.

PMID: 16978816 [PubMed - in process]

14: Pharmazie. 2006 Aug;61(8):717-21.

Inhibition of viral proteases by Zingiberaceae extracts and flavones isolated
from Kaempferia parviflora.

Sookkongwaree K, Geitmann M, Roengsumran S, Petsom A, Danielson UH.

Research Centre for Bioorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of
Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

In order to identify novel lead compounds with antiviral effect, methanol and
aqueous extracts of eight medicinal plants in the Zingiberaceae family were
screened for inhibition of proteases from human immunodeficiency virus type 1
(HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In general,
the methanol extracts inhibited the enzymes more effectively than the aqueous
extracts. HIV-1 protease was strongly inhibited by the methanol extract of
Alpinia galanga. This extract also inhibited HCV and HCMV proteases, but to a
lower degree. HCV protease was most efficiently inhibited by the extracts from
Zingiber officinale, with little difference between the aqueous and the methanol
extracts. Many of the methanol extracts inhibited HCMV protease, but the aqueous
extracts showed weak inhibition. In a first endeavor to identify the active
constituents, eight flavones were isolated from the black rhizomes of Kaempferia
parviflora. The most effective inhibitors, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone and
5,7-dimethoxyflavone, inhibited HIV-1 protease with IC50 values of 19 microM.
Moreover, 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone inhibited HCV protease and HCMV
protease with IC50 values of 190 and 250 microM, respectively.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16964717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15: Phytochemistry. 2006 Oct;67(20):2239-55. Epub 2006 Sep 11.

Metabolic profiling of in vitro micropropagated and conventionally greenhouse
grown ginger (Zingiber officinale).

Ma X, Gang DR.

Department of Plant Sciences and BIO5 Institute, The University of Arizona, 303
Forbes Building, Tucson, 85721-0036, USA.

Ginger is an important medicinal and culinary herb, known worldwide for its
health promoting properties. Because ginger does not reproduce by seed, but is
clonally propagated via rhizome division and replanting, it is susceptible to
accumulation and transmittance of pathogens from generation to generation. In
addition, such propagation techniques lead to slow multiplication of
particularly useful stocks. We have developed an in vitro propagation method to
alleviate these problems. Metabolic profiling, using GC/MS and LC-ESI-MS, was
used to determine if chemical differences existed between greenhouse grown or in
vitro micropropagation derived plants. Three different ginger lines were
analyzed. The constituent gingerols and gingerol-related compounds, other
diarylheptanoids, and methyl ether derivatives of these compounds, as well as
major mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified. Principal component analysis
and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chemical differences between lines
(yellow ginger vs. white ginger and blue ring ginger) and tissues (rhizome,
root, leaf and shoot). However, this analysis indicated that no significant
differences existed between growth treatments (conventional greenhouse grown vs.
in vitro propagation derived plants). Further statistical analyses (ANOVA)
confirmed these results. These findings suggest that the biochemical mechanisms
used to produce the large array of compounds found in ginger are not affected by
in vitro propagation.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16963091 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

16: Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun;101(4):387-90.

Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus
aureus diseases.

Betoni JE, Mantovani RP, Barbosa LN, Di Stasi LC, Fernandes Junior A.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Estadual
Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brasil.

Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal
plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are
frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases.
The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs
and 8 plant extracts--"guaco" (Mikania glomerata), guava (Psidium guajava),
clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic (Allium sativum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon
citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera), and
mint (Mentha piperita)--against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this
purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed.
Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at
sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA), and the inhibitory
zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus
activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all
the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate
with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16951808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

17: Phytother Res. 2006 Nov;20(11):997-1002.

Protective effects of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) against carbon
tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

Yemitan OK, Izegbu MC.

Department of Pharmacology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, P.M.B.
21266, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. [email protected]

The effect of the ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale was
tested against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and acetaminophen-induced liver
toxicities in rats. Increases in serum and liver marker enzymes such as alanine
aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline
phosphatase as well as sorbitol and glutamate dehydrogenases were produced in
normal rats that were not pretreated with the extract. However,
extract-pretreated rats attenuated in a dose-dependent manner, CCl(4) and
acetaminophen-induced increases in the activities of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and SDH
in the blood serum. The protective effect of the extract on CCl(4) and
acetaminophen-induced damage was confirmed by histopathological examination of
the liver. These results indicate that the oil from the rhizome of Zingiber
officinale could be useful in preventing chemically induced acute liver injury.
Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16941609 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

18: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 6;54(18):6640-4.

Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose
reductase activity in vitro and in vivo.

Kato A, Higuchi Y, Goto H, Kizu H, Okamoto T, Asano N, Hollinshead J, Nash RJ,
Adachi I.

Department of Hospital Pharmacy, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan.
[email protected]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) continues to be used as an important cooking
spice and herbal medicine around the world. Scientific research has gradually
verified the antidiabetic effects of ginger. Especially gingerols, which are the
major components of ginger, are known to improve diabetes including the effect
of enhancement against insulin-sensitivity. Aldose reductase inhibitors have
considerable potential for the treatment of diabetes, without increased risk of
hypoglycemia. The assay for aldose reductase inhibitors in ginger led to the
isolation of five active compounds including
2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol (2) and
2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanoic acid (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were good
inhibitors of recombinant human aldose reductase, with IC50 values of 19.2 +/-
1.9 and 18.5 +/- 1.1 microM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds
significantly suppressed not only sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes
but also lens galactitol accumulation in 30% of galactose-fed cataract rat
model. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that the applicable side
alkyl chain length and the presence of a C3 OCH3 group in the aromatic ring are
essential features for enzyme recognition and binding. These results suggested
that it would contribute to the protection against or improvement of diabetic
complications for a dietary supplement of ginger or its extract containing
aldose reductase inhibitors.

PMID: 16939321 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

19: Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Aug;24(4):1042-52.

6-Shogaol, a natural product, reduces cell death and restores motor function in
rat spinal cord injury.

Kyung KS, Gon JH, Geun KY, Sup JJ, Suk WJ, Ho KJ.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, 1-10
Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan, South Korea. [email protected]

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in progressive waves of secondary injuries,
which via the activation of a barrage of noxious pathological mechanisms
exacerbate the injury to the spinal cord. Secondary injuries are associated with
edema, inflammation, excitotoxicity, excessive cytokine release, caspase
activation and cell apoptosis. This study was aimed at investigating the
possible neuroprotective effects of 6-shogaol purified from Zingiber officinale
by comparing an experimental SCI rat group with SCI control rats. Shogaol
attenuated apoptotic cell death, including poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity,
and reduced astrogliosis and hypomyelination which occurs in areas of active
cell death in the spinal cords of SCI rats. The foremost protective effect of
shogaol in SCI would therefore be manifested in the suppression of the acute
secondary apoptotic cell death. However, it does not attenuate active microglia
and macrophage infiltration. This finding is supported by a lack of
histopathological changes in the areas of the lesion in the shogaol-treated SCI
rats. Moreover, shogaol-mediated neuroprotection has been linked with shogaol's
attenuation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, p-SAPK/JNK and signal
transducer, and with transcription-3 activation. Our results demonstrate that
shogaol administrated immediately after SCI significantly diminishes functional
deficits. The shogaol-treated group recovered hindlimb reflexes more rapidly and
a higher percentage of these rats regained responses compared with the untreated
injured rats. The overall hindlimb functional improvement of hindlimbs, as
measured by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale, was significantly enhanced
in the shogaol-treated group relative to the SCI control rats. Our data show
that the therapeutic outcome of shogaol probably results from its comprehensive
effects of blocking apoptotic cell death, resulting in the protection of white
matter, oligodendrocytes and neurons, and inhibiting astrogliosis. Our finding
that the administration of shogaol prevents secondary pathological events in
traumatic SCIs and promotes recovery of motor functions in an animal model
raises the issue of whether shogaol could be used therapeutically in humans
after SCI.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16930431 [PubMed - in process]

20: Protein Expr Purif. 2007 Jan;51(1):71-9. Epub 2006 Jul 12.

Improved conditions for production of recombinant plant sesquiterpene synthases
in Escherichia coli.

Picaud S, Olsson ME, Brodelius PE.

Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, University of Kalmar, SE-39182
Kalmar, Sweden.

Amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ADS) from Artemisia annua and (+)-germacrene
synthase (GDS) from Zingiber officinale were expressed in Escherichia coli under
different conditions to optimize the yield of active soluble protein. The cDNAs
of these enzymes were inserted into the pET28 vector (Novagen) and expressed in
four different bacterial strains; BL21 (DE3), BL21 (DE3) Tuner, BL21 (DE3) pLysS
and BL21 (DE3) pLysS Tuner using different inducing agents (IPTG, The Inducer).
The effects of induction under osmotic stress in the presence of glycine betaine
and sorbitol were investigated. Although background expression for ADS was
reduced when using pLysS strains, no significant difference was noted for ADS
activity in soluble whole cell lysates after induction with either IPTG or The
Inducer. For GDS, on the other hand, the change between BL21 (DE3) cells and
BL21 (DE3) Tuner, induced with IPTG, leads to a twofold increase in enzyme
activity in the soluble fraction while a reduction in activity is observed when
using the pLysS strains. The same doubling of activity is observed for GDS when
the commonly used BL.21 (DE3) is induced with The Inducer. Addition of 2.5 mM
glycine betaine and 660 mM sorbitol to the bacterial growth media resulted in
reduction of growth rate and biomass yield but under these conditions the best
overall protein production, for both enzymes, was obtained. Compared to the
standard conditions previously used in our laboratory the yield of soluble
active protein was increased 7- and 2.5-fold for ADS and GDS, using BL21 (DE3)
pLysS Tuner and BL21 (DE3), respectively.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16908191 [PubMed - in process]

21: Phytother Res. 2006 Nov;20(11):1017-9.

Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative

Kang SC, Lee CM, Choi H, Lee JH, Oh JS, Kwak JH, Zee OP.

College of Pharmacy, SungKyunKwan University, Suwon, Gyonggi-Do, South Korea.

Herb extracts commercially used in Asia were screened for their estrogenic
activity with a recombinant yeast system with both a human estrogen receptor
(ER) expression plasmid and a reporter plasmid. Pueraria lobata (flower) had the
highest estrogenic relative potency (RP, 17-estradiol = 1.00) (7.8e-3) (RP for +
control), followed by Amomum xanthioides (1.3e-3), Glycyrrhiza uralensis,
Zingiber officinale, Rheum palmatum, Curcuma aromatica, Eriobotrya japonica,
Sophora flavescens, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Polygonum multiflorum and
Pueraria lobata (root) (9.5e-4-1.0e-4), and Prunus persica, Lycoppus lucidus and
Adenophora stricta (9.0e-5-8.0e-5). In the antiproliferative assay, five human
cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung and ovary) were
used. Eriobotrya japonica showed strong cytotoxicity in ER-negative breast
cancer (MDA-MB-231), cervix epitheloid (HeLa) and lung (A549) carcinoma cell
lines. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16906642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

22: Phytochemistry. 2006 Sep;67(18):2017-29. Epub 2006 Aug 7.

Biosynthesis of curcuminoids and gingerols in turmeric (Curcuma longa) and
ginger (Zingiber officinale): identification of curcuminoid synthase and
hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases.

Ramirez-Ahumada Mdel C, Timmermann BN, Gang DR.

Arizona Center for Phytomedicine Research and Department of Pharmacology and
Toxicology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0036, USA.

Members of the Zingiberaceae such as turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and ginger
(Zingiber officinale Rosc.) accumulate at high levels in their rhizomes
important pharmacologically active metabolites that appear to be derived from
the phenylpropanoid pathway. In ginger, these compounds are the gingerols; in
turmeric these are the curcuminoids. Despite their importance, little is known
about the biosynthesis of these compounds. This investigation describes the
identification of enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the production
of these bioactive natural products. Assays for enzymes in the phenylpropanoid
pathway identified the corresponding enzyme activities in protein crude extracts
from leaf, shoot and rhizome tissues from ginger and turmeric. These enzymes
included phenylalanine ammonia lyase, polyketide synthases, p-coumaroyl
shikimate transferase, p-coumaroyl quinate transferase, caffeic acid
O-methyltransferase, and caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, which were evaluated
because of their potential roles in controlling production of certain classes of
gingerols and curcuminoids. All crude extracts possessed activity for all of
these enzymes, with the exception of polyketide synthases. The results of
polyketide synthase assays showed detectable curcuminoid synthase activity in
the extracts from turmeric with the highest activity found in extracts from
leaves. However, no gingerol synthase activity could be identified. This result
was explained by the identification of thioesterase activities that cleaved
phenylpropanoid pathway CoA esters, and which were found to be present at high
levels in all tissues, especially in ginger tissues. These activities may shunt
phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates away from the production of curcuminoids
and gingerols, thereby potentially playing a regulatory role in the biosynthesis
of these compounds.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 16890967 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

23: Environ Mol Mutagen. 2006 Oct;47(8):624-30.

Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on DNA damage and development of
urothelial tumors in a mouse bladder carcinogenesis model.

Bidinotto LT, Spinardi-Barbisan AL, Rocha NS, Salvadori DM, Barbisan LF.

Department of Morphology, UNESP Sao Paulo State University, Institute of
Biosciences, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Extracts of the spice ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) are rich in gingerols
and shogaols, which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal,
antimycobacterial, and anticarcinogenic proprieties. The present study evaluated
the chemoprotective effects of a ginger extract on the DNA damage and the
development of bladder cancer induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxibutyl) nitrosamine
(BBN)/N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in male Swiss mice. Groups G1-G3 were given
0.05% BBN in drinking water for 18 weeks and four i.p. injections of 30 mg/kg
body weight MNU at 1, 3, 10, and 18 weeks. Group G4 and G5 received only the BBN
or MNU treatments, respectively, and groups G6 and G7 were not treated with BBN
or MNU. Additionally, Groups G2, G3, and G6 were fed diets containing 1, 2, and
2% ginger extract, respectively, while Groups G1, G4, G5, and G7 were fed basal
diet. Samples of peripheral blood were collected during the experiment for
genotoxicity analysis; blood collected 4 hr after each MNU dose was used for the
analysis of DNA damage with the Comet assay (assay performed on leukocytes from
all groups), while reticulocytes collected 24 hr after the last MNU treatment of
Groups G5-G7 were used for the micronucleus assay. At the end of the experiment,
the urinary bladder was removed, fixed, and prepared for histopathological, cell
proliferation, and apoptosis evaluations. Ginger by itself was not genotoxic,
and it did not alter the DNA damage levels induced by the BBN/MNU treatment
during the course of the exposure. The incidence and multiplicity of simple and
nodular hyperplasia and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) were increased by the
BBN/MNU treatment, but dietary ginger had no significant effect on these
responses. However, in Group G2 (BBN/MNU/2% ginger-treated group), there was an
increased incidence of Grade 2 TCC. The results suggest that ginger extract does
not inhibit the development of BBN-induced mouse bladder tumors. (c) 2006
Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16878317 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

24: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2006 Feb-Mar;57(1-2):65-73.

Species differences in the prokinetic effects of ginger.

Ghayur MN, Gilani AH.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University
Medical College, Karachi, Sind, Pakistan.

This study describes the prokinetic actions of the aqueous extract of ginger
(Zingiber officinale). Ginger extract (Zo.Cr), which tested positive for
saponins, terpenes, phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids, showed a spasmogenic
effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum with 8-50 times more potency than in rabbit
jejunum and ileum and rat stomach fundus and ileum. Spasmogenicity in all the
gut preparations except in guinea-pig ileum was atropine-sensitive. Zo.Cr
exhibited a stimulant effect in vivo in mice and enhanced the intestinal transit
of charcoal meal. A spasmolytic effect, mediated via Ca2 + antagonist activity,
was also exhibited by Zo.Cr, reflected in terms of inhibition of spontaneous
contractions, K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions and displacement of Ca2 +
dose-response curves. The ginger pure compounds (6-shogaol, 6-gingerol,
8-gingerol and 10-gingerol) also exhibited a spasmolytic activity, which reduced
with the increasing size of the side chain in their chemical structures. The
study showed that the aqueous extract of ginger exhibits species-specific
spasmogenicity in gut tissues of rabbit and rat (muscarinic-type) while through
an uncharacterized pathway in guinea-pig ileum, along with a dormant relaxant
effect, mediated via the blockade of voltage-dependent Ca2 + channels.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16849115 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

25: Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006 Aug 1;452(1):17-28. Epub 2006 Jun 21.

Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of recombinant
(+)-germacrene D synthase from Zingiber officinale.

Picaud S, Olsson ME, Brodelius M, Brodelius PE.

Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences, University of Kalmar, SE-39182
Kalmar, Sweden.

A cDNA clone encoding a sesquiterpene synthase, (+)-germacrene D synthase, has
been isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale). The full-length cDNA (AY860846)
contains a 1650-bp open reading frame coding for 550 amino acids (63.8kDa) with
a theoretical pI=5.59. The deduced amino acid sequence is 30-46% identical with
sequences of other sesquiterpene synthases from angiosperms. The recombinant
enzyme, produced in Escherichia coli, catalyzed the formation of a major
product, (+)-germacrene D (50.2% of total sesquiterpenoids produced) and a
co-product, germacrene B (17.1%) and a number of minor by-products. The optimal
pH for the recombinant enzyme is around 7.5. Substantial (+)-germacrene D
synthase activity is observed in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+ or Co2+, while
the enzyme is inactive when Cu2+ or Zn2+ is used. The Km- and kcat-values are
0.88 microM and 3.34 x 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. A reaction mechanism
involving a double 1,2-hydride shift has been established using deuterium
labeled substrates in combination with GC-MS analysis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16839518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

26: Phytother Res. 2006 Sep;20(9):764-72.

Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of
Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats.

Ojewole JA.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of
KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa. [email protected]

The present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, antiinflammatory
and hypoglycaemic effects of Zingiber officinale dried rhizomes ethanol extract
(ZOE) in mice and rats. The analgesic effect of ZOE was evaluated by 'hot-plate'
and 'acetic acid' analgesic test methods in mice; while the antiinflammatory and
hypoglycaemic effects of the plant extract were investigated in rats, using
fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced
diabetes mellitus models. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg)
and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs for comparison. ZOE
(50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001)
analgesic effects against thermally and chemically induced nociceptive pain in
mice. The plant extract (ZOE, 50-800 mg/kg p.o.) also significantly (p <
0.05-0.001) inhibited fresh egg albumin-induced acute inflammation, and caused
dose-related, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycaemia in normal
(normoglycaemic) and diabetic rats. The findings of this experimental animal
study indicate that Zingiber officinale rhizomes ethanol extract possesses
analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties; and thus lend
pharmacological support to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of ginger in the
treatment and/or management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions, as
well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in some
rural Africa communities. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16807883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

27: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Jun;84(2):179-88. Epub 2006 Jun 21.

Zingiber officinale exhibits behavioral radioprotection against
radiation-induced CTA in a gender-specific manner.

Haksar A, Sharma A, Chawla R, Kumar R, Arora R, Singh S, Prasad J, Gupta M,
Tripathi RP, Arora MP, Islam F, Sharma RK.

Division of Radiological Imaging, Bio-informatics and Radiation Biology,
Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road,
Delhi-110054, India.

At the organismic level, exposure to radiation can produce taste aversion (CTA)
learning and emesis, which have been proposed as behavioral endpoints that are
mediated by harmful effects of radiations on peripheral systems, primarily the
gastrointestinal system. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to study
the gastroprotective action of hydroalcoholic extract of zingiber rhizome
(Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion
(CTA) in both male and female species of animals, for testing its potential as a
behavioral radioprotector. Administration of zingiber extract 1 h before 2-Gy
gamma-radiation was significantly effective in blocking the saccharin avoidance
response, with 200 and 250 mg/kg b.wt. i.p., being the most effective doses for
male and female rats, respectively. A comparison of the efficacy of zingiber
extract with two antiemetic drugs, ondansteron and dexamethasone, revealed that
the extract rendered comparable protection against radiation-induced CTA. Our
experiments also confirmed the existence of sex dichotomy (i.e., the sex of
animal greatly influenced response towards radiation exposure) in relation to
behavioral responses (CTA) or differential metabolism. The observed gender
variations were hypothesized to be a result of hormonal fluctuations and
differences in pharmacological parameters in male and female rats. To correlate
the mechanism of action, the free-radical-scavenging potential of zingiber
extract to scavenge hydroxyl ion and nitric oxide was also tested, in cell-free
system and a concentration of 1000 microg/ml, was found to be the most potent,
which has been proposed as one the many activities assisting in its overall
ability to modulate radiation-induced taste aversion. The results demonstrate
that Z. officinale possesses antioxidant, radioprotective and neuromodulatory
properties that can be effectively utilized for behavioral radioprotection and
for efficiently mitigating radiation-induced CTA in both males and females

PMID: 16797061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

28: J AOAC Int. 2006 May-Jun;89(3):595-605.

Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study.

Arranz I, Sizoo E, van Egmond H, Kroeger K, Legarda TM, Burdaspal P, Reif K,
Stroka J.

Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel,

A method was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs
(senna pods, botanical name Cassia angustifolia; devil's claw, botanical name
Harpagophytum procumbens; and ginger roots, botanical name Zingiber officinale).
The method, which was tested in a mini-collaborative study by 4 laboratories, is
based on an immunoaffinity cleanup followed by reversed-phase high-performance
liquid chromatography separation and fluorescence detection after post-column
derivatization. It allows the quantitation of aflatoxin B1 at levels lower than
2 ng/g. A second extractant (acetone-water) was tested and compared to the
proposed methanol-water extractant. Several post-column derivatization options
(electrochemically generated bromine, photochemical reaction, and chemical
bromination) as well as different integration modes (height versus area) were
also investigated. No differences were found depending on the choice of
derivatization system or the signal integration mode used. The method was tested
for 3 different matrixes: senna pods, ginger root, and devil's claw. Performance
characteristics were established from the results of the study and resulted in
HorRat values ranging from 0.12 to 0.75 with mean recoveries from 78 to 91% for
the extraction with methanol-water and HorRat values ranging from 0.10-1.03 with
mean recoveries from 98 to 103% for the extraction with acetone-water. As a
result, the method, with all tested variations, was found to be fit-for-purpose
for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs at levels of 1 microg/kg
and above.

Publication Types:
Multicenter Study

PMID: 16792057 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

29: Asian J Androl. 2006 Sep;8(5):607-12. Epub 2006 Jun 5.

Effects of Roselle and Ginger on cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in

Amin A, Hamza AA.

Department of Biology, United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain 17555, United
Arab Emirates. [email protected]

AIM: To evaluate the protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and
Zingiber officinale (Ginger) against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in
rats and to study the mechanisms underlying these effects. METHODS: Ethanol
extracts of H.sabdariffa or Z.officinale (1g/kg x day) were given p.o. to male
albino rats for 26 days, which began 21 days before a single cisplatin i.p.
injection (10 mg/kg body weight). RESULTS: Extracts of H.sabdariffa and
Z.officinale reduced the extent of cisplatin-induced sperm abnormality and
enhanced sperm motility. Both extracts restored the control level of
malondialdehyde (MDA) (lipid peroxidation marker) in the cisplatin-treated
testis. The cisplatin injection induced decline in the levels of superoxide
dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were significantly
reversed to control levels in groups where cisplatin was preceded by the
administration of either H.sabdariffa or Z.officinale. CONCLUSION: Both
H.sabdariffa and Z.officinale treatment increased the activities of testicular
antioxidant enzymes and restored sperm motility of cisplatin-treated rats. The
protective effects of tested plants are, therefore, suggested to be mediated by
their potent antioxidant activities.

PMID: 16751998 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

30: Planta Med. 2006 Jun;72(8):727-34. Epub 2006 May 29.

Gingerol metabolite and a synthetic analogue Capsarol inhibit macrophage
NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression and enzyme activity.

Aktan F, Henness S, Tran VH, Duke CC, Roufogalis BD, Ammit AJ.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine,
with beneficial effects reported in numerous diseases, including inflammation.
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a proinflammatory enzyme responsible for
the generation of nitric oxide (NO), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of
inflammatory diseases. Gingerols, the main pungent principles of ginger, have
anti-inflammatory properties in vitro. In this study we examine the inhibitory
effect of a stable [6]-gingerol metabolite, RAC-[6]-dihydroparadol ([6]-DHP) and
a closely related gingerol analogue,
RAC-2-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)dodecan-3-one [a capsaicin/gingerol
(Capsarol) analogue referred to as ZTX42] on NO production, inducible nitric
oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and protein expression levels in a murine
macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Both ZTX42 and [6]-DHP significantly inhibited
lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in a concentration-dependent manner,
with an IC (50) of 1.45 +/- 0.03 microM and 7.24 +/- 0.22 microM, respectively
(P < 0.05). Although both compounds partially inhibited the catalytic activity
of iNOS, their inhibitory effect was predominantly due to attenuation of iNOS
protein production. This occurred at the transcriptional level, since the
gingerol compounds decreased LPS-induced IkappaB-alpha degradation, prevented
nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 and reduced NF-kappaB activity in a
concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results show that ZTX42
and [6]-DHP suppress NO production in murine macrophages by partially inhibiting
iNOS enzymatic activity and reducing iNOS protein production, via attenuation of
NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression, providing a rationale for the
anti-inflammatory activity reported for this class of compounds.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16732525 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

31: Phytomedicine. 2007 Feb;14(2-3):123-8. Epub 2006 May 18.

The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production.

Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Sarihan M, Solyom AM, Jolad SD, Timmermann BN.

Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 245044,
Tucson, AZ 85724, USA; Arizona Center for Phytomedicine Research, University of
Arizona, P.O. Box 210207, Tucson AZ 85721, USA.

Compounds from rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, commonly called ginger, have
been purported to have anti-inflammatory actions. We have used an in vitro test
system to test the anti-inflammatory activity of compounds isolated from ginger
rhizome. U937 cells were differentiated and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
from Escherichia coli (1mug/ml) in the presence or absence of organic extracts
or standard compounds found in ginger (6-, 8-, 10-gingerol or 6-shogaol) for
24h. Supernatants were collected and analyzed for the production of
prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by
standard ELISA assays. Predominant compounds in the organic extracts were
identified as 6-, 8- 10-gingerols and 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols. Organic extracts or
standards containing gingerols were not cytotoxic, while extracts or standards
containing predominantly shogaols were cytotoxic at concentrations above
20mug/ml. Crude organic extracts of ginger were capable of inhibiting LPS
induced PGE(2) (IC(50)<0.1mug/ml) production. However, extracts were not nearly
as effective at inhibiting TNF-alpha (IC(50)>30mug/ml). Thirty three fractions
and subfractions, prepared by column chromatography, were analyzed for
bioactivity. Extracts containing either predominantly gingerols or shogaols
(identified by HPLC) were both highly active at inhibiting LPS-induced PGE(2)
production (IC(50)<0.1mug/ml), while extracts that contained unknown compounds
were less effective (IC(50)<3.2mug/ml). Extracts or standards containing
predominantly gingerols were capable of inhibiting LPS-induced COX-2 expression
while shogaol containing extracts had no effect on COX-2 expression. These data
demonstrate that compounds found in ginger are capable of inhibiting PGE(2)
production and that the compounds may act at several sites.

PMID: 16709450 [PubMed - in process]

32: Int J Dermatol. 2006 Apr;45(4):460-8.

Inhibition of ultraviolet-B-induced wrinkle formation by an elastase-inhibiting
herbal extract: implication for the mechanism underlying elastase-associated

Tsukahara K, Nakagawa H, Moriwaki S, Takema Y, Fujimura T, Imokawa G.

Department of Dermatology, Jichi Medical School, and Kao Biological Science
Laboratories, Tochigi, Japan.

BACKGROUND: Previously, we have demonstrated that fibroblast-derived elastase
plays an essential role in the increased three-dimensional tortuosity of elastic
fibers, contributing to the loss of skin elasticity in UV-B-exposed skin. This
decrease in skin elasticity is closely associated with the formation of wrinkles
induced by UV exposure. OBJECTIVE: To further clarify the role of elastase in
the formation of wrinkles induced by UV exposure, we assessed the effects of an
extract of Zingiber officinale (L.) Rose (which inhibits fibroblast-derived
elastase) on the wrinkle formation induced by chronic UV-B irradiation. RESULTS:
Topical application of an extract of Zingiber officinale (L.) Rose to rat or
hairless mouse skin significantly inhibited the wrinkle formation induced by
chronic UV-B irradiation at a suberythemal dose, which was accompanied by a
significant prevention of the decrease in skin elasticity in both types of
animal skin. In the rat hind limb skin, consistent with the inhibition of
reduced skin elasticity, wrinkle prevention occurred concomitantly with a
significant decrease in the curling and three-dimensional tortuosity of dermal
elastic fibers. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that herbal extracts with an
ability to inhibit fibroblast-derived elastase may prove to be effective as
anti-wrinkling agents, confirming the important role of elastase in UV-B-induced
wrinkle formation.

PMID: 16650179 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

33: Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006 Aug;385(7):1241-6. Epub 2006 Mar 28.

Design of a method for generation of gas-phase hydroxyl radicals, and use of
HPLC with fluorescence detection to assess the antioxidant capacity of natural
essential oils.

Pezo D, Salafranca J, Nerin C.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragon Institute of Engineering Research
I3A, CPS - University of Zaragoza, Torres Quevedo Bldg., Maria de Luna St. 3,
50018, Zaragoza, Spain.

The use of natural antioxidants is of increasing importance in the human diet,
because they are recognised as compounds essential to health which minimize or
delay the aging process. Despite apparent simplicity, however, it is very
difficult to measure and quantify such properties, for which a robust analytical
method is required. Because oxidation usually is caused by the presence of OH*
radicals, a new method involving the in-situ, vapour-phase generation of these
radicals and their quantification in the presence and absence of potential
antioxidant extracts has been developed. The oxidant atmosphere generated from
hydrogen peroxide is carried by an air stream through an empty quartz chamber in
which UV radiation promotes the formation of radicals by a photochemical
reaction. The products then pass through a cartridge containing the essential
oil, finally bubbling into an impinger containing an aqueous solution of
salicylic acid, at pH 4.5, which reacts with the OH* radicals forming
2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. This solution is quantified by RP-HPLC using UV and
fluorescence detectors connected in series. Detection and quantification limits
for OH* radicals were approximately 0.01 pg g(-1) air. Description and
optimization of the method are discussed, as also is the antioxidant performance
of an extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale R.), which reduced the oxidation
process by up to 92%.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16570142 [PubMed - in process]

34: Phytother Res. 2006 Mar;20(3):187-90.

Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with
clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori.

Nostro A, Cellini L, Di Bartolomeo S, Cannatelli MA, Di Campli E, Procopio F,
Grande R, Marzio L, Alonzo V.

Pharmaco-Biological Department, Section of Microbiology, University of Messina,
Messina, Italy.

Propolis and Zingiber officinale have been shown to be specifically targeted
against Helicobacter pylori strains, to possess antiinflammatory, antioxidant
and antitumoral activity and to be used in traditional medicine for the
treatment of gastrointestinal ailments. Considering that these natural products
could potentially serve as novel therapeutic tools also in combination with an
antibiotic, the aim of this work was to evaluate their effect when combined with
clarithromycin on clinical H. pylori isolates (n = 25), characterized in respect
to both clarithromycin susceptibility and the presence of the cagA gene. The
results showed that the combinations of propolis extract + clarithromycin and Z.
officinale extract + clarithromycin exhibited improved inhibition of H. pylori
with synergistic or additive activity. Interestingly, the susceptibility to
combinations was significantly independent of the microbial clarithromycin
susceptibility status. Only one H. pylori strain showed antagonism towards the
Z. officinale extract + clarithromycin combination. The data demonstrate that
combinations of propolis extract + clarithromycin and Z. officinale extract +
clarithromycin have the potential to help control H. pylori-associated
gastroduodenal disease. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16521108 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

35: Fitoterapia. 2006 Apr;77(3):160-3. Epub 2006 Feb 28.

Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale on goldthioglucose induced obesity.

Goyal RK, Kadnur SV.

Department of Pharmacology, L.M.College of Pharmacy, Navarangpura,
Ahmedabad-380009, India. [email protected]

Goldthioglucose induces in mice a significant increase in body weight, glucose,
insulin and lipid levels. Treatment with 250 mg/kg of methanol and ethyl acetate
extracts of Zingiber officinale for 8 weeks produces significant reduction in
body weight, glucose, insulin and lipid levels as compared to obese control
mice. The reduction in elevated glucose along with elevated insulin levels
indicates that the treatment with Z. officinale improves insulin sensitivity.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16513292 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

36: Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Mar;29(3):443-7.

Synergistic effect of [10]-gingerol and aminoglycosides against
vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).

Nagoshi C, Shiota S, Kuroda T, Hatano T, Yoshida T, Kariyama R, Tsuchiya T.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and
Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima, Japan.

An extract from ginger (root of Zingiber officinale) reduced the minimum
inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of aminoglycosides in vancomycin-resistant
enterococci (VRE). The effective compound was isolated and identified as
[10]-gingerol. In the presence of [10]-gingerol at 1/10 concentration of its own
MIC, the MIC of arbekacin was lowered by 1/32 to 1/16. [10]-Gingerol also
reduced the MICs of other aminoglycosides, and of bacitracin and polymixin B,
but not of other antimicrobial agents tested. Because [10]-gingerol reduced the
MICs of several aminoglycosides both in strains possessing or lacking
aminoglycoside-modification enzymes, it seems that the effect of [10]-gingerol
is not related to these enzymes, which mainly confer bacterial resistance
against aminoglycosides. It seemed that a detergent-like effect of [10]-gingerol
potentiated the antimicrobial activity of the aminoglycosides. In fact, some
detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Triton X-100 reduced the
MICs of aminoglycosides, bacitracin and polymixin B in VRE. Since the intrinsic
resistance to aminoglycosides in enterococci is due to low level of entry of the
drugs into the cells, increase in the membrane permeability caused by
[10]-gingerol will enhance the influx of aminoglycosides into enterococcal

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16508142 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

37: Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Mar;5(1):9-29.

Targeting angiogenesis with integrative cancer therapies.

Yance DR Jr, Sagar SM.

Center for Natural Healing, Ashland, Oregon, USA.

An integrative approach for managing a patient with cancer should target the
multiple biochemical and physiological pathways that support tumor development
while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. Angiogenesis is a key process in the
promotion of cancer. Many natural health products that inhibit angiogenesis also
manifest other anticancer activities. The authors will focus on natural health
products (NHPs) that have a high degree of antiangiogenic activity but also
describe some of their many other interactions that can inhibit tumor
progression and reduce the risk of metastasis. NHPs target various molecular
pathways besides angiogenesis, including epidermal growth factor receptor
(EGFR), the HER-2/neu gene, the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme, the NF-kB transcription
factor, the protein kinases, Bcl-2 protein, and coagulation pathways. The
herbalist has access to hundreds of years of observational data on the
anticancer activity of many herbs. Laboratory studies are confirming the
knowledge that is already documented in traditional texts. The following herbs
are traditionally used for anticancer treatment and are antiangiogenic through
multiple interdependent processes that include effects on gene expression,
signal processing, and enzyme activities: Artemisia annua (Chinese wormwood),
Viscum album (European mistletoe), Curcuma longa (turmeric), Scutellaria
baicalensis (Chinese skullcap), resveratrol and proanthocyanidin (grape seed
extract), Magnolia officinalis (Chinese magnolia tree), Camellia sinensis (green
tea), Ginkgo biloba, quercetin, Poria cocos, Zingiber officinale (ginger), Panax
ginseng, Rabdosia rubescens (rabdosia), and Chinese destagnation herbs. Quality
assurance of appropriate extracts is essential prior to embarking on clinical
trials. More data are required on dose response, appropriate combinations, and
potential toxicities. Given the multiple effects of these agents, their future
use for cancer therapy probably lies in synergistic combinations. During active
cancer therapy, they should generally be evaluated in combination with
chemotherapy and radiation. In this role, they act as biological response
modifiers and adaptogens, potentially enhancing the efficacy of the so-called
conventional therapies. Their effectiveness may be increased when multiple
agents are used in optimal combinations. New designs for trials to demonstrate
activity in human subjects are required. Although controlled trials might be
preferred, smaller studies with appropriate end points and surrogate markers for
antiangiogenic response could help prioritize agents for the larger
resource-intensive phase 3 trials.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16484711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

38: J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Feb 22;54(4):1414-9.

Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber
officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia.

Wohlmuth H, Smith MK, Brooks LO, Myers SP, Leach DN.

School of Natural and Complementary Medicine, Southern Cross University, P.O.
Box 157, Lismore NSW 2480, Australia. [email protected]

Ginger oil, obtained by steam distillation of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale
Roscoe, is used in the beverage and fragrance industries. Ginger oil displays
considerable compositional diversity, but is typically characterized by a high
content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, including zingiberene, ar-curcumene,
beta-bisabolene, and beta-sesquiphellandrene. Australian ginger oil has a
reputation for possessing a particular "lemony" aroma, due to its high content
of the isomers neral and geranial, often collectively referred to as citral.
Fresh rhizomes of 17 clones of Australian ginger, including commercial cultivars
and experimental tetraploid clones, were steam distilled 7 weeks post-harvest,
and the resulting oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The essential oils of 16 of the
17 clones, including the tetraploid clones and their parent cultivar, were found
to be of substantially similar composition. These oils were characterized by
very high citral levels (51-71%) and relatively low levels of the sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons typical of ginger oil. The citral levels of most of these oils
exceeded those previously reported for ginger oils. The neral-to-geranial ratio
was shown to be remarkably constant (0.61 +/- 0.01) across all 17 clones. One
clone, the cultivar "Jamaican", yielded oil with a substantially different
composition, lower citral content and higher levels of sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons. Because this cultivar also contains significantly higher
concentrations of pungent gingerols, it possesses unique aroma and flavor
characteristics, which should be of commercial interest.

PMID: 16478268 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

39: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jun 30;106(2):285-7. Epub 2006 Jan 26.

In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of

Iqbal Z, Lateef M, Akhtar MS, Ghayur MN, Gilani AH.

Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
38040, Pakistan. [email protected]

This paper describes the anthelmintic activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe
(family Zingiberaceae) rhizome, commonly known as ginger, to justify its
traditional use in veterinary medicine. Crude powder (CP) and crude aqueous
extract (CAE) of dried ginger (1-3 g/kg) were administered to sheep naturally
infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes. Both CP and CAE
exhibited a dose- and a time-dependent anthelmintic effect with respective
maximum reduction of 25.6% and 66.6% in eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces on day 10
of post-treatment. Levamisole (7.5 mg/kg), a standard anthelmintic agent,
exhibited 99.2% reduction in EPG. This study shows that ginger possesses in vivo
anthelmintic activity in sheep thus justifying the age-old traditional use of
this plant in helminth infestation.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16443342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

40: Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Jun;44(6):877-84. Epub 2006 Jan 27.

Lack of chemopreventive effects of ginger on colon carcinogenesis induced by
1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats.

Dias MC, Spinardi-Barbisan AL, Rodrigues MA, de Camargo JL, Teran E, Barbisan

UNESP Sao Paulo State University, Institute of Biosciences, Department of
Morphology, Botucatu 18618-000, SP, Brazil.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been proposed as a promising candidate
for cancer prevention. Its modifying potential on the process of colon
carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was investigated in male
Wistar rats using the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) assay. Five groups were studied:
Groups 1-3 were given four s.c. injections of DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week,
during two weeks, whereas Groups 4 and 5 received similar injections of EDTA
solution (DMH vehicle). After DMH-initiation, the animals were fed a ginger
extract mixed in the basal diet at 0.5% (Group 2) and 1.0% (Groups 3 and 4) for
10 weeks. All rats were killed after 12 weeks and the colons were analyzed for
ACF formation and crypt multiplicity. The rates of cell proliferation and
apoptosis were also evaluated in epithelial colonic crypt cells. Dietary
consumption of ginger at both dose levels did not induce any toxicity in the
rats, but ginger meal at 1% decreased significantly serum cholesterol levels
(p<0.038). Treatment with ginger did not suppress ACF formation or the number of
crypts per ACF in the DMH-treated group. Dietary ginger did not significantly
change the proliferative or apoptosis indexes of the colonic crypt cells induced
by DMH. Thus, the present results did not confirm a chemopreventive activity of
ginger on colon carcinogenesis as analyzed by the ACF bioassay and by the growth
kinetics of the colonic mucosa.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16442687 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

41: Am J Chin Med. 2006;34(1):157-69.

Macrophage-mediated inhibitory effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc, a traditional
oriental herbal medicine, on the growth of influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus.

Imanishi N, Andoh T, Mantani N, Sakai S, Terasawa K, Shimada Y, Sato M, Katada
Y, Ueda K, Ochiai H.

Department of Oriental Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University,
Toyama 930-0194, Japan.

The inhibitory effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc (ZOR), an Oriental traditional
herbal medicine, on the growth of influenza A/Aichi/2/68 (Aichi) virus was
investigated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Direct addition of ZOR
(0.1 approximately 100 microg/ml) to the infected cells did not have any
inhibitory effect. However, the ZOR-induced conditioned medium (ZOR-CM) of RAW
cells, a murine macrophage (Mphi) cell line, exhibited an apparent inhibitory
effect on MDCK cells without cytotoxicity. In accordance with the time-dependent
inhibitory effect of ZOR-CM, it has been demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor
(TNF)-alpha was gradually accumulated in ZOR-CM by the induction of TNF-alpha
mRNA expression in ZOR-stimulated RAW cells. Conversely, the inhibitory effect
of ZOR-CM was reduced significantly by the removal of TNF-alpha after the
formation of an immune complex with anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody. These
data suggested that ZOR itself has no inhibitory effect on the growth of
influenza virus, but could exert its effect via macrophage activation leading to
production of TNF-alpha.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16437748 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

42: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Oct;30(20):1569-73.

[Studies of commonly used traditional medicine-ginger]

[Article in Chinese]

Wang WH, Wang ZM.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Traditional Chinese
Medicine, Beijing 100700, China. [email protected]

To review the chemical, pharmacological, studies on ginger (Zingiber officinale)
in the last ten years, and also its processing history and clinical uses.
Gingerols and related compounds in ginger have many pharmacological activities.
Chemical studies should be given sufficiently emphasis, and advances of the
chemical study will promote the other related researches to develop in depth.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16422532 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

43: Pak J Pharm Sci. 2004 Jan;17(1):47-54.

Kinetic studies on Zingiber officinale.

Shadmani A, Azhar I, Mazhar F, Hassan MM, Ahmed SW, Ahmad I, Usmanghani K,
Shamim S.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi,
Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

The present investigation deals with the isolation, purification and
characterization of gingerol, the major pungent constituent of ginger (Zingiber
officinale) and its kinetic of extraction using a number of organic solvents.
The characterization was carried out through GC and GC-MS. Gingerol has been
assayed in the plant material during extraction with various solvents by a HPLC
method.In order to develop a relationship between solvent characteristics such
as viscosity and dielectric constant and the rates of extraction, the kinetics
of extraction of gingerol has been studied by using twelve different solvents in
order to evaluate the solvent efficacy in the extraction processes. It has been
observed that both solvent viscosity (1/v) and dielectric constant (epsilon)
show a linear relationship with the rates of extraction (k). An increase in
solvent viscosity leads to a decrease in the rates of extraction, similarly an
increase in dielectric constant also leads to a decrease in the rates of
extraction. This appears to be largely due to an unionizable character of
gingerol which does not interact with polar solvents. Thus solvent viscosity and
dielectric constant both play an important role in the choice of solvents for
the extraction of gingerol. Solvents with relatively low viscosity and
dielectric constant are more suitable for the extraction of gingerol from plant

PMID: 16414586 [PubMed]

44: Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan 13;530(1-2):136-43. Epub 2005 Dec 20.

Mode of action of gingerols and shogaols on 5-HT3 receptors: binding studies,
cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig

Abdel-Aziz H, Windeck T, Ploch M, Verspohl EJ.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry,
Munster, Germany.

Ginger (rhizomes of Zingiber officinale) has been shown to exert potent
anti-emetic properties, but its mode of action has not yet been elucidated.
Among its active constituents, [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol as well as
[6]-shogaol were shown in different in vivo studies to be at least partly
responsible for the drug's anti-emetic properties. In an attempt to gain more
insight into the mode of action of these compounds, three different in vitro
models were used to investigate their effects on 5-HT(3) receptors (serotonin
receptor subtype) in more detail: [(14)C]guanidinium influx into N1E-115 cells
which express 5-HT(3) receptors, isotonic contractions of the isolated
guinea-pig ileum and equilibrium competition binding studies using a
radioactively labeled 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist ([(3)H]GR65630)
(3-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)-1-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-propanone). All four
compounds inhibited the [(14)C]guanidinium influx through 5-HT(3) receptor
channels as well as contractions of the guinea-pig ileum induced by SR57227A
((4-amino)-(6-chloro-2-pyridyl)l-piperidine hydrochloride), a highly selective
5-HT(3) receptor agonist. Both effects were concentration-dependent, with the
following order of potency for both models: [6]-shogaol> or
=[8]-gingerol>[10]-gingerol> or =[6]-gingerol. All compounds showed also weak
anticholinergic and antineurokininergic activities in the guinea-pig ileum
(acetylcholine and substance P are mediators of the 5-HT(3) receptor effect).
The vanilloid receptor did not seem to be involved derived from experiments
using capsazepine. None of the tested ginger substances, however, was able to
displace [(3)H]GR65630 from its binding site (5-HT(3) receptor) neither on
intact N1E-115 cells nor on the purified membranes of HEK-293 cells
over-expressing the h5-HT(3) receptor. It may be concluded that [6]-, [8]-,
[10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol exert their anti-emetic effect at least partly by
acting on the 5-HT(3) receptor ion-channel complex, probably by binding to a
modulatory site distinct from the serotonin binding site. This may include
indirect effects via receptors in the signal cascade behind the 5-HT(3) receptor
channel complex such as substance P receptors and muscarinic receptors; this
needs further investigation since ginger is effective against motion sickness
which is cured by some vanilloids and by anticholinergics such as scopolamine.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
In Vitro

PMID: 16364290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

45: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005 Sep;56(6):399-414.

Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial
antidiabetic food adjuncts.

Srinivasan K.

Department of Biochemistry & Nutrition, Central Food Technological Research
Institute, Mysore-570013, India.

Diet has been recognized as a corner stone in the management of diabetes
mellitus. Spices are the common dietary adjuncts that contribute to the taste
and flavour of foods. Besides, spices are also known to exert several beneficial
physiological effects including the antidiabetic influence. This review
considers all the available information from animal experimentation as well as
clinical trials where spices, their extracts or their active principles were
examined for treatment of diabetes. Among the spices, fenugreek seeds
(Trigonella foenumgraecum), garlic (Allium sativum), onion (Allium cepa), and
turmeric (Curcuma longa) have been experimentally documented to possess
antidiabetic potential. In a limited number of studies, cumin seeds (Cuminum
cyminum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra), curry leaves
(Murraya koenigii) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) have been reported to be

Publication Types:

PMID: 16361181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

46: Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Dec;43(12):1161-4.

Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced
hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats.

Kadnur SV, Goyal RK.

Department of Pharmacology L. M. College of Pharmacy, Navarangpura, Ahmedabad
380 009, India.

Fructose supplementation produced cardinal features of Syndrome-X including
significant elevations in seum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin
and also in body weight. While treatment with methanolic extract of dried
rhizomes of Zingiber officinale produced a significant reduction in fructose
induced elevation in lipid levels, bodyweight, hyperglycemia and
hyperinsulinemia, treatment with ethyl acetate extract of Z officinale did not
poduce any significant change in either of the last two parameters. However, it
produced a significant reduction in elevated lipid levels and body weight The
concentration of 6-gingerol was found to be higher in methanolic extract and
less in ethyl acetate extract. The results suggest that the methanolic extract
of Z officinale produces better effects as compared to ethyl acetate extract in
fructose induced hyperlipidemia associated with insulin resistance. The extent
of activity appears to be dependent on the concentration of 6-gingerol present
in the extracts.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16359128 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

47: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):301-5. Epub 2005 Dec 9.

The modulatory effects of the volatile oil of ginger on the cellular immune
response in vitro and in vivo in mice.

Zhou HL, Deng YM, Xie QM.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
310031, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of the
volatile oil of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in vitro and in vivo in
mice. In vitro, the volatile oil of ginger (0.001-10 ng/mL) significantly
inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation (P < 0.01), decreased the number of the
total T lymphocytes and T helper cells (P < 0.01) in a concentration-dependent
manner, but increased the percentage of T suppressor cells to the total T
lymphocytes in the mice. In addition, the volatile oil of ginger (0.001-10
ng/mL) inhibited IL-1alpha secretion by the mice peritoneal macrophages in a
concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, oral administration of the volatile oil
of ginger in the doses of 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body weight dose-dependently
weakened the delayed type of hypersensitivity response to
2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene in the sensitized mice (P < 0.05). These results
suggest that the volatile oil of ginger influences both cell-mediated immune
response and nonspecific proliferation of T lymphocyte, and may exert beneficial
effects in a number of clinical conditions, such as chronic inflammation and
autoimmune diseases.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 16338110 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

48: J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):76-83. Epub 2005 Dec 6.

Antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical

Natarajan KS, Narasimhan M, Shanmugasundaram KR, Shanmugasundaram ER.

ALMPG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani
Campus, Chennai 600113, India.

A combination of spices (Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Zingiber officinale),
herbs (Cyperus rotundus and Plumbago zeylanica) and salts make up Amrita Bindu.
The study was focused to evaluate the antioxidant property of individual
ingredients in Amrita Bindu against the free radical
2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The analysis
revealed the antioxidant potential of the ingredients in the following order:
Piper nigrum>Piper longum>Cyperus rotundus>Plumbago zeylanca>Zingiber
officinale. Two different experiments were designed. In experiment I, rats were
fed with normal diet whereas in experiment II rats were given feed mixed with
Amrita Bindu for 3 weeks (4 g/kg of feed). Rats from both experimental groups
were challenged against a single intraperitonial injection of phenylhydrazine
(PHZ) (7.5 mg/kg body weight). At the end of 24 and 72 h, blood was analysed for
free radicals and antioxidant levels. It was interesting to note that rats with
Amrita Bindu pretreatment showed significantly lower levels of free radicals,
lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls along with significantly higher levels
of antioxidants when compared with rats without Amrita Bindu pretreatment on PHZ
administration. These results reveal that Amrita Bindu, a salt-spice-herbal
mixture exerts a promising antioxidant potential against free radical induced
oxidative damage.

PMID: 16337350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

49: Phytother Res. 2005 Nov;19(11):988-91.

In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used
traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Stoia A, Hamill FA, Fabricant D, Dietz BM, Chadwick LR.

Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of
Illinois at Chicago, 833 S. Wood Street M/C 877, 60612, USA. [email protected]

The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now
recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of
gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also
associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell
lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat
a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as
dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of
action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been
completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study
assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts,
which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders.
Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL;
Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary
leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of
50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed),
Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of
Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100
microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana
lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers),
Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum
(seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba
(leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL.

PMID: 16317658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

50: J Food Prot. 2005 Oct;68(10):2054-8.

Antimicrobial effect of Thai spices against Listeria monocytogenes and
Salmonella typhimurium DT104.

Thongson C, Davidson PM, Mahakarnchanakul W, Vibulsresth P.

Department of Food Science and Technology, 2605 River Drive, University of
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-4591, USA.

The objective of this study was to determine the potential antimicrobial
activity of extracts and essential oils of spices from Thailand against
foodborne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial efficacy of ginger (Zingiber
officinale), fingerroot (Boesenbergia pandurata), and turmeric (Curcuma longa)
was evaluated against five strains of Listeria monocytogenes and four strains of
Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104. Antimicrobial
activity was investigated in microbiological media by using an agar dilution
assay and enumeration over time and a model food system, apple juice, by
monitoring growth over time. In the agar dilution assay, water extracts of the
three spices had no effect on L. monocytogenes. Similarly, 50% ethanol extracts
of ginger or turmeric had no effect. In contrast, ethanolic fingerroot extracts
at 5 to 10% (vol/ vol) inhibited most L. monocytogenes strains for 24 h in the
agar dilution assay. Commercial essential oils (EO) of ginger or turmeric
inhibited all L. monocytogenes at < or = 0.6 or < or = 10%, respectively.
Fingerroot EO inhibited all strains at < or = 0.4%. In the enumeration-over-time
assay, a 5% fingerroot ethanol extract reduced ca. 4 log CFU/ml Listeria by
around 2 log in 24 h while 10% inactivated the microorganism in 9 h. Fingerroot
EO at 0.2% inactivated 4 log CFU/ml L. monocytogenes in 6 to 9 h. Neither
extracts nor commercial EO had any effect on Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 with
the exception of fingerroot EO, which inhibited all strains at < or = 0.7%.
Addition of 0.2% fingerroot EO to apple juice reduced 4 log of L. monocytogenes
Scott A and both strains of Salmonella Typhimurium to an undetectable level
within 1 to 2 days. It was concluded that fingerroot EO and extract have
potential for inhibiting pathogens in food systems.

PMID: 16245707 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

51: Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec;76(7-8):697-9. Epub 2005 Oct 17.

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from India.

Samy RP.

Venom and Toxin Research Programme, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine,
MD 10, 4 Medical Drive, National University of Singapore, Singapore- 117597.
[email protected]

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of
Zingiber officinale, Asteracantha longifolia, Citrus acida, Salacia microsperma
and Tinospora cordifolia are reported.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16229969 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

52: J Chem Ecol. 2005 Oct;31(10):2373-90. Epub 2005 Sep 28.

Roquefortine/oxaline biosynthesis pathway metabolites in Penicillium ser.
Corymbifera: in planta production and implications for competitive fitness.

Overy DP, Nielsen KF, Smedsgaard J.

Center for Microbial Biotechnology, Technical University of Denmark,
BioCentrum-DTU, Building 221, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. [email protected]

Three strains of each of the seven taxa comprising the Penicillium series
Corymbifera were surveyed by direct injection mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid
chromatography-MS for the production of terrestric acid and roquefortine/oxaline
biosynthesis pathway metabolites when cultured upon macerated tissue agars
prepared from Allium cepa, Zingiber officinale, and Tulipa gesneriana, and on
the defined medium Czapek yeast autolysate agar (CYA). A novel solid-phase
extraction methodology was applied for the rapid purification of roquefortine
metabolites from a complex matrix. Penicillium hordei and P. venetum produced
roquefortine D and C, whereas P. hirsutum produced roquefortine D and C and
glandicolines A and B. P. albocoremium, P. allii, and P. radicicola carried the
pathway through to meleagrin, producing roquefortine D and C, glandicolines A
and B, and meleagrin. P. tulipae produced all previously mentioned metabolites
yet carried the pathway through to an end product recognized as epi-neoxaline,
prompting the proposal of a roquefortine/epi-neoxaline biogenesis pathway.
Terrestric acid production was stimulated by all Corymbifera strains on
plant-derived media compared to CYA controls. In planta, production of
terrestric acid, roquefortine C, glandicolines A and B, meleagrin,
epi-neoxaline, and several other species-related secondary metabolites were
confirmed from A. cepa bulbs infected with Corymbifera strains. The deposition
of roquefortine/oxaline pathway metabolites as an extracellular nitrogen reserve
for uptake and metabolism into growing mycelia and the synergistic role of
terrestric acid and other Corymbifera secondary metabolites in enhancing the
competitive fitness of Corymbifera species in planta are proposed.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16195849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

53: Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19(20):2957-64.

Characterization of gingerol-related compounds in ginger rhizome (Zingiber
officinale Rosc.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray
ionization mass spectrometry.

Jiang H, Solyom AM, Timmermann BN, Gang DR.

Arizona Center for Phytomedicine Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
85721-0036, USA.

This study sought to determine the utility of liquid chromatography/electrospray
ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) coupled with diode array
detection in identifying gingerol-related compounds from crude extracts of
ginger rhizome. The fragmentation behaviors of compounds in both (-)- and
(+)ESI-MS/MS were used to infer and confirm the chemical structures of several
groups of compounds, including the gingerols, methylgingerols, gingerol
acetates, shogaols, paradols, gingerdiols, mono- and diacetyl gingerdiols, and
dehydrogingerdiones. Diode array detection at different wavelengths was used to
confirm MS/MS-based identification. In total, 31 gingerol-related compounds were
identified from the methanolic crude extracts of fresh ginger rhizome in this
study. Three of these compounds were found to be new compounds. This study
demonstrated that LC/ESI-MS/MS is a powerful on-line tool for identification of
gingerol-related compounds, especially for thermally labile compounds that
cannot be readily detected by GC/MS analysis. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 16189817 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

54: Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Oct;50(10):1889-97.

Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal

Ghayur MN, Gilani AH.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University
Medical College, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan.

Ginger (rhizome of Zingiber officinale) has been widely used for centuries in
gastrointestinal disorders, particularly dyspepsia, but its precise mode of
action has yet to be elucidated. This study was undertaken to study the
prokinetic action of ginger and its possible mechanism of action. Prokinetic
activity of ginger extract (Zo.Cr) was confirmed in an in vivo test when it
enhanced the intestinal travel of charcoal meal in mice. This propulsive effect
of the extract, similar to that of carbachol, was blocked in atropine-pretreated
mice, a standard cholinergic antagonist. Likewise, Zo.Cr showed an
atropine-sensitive dose-dependent spasmogenic effect in vitro as well as in
isolated rat and mouse stomach fundus tissues. In atropinized tissue, it showed
spasmolytic activity as shown by the inhibition of 5-HT- and K+-induced
contractions. A spasmolytic effect was also observed in other gut preparations
either as noncompetitive inhibition of agonist dose-response curves, inhibition
of high K+(80 mM)-induced contractions, or displacement of Ca2+ dose-response
curves to the right, indicating a calcium antagonist effect. Phytochemical
analysis revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in the
crude extract. These data indicate that Zo.Cr contains a cholinergic,
spasmogenic component evident in stomach fundus preparations which provides a
sound mechanistic insight for the prokinetic action of ginger. In addition, the
presence of a spasmolytic constituent(s) of the calcium antagonist type may
explain its use in hyperactive states of gut like colic and diarrhea.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16187193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

55: Phytochemistry. 2006 Aug;67(15):1673-85. Epub 2005 Oct 5.

Metabolic profiling and phylogenetic analysis of medicinal Zingiber species:
Tools for authentication of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc).

Jiang H, Xie Z, Koo HJ, McLaughlin SP, Timmermann BN, Gang DR.

Arizona Center for Phytomedicine Research, College of Pharmacy, University of
Arizona, USA.

Phylogenetic analysis and metabolic profiling were used to investigate the
diversity of plant material within the ginger species and between ginger and
closely related species in the genus Zingiber (Zingiberaceae). In addition,
anti-inflammatory data were obtained for the investigated species. Phylogenetic
analysis demonstrated that all Zingiber officinale samples from different
geographical origins were genetically indistinguishable. In contrast, other
Zingiber species were significantly divergent, allowing all species to be
clearly distinguished using this analysis. In the metabolic profiling analysis,
the Z. officinale samples derived from different origins showed no qualitative
differences in major volatile compounds, although they did show some significant
quantitative differences in non-volatile composition, particularly regarding the
content of [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols, the most active anti-inflammatory
components in this species. The differences in gingerol content were verified by
HPLC. The metabolic profiles of other Zingiber species were very different, both
qualitatively and quantitatively, when compared to Z. officinale and to each
other. Comparative DNA sequence/chemotaxonomic phylogenetic trees showed that
the chemical characters of the investigated species were able to generate
essentially the same phylogenetic relationships as the DNA sequences. This
supports the contention that chemical characters can be used effectively to
identify relationships between plant species. Anti-inflammatory in vitro assays
to evaluate the ability of all extracts from the Zingiber species examined to
inhibit LPS-induced PGE(2) and TNF-alpha production suggested that bioactivity
may not be easily predicted by either phylogenetic analysis or gross metabolic
profiling. Therefore, identification and quantification of the actual bioactive
compounds are required to guarantee the bioactivity of a particular Zingiber
sample even after performing authentication by molecular and/or chemical

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 16169024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

56: Phytother Res. 2005 Jul;19(7):633-42.

The use of health foods, spices and other botanicals in the Sikh community in

Sandhu DS, Heinrich M.

Centre for Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, The School of Pharmacy, University of
London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK.

Attitudes and practice concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
are currently an area of considerable interest. However, little is known about
the overall importance of such practices, for example, in immigrant communities
such as the Sikh (Punjabi) British. The use of CAM in immigrants belonging to
the Sikh religion in London was studied. The primary objective was to analyse
the extent to which traditional medicine is used and understood by this
population. Traditional Sikh medicine is important to this group of informants
and a total of 42 species were recorded and identified tentatively. The most
frequently mentioned species were Allium cepa (onion -- gunda), Allium sativum
(garlic -- lasan, thon), Capsicum frutescens (cayenne pepper -- lalmirch),
Cinnamomum verum (cinnamom--dhal chini), Citrus limon (lemon -- nimbu),
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel -- saunf), Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom -- elaichi)
and Zingiber officinale (ginger -- adrak). The study also highlights the rapid
change this tradition is undergoing in a diaspora situation.In depth studies on
the use of CAM among other immigrant communities and among ethnic groups are
urgent and may help to manage better the treatment of minor ailments as well as
chronic diseases. Specifically, more research on traditional and herbal remedies
amongst the numerous ethnic groups in urban Britain and how this impacts on the
use of biomedicine (e.g. as it is provided by the NHS) is essential.

PMID: 16161027 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

57: J Med Food. 2005 Summer;8(2):149-53.

Comparative effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on the production
of inflammatory mediators in normal and osteoarthrotic sow chondrocytes.

Shen CL, Hong KJ, Kim SW.

Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409-2141, USA.

Ginger root was previously demonstrated to exert anti-arthritic effects in sow
cartilage explants. This study further investigated the comparative effects of
ginger root extract (GRE) on the production of inflammatory mediators, including
nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in normal chondrocytes (NC) and
osteoarthrotic chondrocytes (OC) isolated from sow cartilage explants. The sow
chondrocyte cells were isolated and grown in Ham's F-12/Dulbecco's modified
Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. GRE
was then added at different concentrations (0-2,000 microg/mL), and the cells
were allowed to grow for 24 hours in the presence of cytokine inducer. The
culture media were collected and assayed for NO by the Griess reaction and for
PGE2 by radioimmunoassay. When GRE was not used, the NC had lower PGE2 and NO
than the OC. With GRE treatment, both PGE2 and NO decreased linearly in both the
NC and the OC. As GRE concentrations increased, the rate of PGE(2) decrease was
the same in the NC and the OC, whereas the rate of NO decrease was greater for
the OC than for the NC. Collectively, OC produce more inflammatory mediators
than do NC, and the production of inflammatory mediators was reduced when GRE
was added to both the OC and the NC. The inhibitory effects of GRE on NO and
PGE2 production by sow OC observed in this study suggest an important role for
GRE as an anti-arthritic agent.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16117605 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

58: J Med Food. 2005 Summer;8(2):125-32.

Ginger--an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions.

Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG.

RMG Biosciences, Inc.

The anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have been known and valued for
centuries. During the past 25 years, many laboratories have provided scientific
support for the long-held belief that ginger contains constituents with
antiinflammatory properties. The original discovery of ginger's inhibitory
effects on prostaglandin biosynthesis in the early 1970s has been repeatedly
confirmed. This discovery identified ginger as an herbal medicinal product that
shares pharmacological properties with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Ginger suppresses prostaglandin synthesis through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1
and cyclooxygenase-2. An important extension of this early work was the
observation that ginger also suppresses leukotriene biosynthesis by inhibiting
5-lipoxygenase. This pharmacological property distinguishes ginger from
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This discovery preceded the observation
that dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase may have a better
therapeutic profile and have fewer side effects than non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs. The characterization of the pharmacological properties
of ginger entered a new phase with the discovery that a ginger extract
(EV.EXT.77) derived from Zingiber officinale (family Zingiberaceae) and Alpina
galanga (family Zingiberaceae) inhibits the induction of several genes involved
in the inflammatory response. These include genes encoding cytokines,
chemokines, and the inducible enzyme cyclooxygenase-2. This discovery provided
the first evidence that ginger modulates biochemical pathways activated in
chronic inflammation. Identification of the molecular targets of individual
ginger constituents provides an opportunity to optimize and standardize ginger
products with respect to their effects on specific biomarkers of inflammation.
Such preparations will be useful for studies in experimental animals and humans.

Publication Types:
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 16117603 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

59: Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Sep 23;335(2):300-8.

[6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and
in vivo.

Kim EC, Min JK, Kim TY, Lee SJ, Yang HO, Han S, Kim YM, Kwon YG.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Yonsei University,
Seoul, Republic of Korea.

[6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe,
Zingiberaceae), has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor-promoting
activities. Here, we describe its novel anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in
vivo. In vitro, [6]-gingerol inhibited both the VEGF- and bFGF-induced
proliferation of human endothelial cells and caused cell cycle arrest in the G1
phase. It also blocked capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells in
response to VEGF, and strongly inhibited sprouting of endothelial cells in the
rat aorta and formation of new blood vessel in the mouse cornea in response to
VEGF. Moreover, i.p. administration, without reaching tumor cytotoxic blood
levels, to mice receiving i.v. injection of B16F10 melanoma cells, reduced the
number of lung metastasis, with preservation of apparently healthy behavior.
Taken together, these results demonstrate that [6]-gingerol inhibits
angiogenesis and may be useful in the treatment of tumors and other
angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16081047 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

60: Bioresour Technol. 2005 Nov;96(16):1749-57. Epub 2005 Feb 25.

Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential
oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Prajapati V, Tripathi AK, Aggarwal KK, Khanuja SP.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow, India.

Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal,
adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards
three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex
quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella
anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil
of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi and A.
aegypti with equivalent LD95 values of 115.7 microg/ml, whereas it was 149.7
microg/ml against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Essential oils of Zingiber
officinale and Rosmarinus officinalis were found to be ovicidal and repellent,
respectively towards the three mosquito species. The essential oil of Cinnamomum
zeylanicum resulted into highest repellent (RD95) values of 49.6, 53.9 and 44.2
mg/mat against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively
apart from oviposition-deterrent potential.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16051081 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

61: Z Naturforsch [C]. 2005 May-Jun;60(5-6):485-92.

Assessment of genetic diversity among 16 promising cultivars of ginger using
cytological and molecular markers.

Nayak S, Naik PK, Acharya L, Mukherjee AK, Panda PC, Das P.

Department of Bionformatics, Jaypee University of Information Technology,
Waknaghat, Himachal Pradesh, India. [email protected]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an economically important plant, valued
all over the world. The existing variation among 16 promising cultivars as
observed through differential rhizome yield (181.9 to 477.3 g) was proved to
have a genetic basis using different genetic markers such as karyotype, 4C
nuclear DNA content and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The karyotypic
analysis revealed a differential distribution of A, B, C, D and E type of
chromosomes among different cultivars as represented by different karyotype
formulas. A significant variation of 4C DNA content was recorded in ginger at an
intraspecific level with values ranging from 17.1 to 24.3 pg. RAPD analysis
revealed a differential polymorphism of DNA showing a number of polymorphic
bands ranging from 26 to 70 among 16 cultivars. The RAPD primers OPC02, OPA02,
OPD20 and OPN06 showing strong resolving power were able to distinguish all 16
cultivars. The extent of genetic diversity among these cultivars was computed
through parameters of gene diversity, sum of allele numbers per locus and
Shannon's information indices. Cluster analysis, Nei's genetic similarity and
genetic distances, distribution of cultivars into special distance classes and
principal coordinate analysis and the analysis of molecular variance suggested a
conspicuous genetic diversity among different cultivars studied. The genetic
variation thus detected among promising cultivars of ginger has significance for
ginger improvement programs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16047412 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

62: Planta Med. 2005 Jul;71(7):609-16.

5-HT3 receptor blocking activity of arylalkanes isolated from the rhizome of
Zingiber officinale.

Abdel-Aziz H, Nahrstedt A, Petereit F, Windeck T, Ploch M, Verspohl EJ.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry,
University of Munster, Germany.

Different extracts (ethanolic, hexane, aqueous) of ginger (rhizomes of Zingiber
officinale) and the essential oil were tested using [14C]guanidinium influx into
N1E-115 cells and the isolated rat ileum in order to identify their activity in
inhibiting 5-HT3 receptor function. The hexane extract proved to be the most
active and yielded upon bioassay-guided fractionation nine constituents: [6]-,
[8]-, [10]-gingerols, [6]- and [8]-shogaols which were previously shown as
active in vivo against cytotoxic drug-induced emesis; [4]-gingerol,
[6]-gingerdiol, diacetyl-[6]-gingerdiol and [6]-dehydrogingerdione have not been
previously tested for anti-emetic or 5-HT3 receptor antagonistic effects. Even
though the latter four compounds are only minor constituents, their
identification contributed towards the characterisation of a structure-activity
relationship of this class of compounds. The order of potency for the nine
constituents in the N1E-115 cell system was [6]-gingerdiol approximately
diacetyl-[6]-gingerdiol approximately [6]-dehydrogingerdione approximately
[6]-shogaol > or = [8]-shogaol approximately [8]-gingerol > [10]-gingerol > or =
[6]-gingerol > [4]-gingerol.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16041645 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

63: Complement Ther Med. 2005 Jun;13(2):101-6.

Challenges in herbal research: a randomized clinical trial to assess blinding
with ginger.

Zick SM, Blume A, Normolle D, Ruffin M.

University of Michigan, Department of Family Medicine, 715 East Huron Street,
Suite 1W, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, USA. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: To assess methods to blind study participants to encapsulated ginger
(Zingiber officinale). DESIGN: A randomized double-blind placebo controlled
trial. SUBJECTS: Eighty healthy male and female volunteers. OUTCOME MEASURES:
Whether participants can accurately determine if they receive a ginger or
placebo capsule and a bottle filled with ginger or placebo capsules. RESULTS:
Forty-two subjects correctly identified the capsule they received. Of those who
received placebo, over 82% correctly identified their capsule. Only 22.5% of
those who received ginger correctly identified their capsule. The likelihood of
guessing ginger between the groups was statistically similar (p<0.01). 65%
correctly guessed which bottle they had received (p=0.0073). Participants
receiving the bottle filled with ginger capsules successfully identified their
bottle 75% of the time (p=0.0016) compared to the 55% of the placebo group
(p=0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Volunteers cannot determine which type of individual
capsule they receive but can distinguish a bottle filled with ginger capsules.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 16036167 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

64: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Nov 14;102(2):177-84. Epub 2005 Jul 15.

Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of diarylheptanoids and gingerol-related
compounds from the rhizome of Chinese ginger.

Wei QY, Ma JP, Cai YJ, Yang L, Liu ZL.

National Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou,
Gansu 730000, China.

Ginger is one of the most widely used spices and has been used in traditional
oriental medicines for long time. Its extract and major pungent principles have
been shown to exhibit a variety of biological activities. In order to find more
active constituents and evaluate their structure-activity relationship (SAR) we
isolated from the rhizomes of Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) five
new diarylheptanoids along with 20 known diarylheptanoids and gingerol-related
compounds and studied their cytotoxic and apoptotic activities against human
promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. It was found that compounds 1a, 2a, 5, 6a,
6b and 7 possess significant cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (IC(50)<50 microM)
and that the cytotoxic activity is associated with the cell apoptosis. SAR
analysis demonstrates that the following structural determinants contribute
critically to the enhancement of the activity: (i) acetoxyl groups at 3- and/or
5-positions of the side chain; (ii) the appropriate longer alkyl side-chain
length; (iii) the ortho-diphenoxyl functionality on the aromatic ring; (iv) the
alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone moiety in the side chain. These provide useful
information for potential chemopreventive drug design.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 16024193 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

65: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Aug;81(4):864-70.

Zingiber officinale Rosc. modulates gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste

Sharma A, Haksar A, Chawla R, Kumar R, Arora R, Singh S, Prasad J, Islam F,
Arora MP, Kumar Sharma R.

Division of Radiopharmaceuticals and Radiation Biology, Institute of Nuclear
Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. SK Mazumdar Road, Delhi 110 054, India.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobehavioral protective
efficacy of a hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in
mitigating gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion in Sprague-Dawley
rats. Administration of Zingiber extract 1 h before 2-Gy gamma irradiation was
effective in blocking the saccharin avoidance response for 5 post-treatment
observational days, both in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with 200 mg/kg
b.w. i.p. being the most effective dose. Highest saccharin intake in all the
groups was observed on the fifth post-treatment day. The potential of ginger
extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by radiation (2 Gy) and
ascorbate-ion stress in brain homogenate and its ability to scavenge highly
reactive superoxide anions were evaluated. The 1000-microg/ml and 2000-microg/ml
concentration of ginger extract showed the highest efficiency in scavenging free
radicals and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The lipid peroxidation and
superoxide-anion scavenging ability of the extract further supports its
radioprotective properties. The results clearly establish the neurobehavioral
efficacy of ginger extract and the antioxidant properties appear to be a
contributing factor in its overall ability to modulate radiation-induced
conditioned taste aversion. Ginger extract has tremendous potential for clinical
applications in mitigation of radiation-induced emesis in humans.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16023187 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

66: Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Aug;358(1-2):60-7.

Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger, a naturally occurring anticarcinogen during
the initiation, post-initiation stages of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colon

Manju V, Nalini N.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University,
Annamalainagar-608002, Tamilnadu, India.

BACKGROUND: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) is a natural dietary component,
which has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. We investigated the
effect of ginger on the initiation and post-initiation stages of
1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.
METHODS: Rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg body
weight) in the groin for 15 weeks. Ginger (50 mg/kg body weight/everyday p.o.)
was given to the rats at the initiation, post-initiation stages of
carcinogenesis. The activity of lipid peroxidation was studied by measuring the
formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid
hydroperoxides (LOOH) and conjugated dienes (CD), and the antioxidant status by
measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase
(GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced
glutathione (GSH), vitamins C, E, and A concentrations in the circulation of
1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon cancer. RESULTS: In the
presence of a known colon carcinogen, DMH, plasma lipid peroxidation (TBARS,
lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes) and cancer incidence were
significantly increased whereas enzymic (GPx, GST, GR, SOD and CAT) and
non-enzymic antioxidant concentrations (GSH, vitamins C, E, and A) were
decreased as compared to control rats. The number of tumors as well as the
incidence of cancer was significantly decreased on treatment with ginger. In
addition, ginger supplementation at the initiation stage and also at the
post-initiation stages of carcinogenesis significantly reduced circulating lipid
peroxidation and significantly enhanced the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants
as compared to unsupplemented DMH-treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Ginger
supplementation suppresses colon carcinogenesis in the presence of the
procarcinogen DMH.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 16018877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

67: J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jul 13;53(14):5772-8.

Gingerol content of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale

Wohlmuth H, Leach DN, Smith MK, Myers SP.

School of Natural and Complementary Medicine, Southern Cross University, PO Box
157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. [email protected]

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a monocotyledonous, sterile cultigen, is
widely used as a spice, flavoring agent, and herbal medicine. The pungency of
fresh ginger is due to a series of homologous phenolic ketones of which
[6]-gingerol is the major one. The gingerols are thermally unstable and can be
converted to their corresponding shogaols, which are present in dried ginger.
Fresh rhizomes of 17 clones of Australian ginger, including commercial cultivars
and experimental tetraploid clones, were assayed by HPLC for gingerols and
shogaols. [6]-Gingerol was identified as the major pungent phenolic compound in
all samples, while [8]- and [10]-gingerol occurred in lower concentrations. One
cultivar known as "Jamaican" contained the highest concentrations of all three
gingerols and was the most pungent of the clones analyzed. Gingerols were stable
in ethanolic solution over a 5-month period when stored at 4 degrees C. Shogaols
were not identified in the extracts prepared from fresh rhizomes at ambient
temperature, confirming that these compounds are not native constituents of
fresh ginger. In contrast to previous findings, this study did not find
significant differences in gingerol concentrations between the tetraploid clones
and their parent diploid cultivar.

PMID: 15998147 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

68: Phytochemistry. 2005 Jul;66(13):1614-35.

Commercially processed dry ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects
on LPS-stimulated PGE2 production.

Jolad SD, Lantz RC, Chen GJ, Bates RB, Timmermann BN.

Arizona Center for Phytomedicine Research, College of Pharmacy, University of
Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Using techniques previously employed to identify ginger constituents in fresh
organically grown Hawaiian white and yellow ginger varieties, partially purified
fractions derived from the silica gel column chromatography and HPLC of a
methylene chloride extract of commercially processed dry ginger, Zingiber
officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, which demonstrated remarkable
anti-inflammatory activity, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry. In all, 115 compounds were identified, 88 with retention times
(R(t)) >21 min and 27 with <21 min. Of those 88 compounds, 45 were previously
reported by us from fresh ginger, 12 are cited elsewhere in the literature and
the rest (31) are new: methyl [8]-paradol, methyl [6]-isogingerol, methyl
[4]-shogaol, [6]-isoshogaol, two 6-hydroxy-[n]-shogaols (n=8 and 10),
6-dehydro-[6]-gingerol, three 5-methoxy-[n]-gingerols (n=4, 8 and 10),
3-acetoxy-[4]-gingerdiol, 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol (stereoisomer),
diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol, methyl diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol,
3-acetoxydihydro-[6]-paradol methyl ether,
1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonadecen-1-one and its methyl ether
derivative, 1,7-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxyheptan-3-one,
acetoxy-3-dihydrodemethoxy-[6]-shogaol, 5-acetoxy-3-deoxy-[6]-gingerol,
1-hydroxy-[6]-paradol, (2E)-geranial acetals of [4]- and [6]-gingerdiols,
(2Z)-neral acetal of [6]-gingerdiol, acetaldehyde acetal of [6]-gingerdiol,
1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dehydro-6-decanone and the cyclic methyl
orthoesters of [6]- and [10]-gingerdiols. Of the 27 R(t)<21 min compounds, we
had found 5 from fresh ginger, 20 others were found elsewhere in the literature,
and two are new: 5-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-pent-2-en-1-al and
5-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-pentanal. Most of the short R(t)
compounds are probably formed by thermal degradation during GC (which mimics
cooking) and/or commercial drying. The concentrations of gingerols, the major
constituents of fresh ginger, were reduced slightly in dry ginger, while the
concentrations of shogaols, the major gingerol dehydration products, increased.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15996695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

69: Arch Pharm Res. 2005 May;28(5):518-28.

Isolation of a natural antioxidant, dehydrozingerone from Zingiber officinale
and synthesis of its analogues for recognition of effective antioxidant and
antityrosinase agents.

Kuo PC, Damu AG, Cherng CY, Jeng JF, Teng CM, Lee EJ, Wu TS.

Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, Yunlin 632, Taiwan,

In the present study, the antioxidative and inhibitory activity of Zingiber
officinale Rosc. rhizomes-derived materials (on mushroom tyrosinase) were
evaluated. The bioactive components of Z. officinale rhizomes were characterized
by spectroscopic analysis as zingerone and dehydrozingerone, which exhibited
potent antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. A series of substituted
dehydrozingerones [(E)-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-ones] were prepared in admirable
yields by the reaction of appropriate benzaldehydes with acetone and the
products were evaluated in terms of variation in the dehydrozingerone structure.
The synthetic analogues were examined for their antioxidant and antityrosinase
activities to probe the most potent analogue. Compound 26 inhibited Fe2+-induced
lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate with an IC50 = 6.3+/-0.4 microM. In
the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical quencher assay, compounds 2, 7,
17, 26, 28, and 29 showed radical scavenging activity equal to or higher than
those of the standard antioxidants, like alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid.
Compound 27 displayed superior inhibition of tyrosinase activity relative to
other examined analogues. Compounds 2, 17, and 26 exhibited non-competitive
inhibition against oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA). From the
present study, it was observed that both number and position of hydroxyl groups
on aromatic ring and a double bond between C-3 and C-4 played a critical role in
exerting the antioxidant and antityrosinase activity.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15974436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

70: Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jun;34(6):773-84.

Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of
action, efficacy, and side effects.

Setty AR, Sigal LH.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Boston, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on herbal preparations commonly utilized in
the treatment of rheumatic indications. METHODS: Search of MEDLINE (PubMed) was
performed using both the scientific and the common names of herbs. Relevant
articles in English were collected from PubMed and reviewed. RESULTS: This
review summarizes the efficacy and toxicities of herbal remedies used in
complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies for rheumatologic
conditions, by elucidating the immune pathways through which these preparations
have antiinflammatory and/or immunomodulatory activity and providing a
scientific basis for their efficacy. Gammalinolenic acid suppresses inflammation
by acting as a competitive inhibitor of prostaglandin E2 and leukotrienes (LTs)
and by reducing the auto-induction of interleukin1alpha (IL-1alpha)-induced
pro-IL-1beta gene expression. It appears to be efficacious in rheumatoid
arthritis (RA) but not for Sjogrens disease. The antiinflammatory actions of
Harpagophytum procumbens is due to its action on eicosanoid biosynthesis and it
may have a role in treating low back pain. While in vitro experiments with
Tanacetum parthenium found inhibition of the expression of intercellular
adhesion molecule-1, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma,
IkappaB kinase, and a decrease in T-cell adhesion, to date human studies have
not proven it useful in the treatment of RA. Current experience with
Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, Uncaria tomentosa, finds them to be efficacious
in the treatment of RA, while Urtica diocia and willow bark extract are
effective for osteoarthritis. T. wilfordii Hook F extract inhibits the
production of cytokines and other mediators from mononuclear phagocytes by
blocking the up-regulation of a number of proinflammatory genes, including
TNF-alpha, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interferon-gamma, IL-2, prostaglandin, and
iNOS. Uncaria tomentosa and Urtica diocia both decrease the production of
TNF-alpha. At present there are no human studies on Ocimum spp. in rheumatic
diseases. The fixed oil appears to have antihistaminic, antiserotonin, and
antiprostaglandin activity. Zingiber officinale inhibits TNF-alpha,
prostaglandin, and leukotriene synthesis and at present has limited efficacy in
the treatment of osteoarthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Investigation of the mechanism and
potential uses of CAM therapies is still in its infancy and many studies done to
date are scientifically flawed. Further systematic and scientific inquiry into
this topic is necessary to validate or refute the clinical claims made for CAM
therapies. An understanding of the mechanism of action of CAM therapies allows
physicians to counsel effectively on their proper and improper use, prevent
adverse drug-drug interactions, and anticipate or appreciate toxicities.
RELEVANCE: The use of CAM therapies is widespread among patients, including
those with rheumatic diseases. Herbal medications are often utilized with little
to no physician guidance or knowledge. An appreciation of this information will
help physicians to counsel patients concerning the utility and toxicities of CAM
therapies. An understanding and elucidation of the mechanisms by which CAM
therapies may be efficacious can be instrumental in discovering new molecular
targets in the treatment of diseases.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15942912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

71: An Acad Bras Cienc. 2005 Jun;77(2):259-74. Epub 2005 May 9.

Erratum in:
An Acad Bras Cienc. 2005 Dec;77(4):625-6.

Meristematic activity of the Endodermis and the Pericycle in the primary
thickening in monocotyledons: considerations on the "PTM".

de Menezes NL, Silva DC, Arruda RC, Melo-de-Pinna GF, Cardoso VA, Castro NM,
Scatena VL, Scremin-Dias E.

Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, 05422-970,

This paper proposes a new interpretation for primary thickening in
monocotyledons. The anatomy of the vegetative organs of the following species
was examined: Cephalostemon riedelianus (Rapataceae), Cyperus papyrus
(Cyperaceae), Lagenocarpus rigidus, L. junciformis (Cyperaceae), Echinodorus
paniculatus (Alismataceae) and Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae). The
endodermis with meristematic activity was observed in the root of all the
species, in the stem of Cyperus, Cephalostemum and Lagenocarpus rigidus, and in
the leaf trace of Cyperus and leaf of Echinodorus. Considering the continuity of
tissues through the root, stem and leaf, the authors conclude that in the stem
the pericycle remains active throughout the life of the plant as the generator
of the vascular tissue. The "Primary Thickening Meristem" is in fact the
pericycle plus the endodermis and its derivatives (or only the pericycle). Close
to the stem apex, the assemblage of seems to be a unique meristem, giving rise
to the inner cortex and vascular tissues.

PMID: 15895162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

72: J Biosci. 2005 Mar;30(2):213-20.

cDNA cloning and characterization of a mannose-binding lectin from Zingiber
officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.

Chen Z, Kai G, Liu X, Lin J, Sun X, Tang K.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Morgan-Tan
International Center for Life Sciences, Fudan- SJTU- Nottingham Plant
Biotechnology R and D Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's
Republic of China.

Using RNA extracted from Zingiber officinale rhizomes and primers designed
according to the conservative regions of monocot mannose-binding lectins, the
full-length cDNA of Z. officinale agglutinin (ZOA) was cloned by rapid
amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of zoa was 746 bp and
contained a 510 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a lectin precursor of 169
amino acids with a signal peptide. ZOA was a mannose-binding lectin with three
typical mannose-binding sites (QDNY). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed
that zoa expressed in all the tested tissues of Z. officinale including leaf,
root and rhizome, suggesting it to be a constitutively expressing form. ZOA
protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli with the molecular weight
expected. To our knowledge, this is the first mannose-binding lectin cDNA cloned
from the family Zingiberaceae. Our results demonstrate that monocot
mannose-binding lectins also occur within the family Zingiberaceae.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15886457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

73: Microbiology. 2005 May;151(Pt 5):1691-5.

Secondary metabolites from endophytic Streptomyces aureofaciens CMUAc130 and
their antifungal activity.

Taechowisan T, Lu C, Shen Y, Lumyong S.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakorn Pathom
73000, Thailand. [email protected]

Streptomyces aureofaciens CMUAc130 was isolated from the root tissue of Zingiber
officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae). It was an antagonist of Colletotrichum musae
and Fusarium oxysporum, the causative agents of anthracnose of banana and wilt
of wheat, respectively. Evidence for the in vitro antibiosis of S. aureofaciens
CMUAc130 was demonstrated by the zone of fungal-growth inhibition. Microscopic
observations showed thickness and bulbous structures at the edges of the
inhibited fungal hyphae. The culture filtrate and crude extract from this strain
were all inhibitory to tested phytopathogenic fungi. The major active
ingredients from the culture filtrate of S. aureofaciens CMUAc130 were purified
by silica gel-column chromatography and identified to be (i)
5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and (ii) 5,7-dimethoxy-4-phenylcoumarin
by NMR and mass-spectral data, respectively. Bioassay studies showed that
compounds (i) and (ii) had antifungal activities against tested fungi, and their
MICs were found to be 120 and 150 microg ml(-1), respectively. This is the first
report of compounds (i) and (ii) from micro-organisms as active ingredients for
the control of phytopathogenic fungi.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15870476 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

74: Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Apr;105(4):849-56.

Comment in:
Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep;106(3):640; author reply 640-1.

Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea
and vomiting.

Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, Pittler MH, Izzo AA.

Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II,
Naples, Italy. [email protected]

OBJECTIVE: Conventional antiemetics are burdened with the potential of
teratogenic effects during the critical embryogenic period of pregnancy. Thus, a
safe and effective medication would be a welcome addition to the therapeutic
repertoire. This systematic review was aimed at assessing the evidence for or
against the efficacy and safety of ginger (Zingiber officinale) therapy for
nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature
searches were conducted in 3 computerized databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and
Cochrane Library), and the reference lists of all papers located were checked
for further relevant publications. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: For the
evaluation of efficacy, only double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
were included. All retrieved clinical data, including uncontrolled trials, case
reports, observational studies, and RCTs, were included in the review of safety.
TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Six double-blind RCTs with a total of 675
participants and a prospective observational cohort study (n = 187) met all
inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of 4 of 5 RCTs was high. Four of
the 6 RCTs (n = 246) showed superiority of ginger over placebo; the other 2 RCTs
(n = 429) indicated that ginger was as effective as the reference drug (vitamin
B6) in relieving the severity of nausea and vomiting episodes. The observational
study retrieved and RCTs (including follow-up periods) showed the absence of
significant side effects or adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. There were no
spontaneous or case reports of adverse events during ginger treatment in
pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Ginger may be an effective treatment for nausea and
vomiting in pregnancy. However, more observational studies, with a larger sample
size, are needed to confirm the encouraging preliminary data on ginger safety.

Publication Types:

PMID: 15802416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

75: Phytother Res. 2005 Jan;19(1):54-7.

Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana,
Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in
healthy volunteers.

Oliveira CH, Moraes ME, Moraes MO, Bezerra FA, Abib E, De Nucci G.

Miguel Servet Clinical Pharmacology Unit, 415 Jesuino Marcondes Machado Avenue,
Campinas, SP 13092-320, Brazil. [email protected]

In Brazil, a herbal medicinal extract named Catuama containing a mixture of
Paullinia cupana (guarana; Sapindaceae), Trichilia catigua (catuaba; Meliaceae),
Ptychopetalum olacoides (muirapuama; Olacaceae) and Zingiber officinale (ginger;
Zingiberaceae) is used as a body stimulant, energetic, tonic and aphrodisiac.
The present study investigated the chronic administration of 25 mL Catuama twice
a day during 28 days for any toxic effect on healthy human volunteers of both
sexes. No severe adverse reactions or haematological and biochemical changes
were reported. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15798997 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

76: Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Feb;12(1):14-23.

Comment in:
Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Jun;12(3):168; author reply

[Is ginger a clinically relevant antiemetic? A systematic review of randomized
controlled trials]

[Article in German]

Betz O, Kranke P, Geldner G, Wulf H, Eberhart LH.

Klinik fur Anasthesiologie und Intensivmedizin, Klinik am Eichert, Goppingen,

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the
clinical impact of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an antiemetic. METHODS: A
systematic search of the literature was performed using the databases of
MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane-Library. RESULTS: Of 100 published reports
discerned as potentially relevant, 24 randomized controlled trials were
evaluated, covering 1073 patients which had received ginger. Of these reports,
16 contained information regarding the antiemetic activity of the
phytotherapeutic agent against kinetosis, postoperative nausea and vomiting
(PONV), and morning sickness and hyperemesis gravidarum, respectively. Only a
few studies were eligible for a quantitative analysis (meta-analysis). Thus, the
majority of the reports were analyzed descriptively. To analyze the potential
side effects of the drug, 15 reports with 777 patients were eligible. Of these,
3.3% suffered from slight side effects, mainly mild gastrointestinal symptoms
and sleepiness, both not requiring specific treatments. One severe adverse event
was reported in a study: an abortion occurred in the 12th week of gestation.
However, a total of 136 patients were treated with ginger within the first
trimenon of pregnancy without complications. CONCLUSION: There is no clear
evidence for the efficacy of ginger in the treatment of PONV and of kinetosis.
The results for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy are
encouraging, however, ginger should be applied for the time being only in
controlled clinical studies. Applied in daily doses up to 6 g ginger seems to be
a drug with few side effects.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15772458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

77: J Food Prot. 2005 Mar;68(3):607-9.

Mycotoxin production and postharvest storage rot of ginger (Zingiber officinale)
by Penicillium brevicompactum.

Overy DP, Frisvad JC.

Center for Process Biotechnology, Biocentrum-DTU, Technical University of
Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs Lyngby, Denmark. [email protected]

Twenty naturally infected ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes displaying
visible mold growth were examined to identify the fungi and to evaluate the
presence of fungal secondary metabolites. Penicillium brevicompactum was the
predominant species isolated from 85% of the samples. Mycophenolic acid was
identified from corresponding tissue extracts. Because mycophenolic acid is a
potent immunosuppressant and synergistic mycotoxicosis studies involving human
consumption have not been carried out on this metabolite, spoilage of
commercially marketed produce caused by P. brevicompactum is a concern. This is
the first reported occurrence of mycophenolic acid in commercially sold plant
food products.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15771190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

78: J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Feb;11(1):149-54.

Ginger extract components suppress induction of chemokine expression in human

Phan PV, Sohrabi A, Polotsky A, Hungerford DS, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Arthritis Surgery, Johns Hopkins
University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

INTRODUCTION: Ginger has a long history of medicinal use, particularly as an
anti-inflammatory agent for a wide variety of diseases such as arthritis.
Suppression of inflammation in arthritis is attributed to suppression of
proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines produced by synoviocytes, chondrocytes,
and leukocytes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of a
combination ginger extract and its individual components on chemokine expression
in human synoviocytes. METHODS: Human synoviocytes were incubated with 100
microg/mL combination ginger extract (GE) of Alpinia galanga (AG) and Zingiber
officinale (ZO); AG extract alone; ZO extract alone; or control media, for 1
hour at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2. Cells were next activated with 1 ng/mL of tumor
necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) for 1 hour to determine macrophage chemotactic
factor (MCP-1) and interferon-gamma activated protein (IP-10) mRNA levels using
reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Secreted MCP-1 and
IP-10 were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following a
24 hour incubation period. RESULTS: The GE combination was consistently more
effective in decreasing chemokine mRNA and chemokine secreted protein levels
than its individual components ZO or AG. In comparison, ZO was more effective
than AG in suppressing chemokine expression. CONCLUSION: The present study
demonstrates that GE inhibits chemokine expression, and that the combination of
ZO and AG components acts synergistically. This ginger formulation may be useful
for suppressing inflammation due to arthritis.

PMID: 15750374 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

79: Phytother Res. 2004 Dec;18(12):976-81.

Effect of an indigenous herbal compound preparation 'Trikatu' on the lipid
profiles of atherogenic diet and standard diet fed Rattus norvegicus.

Sivakumar V, Sivakumar S.

Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar, 608002 Tamil Nadu,
India. [email protected]

Combating heart disease is one of the challenging problems of biomedical science
today. Towards this goal an indigenous preparation 'Trikatu' (a herbal
combination containing Piper longum (fruit), Piper nigrum (fruit) and Zingiber
officinale (rhizome) dry powder) was fed to normal and cholesterol fed male
Rattus norvegicus to ascertain its efficacy as a hypolipidaemic agent. Its
effects on body weight, blood and tissue (aortic, cardiac and hepatic)
lipids--total, free and esterified cholesterol, low density lipoprotein(LDL) and
high density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids--and
the atherogenic index were measured. It was found that 'Trikatu' by virtue of
its ability to reduce triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and to increase HDL
cholesterol can reduce the risk of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Hence
'Trikatu' can be used as a potent hypolipidaemic agent and it can reduce the
atherosclerosis associated with a high fat diet. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 15742354 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

80: Oncogene. 2005 Apr 7;24(15):2558-67.

[6]-Gingerol inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of p38 MAP
kinase and NF-kappaB in phorbol ester-stimulated mouse skin.

Kim SO, Kundu JK, Shin YK, Park JH, Cho MH, Kim TY, Surh YJ.

College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.

[6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe,
Zingiberaceae), has a wide array of pharmacologic effects. The present study was
aimed at unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying previously reported
antitumor promoting effects of [6]-gingerol in mouse skin in vivo. One of the
well-recognized molecular targets for chemoprevention is cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2) that is abnormally upregulated in many premalignant and malignant
tissues and cells. In our present study, topical application of [6]-gingerol
inhibited COX-2 expression in mouse skin stimulated with a prototype tumor
promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Since the transcription
factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is known to regulate COX-2 induction,
we attempted to determine the effect of [6]-gingerol on TPA-induced activation
of NF-kappaB. Pretreatment with [6]-gingerol resulted in a decrease in both
TPA-induced DNA binding and transcriptional activities of NF-kappaB through
suppression of IkappaBalpha degradation and p65 nuclear translocation.
Phosphorylation of both IkappaBalpha and p65 was substantially blocked by
[6]-gingerol. In addition, [6]-gingerol inhibited TPA-stimulated interaction of
phospho-p65-(Ser-536) with cAMP response element binding protein-binding
protein, a transcriptional coactivator of NF-kappaB. Moreover, [6]-gingerol
prevented TPA-induced phosphorylation and catalytic activity of p38
mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase that regulates COX-2 expression in mouse
skin. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated NF-kappaB activation and
subsequent COX-2 induction in TPA-treated mouse skin. Taken together, our data
suggest that [6]-gingerol inhibits TPA-induced COX-2 expression in mouse skin in
vivo by blocking the p38 MAP kinase-NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15735738 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

81: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 28;97(2):227-30.

Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic

Bhandari U, Kanojia R, Pillai KK.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi
110062, India. [email protected]

The lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Zingiber
officinale Roscoe (family, Zingiberaceae) was evaluated in streptozotocin
(STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (200
mg/kg) fed orally for 20 days produced, significant antihyperglycaemic effect (P
< 0.01) in diabetic rats. Further, the extract treatment also lowered serum
total cholesterol, triglycerides and increased the HDL-cholesterol levels when
compared with pathogenic diabetic rats (P < 0.01). STZ-treatment also induced a
statistically significant increase in liver and pancreas lipid peroxide levels
(P < 0.01) as compared to normal healthy control rats. Zingiber officinale
extract treatment lowered the liver and pancreas thiobarbituric acid reactive
substances (TBARS) values (P < 0.01) as compared to pathogenic diabetic rats.
The results of test drug were comparable to gliclazide (25 mg/kg, orally), a
standard antihyperglycaemic agent. The results indicate that ethanolic extract
of Zingiber officinale Roscoe can protect the tissues from lipid peroxidation.
The extract also exhibit significant lipid lowering activity in diabetic rats.
The present study is the first pilot study to assess the potential of Zingiber
officinale in diabetic dyslipidaemia.

PMID: 15707757 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

82: Phytomedicine. 2005 Jan;12(1-2):88-92.

Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of
Malaysian medicinal plants.

Jantan I, Rafi IA, Jalil J.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University Kebangsaan
Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia.
[email protected]

Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were
investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF)
binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts
of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata
Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc.
and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C.
pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia
Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they
showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4
microg ml(-1).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15693713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

83: Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005 Feb;125(2):213-7.

[Antiobesity actions of Zingiber officinale Roscoe]

[Article in Japanese]

Han LK, Gong XJ, Kawano S, Saito M, Kimura Y, Okuda H.

Department of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of
Kumamoto, Kumamoto City 862-8502, Japan. [email protected]

Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been used as a folk medicine in China. An aqueous
extract of Z. officinale Roscoe inhibited the hydrolysis of triolein emulsified
with phosphatidylcholine by pancreatic lipase in vitro and it reduced the
elevation of rat plasma triacylglycerol levels 1 and 2 h after oral
administration of a lipid emulsion containing corn oil. These results suggest
that the aqueous extract of Z. officinale Roscoe might inhibit the intestinal
absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting its hydrolysis. Therefore we
investigated the antiobesity effects of the aqueous extract of Z. officinale
Roscoe by feeding a high-fat diet to mice for 8 weeks. Body weights at 2-8 weeks
and final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lower in mice
fed the high-fat diet containing 3% aqueous extract of Z. officinale Roscoe than
in the controls fed the high-fat diet. Feeding a high-fat diet containing 1%
aqueous extract of Z. officinale Roscoe also significantly reduced final
parametrial adipose tissue weights that were elevated in mice fed the high-fat
diet alone. Our data suggest that the antiobesity effect of aqueous extract of
Z. officinale Roscoe in mice fed a high-fat diet may be due in part to the
inhibition of intestinal absorption of dietary fat by the active compounds of Z.
officinale Roscoe.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 15684576 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

84: J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1009-13.

Ginger extract inhibits beta-amyloid peptide-induced cytokine and chemokine
expression in cultured THP-1 monocytes.

Grzanna R, Phan P, Polotsky A, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG.

RMG Biosciences, Inc., Baltimore, MD, USA.

INTRODUCTION: Neuritic plaques, a neuropathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's
disease, are extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta). In the
central nervous system neuritic plaques are surrounded by activated microglial
cells expressing proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and neurotoxic
mediators. Long-term activation of microglial cells is suspected to contribute
to the neuron loss in Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted
to determine whether a ginger (Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga) extract
(GE) can dampen the activation of THP-1 cells by lipopolysaccharide,
proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrillar amyloid peptide Abeta(1-42), a major
component of neuritic plaques. METHODS: THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line
with properties similar to human microglial cells, were incubated with GE or
control medium alone for 1 hour, and then with reincubated lipopolysaccharide
(LPS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or
fibrillar Abeta(1-42) for an additional hour. The extent of THP-1 cell
activation was determined by measuring mRNA levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta,
cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha),
monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interferon-gamma inducible
protein 10 (IP-10). RESULTS: The results document that the GE used in this study
inhibits LPS, cytokine, and amyloid Abeta peptide-induced expression of the
proinflammatory genes TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, COX-2, MIP-alpha, MCP-1, and IP-10.
The data provide experimental evidence that ginger can inhibit the activation of
human monocytic THP-1 cells by different proinflammatory stimuli and reduce the
expression of a wide range of inflammation-related genes in these
microglial-like cells. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that GE may be useful
in delaying the onset and the progression of neurodegenerative disorders
involving chronically activated microglial cells in the central nervous system.

PMID: 15673995 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

85: Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):293-6.

Antioxidant properties of gingerol related compounds from ginger.

Masuda Y, Kikuzaki H, Hisamoto M, Nakatani N.

Division of Food and Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human Life Science,
Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) shows an antioxidant activity, and we have
been engaging to determine the structures of more than 50 antioxidants isolated
from the rhizomes of ginger. The isolated antioxidants are divided into two
groups; gingerol related compounds and diarylheptanoids. In this study,
structure-activity relationship of gingerol related compounds was evaluated.
Gingerol related compounds substituted with an alkyl group bearing 10-, 12- or
14-carbon chain length were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of
rhizomes using repeated chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activities
of these compounds were evaluated by the following measurements; 1)
1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2) inhibitory
effect on oxidation of methyl linoleate under aeration and heating by the Oil
Stability Index (OSI) method, and 3) inhibitory effect on oxidation of liposome
induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH). These results
suggested that the substituents on the alkyl chain might contribute to both
radical scavenging effect and inhibitory effect of autoxidation of oils, while
inhibitory effects against the AAPH-induced peroxidation of liposome was
somewhat influenced by the alkyl chain length; the antioxidant activity might be
due to not only radical scavenging activity of antioxidants but also their
affinity of the antioxidants to the substrates.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15630214 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

86: Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):27-31.

Inhibitory effects of [6]-gingerol on PMA-induced COX-2 expression and
activation of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK in mouse skin.

Kim SO, Chun KS, Kundu JK, Surh YJ.

College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.

[6]-Gingerol, a major pungent ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe,
Zingiberaceae), has a wide array of pharmacologic effects. Previous studies have
demonstrated that [6]-gingerol inhibits mouse skin tumor promotion and
anchorage-independent growth of cultured mouse epidermal cells stimulated with
epidermal growth factor. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in the
prostaglandin biosynthesis, has been recognized as a molecular target for many
anti-inflammatory as well as chemopreventive agents. Topical application of
[6]-gingerol inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate -induced COX-2
expression. One of the essential transcription factors responsible for COX-2
induction is NF-kappaB. [6]-Gingerol suppressed NF-kappaB DNA binding activity
in mouse skin. In addition, [6]-gingerol inhibited the phoshorylation of p38
mitogen-activated protein kinase which may account for its inactivation of
NF-kappaB and suppression of COX-2 expression.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15630166 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

87: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005 Jan;45(1):74-80.

Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium

Ghayur MN, Gilani AH.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University
Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used
traditionally in a wide variety of ailments including hypertension. We report
here the cardiovascular effects of ginger under controlled experimental
conditions. The crude extract of ginger (Zo.Cr) induced a dose-dependent (0.3-3
mg/kg) fall in the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. In guinea pig
paired atria, Zo.Cr exhibited a cardiodepressant activity on the rate and force
of spontaneous contractions. In rabbit thoracic aorta preparation, Zo.Cr relaxed
the phenylephrine-induced vascular contraction at a dose 10 times higher than
that required against K (80 mM)-induced contraction. Ca2+ channel-blocking (CCB)
activity was confirmed when Zo.Cr shifted the Ca2+ dose-response curves to the
right similar to the effect of verapamil. It also inhibited the phenylephrine (1
microM) control peaks in normal-Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution, indicating that it
acts at both the membrane-bound and the intracellular Ca2+ channels. When tested
in endothelium-intact rat aorta, it again relaxed the K-induced contraction at a
dose 14 times less than that required for relaxing the PE-induced contraction.
The vasodilator effect of Zo.Cr was endothelium-independent because it was not
blocked by L-NAME (0.1 mM) or atropine (1 microM) and also was reproduced in the
endothelium-denuded preparations at the same dose range. These data indicate
that the blood pressure-lowering effect of ginger is mediated through blockade
of voltage-dependent calcium channels.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15613983 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

88: Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(1-2):43-51.

Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for
allergic rhinitis.

Pratibha N, Saxena VS, Amit A, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of
nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs
when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe
polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of
allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal
plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica,
Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since
inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study
aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo
models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw
edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema
in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino
rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and
compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55%
inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under
the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7%
inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at
all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most
potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated
31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino
rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also
exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against
Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately
63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin
inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive
control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated IC50 concentrations at 1.5 and 9.0
microg/ml, respectively. These results demonstrate that this novel polyherbal
formulation is a potent anti-inflammatory agent that can ameliorate the symptoms
of allergic rhinitis.

PMID: 15573692 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

89: Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;39(5):401-6.

Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-assisted solvent-extracted spices.

Thongson C, Davidson PM, Mahakarnchanakul W, Weiss J.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Kasetsart University, Jatujak,
Bangkok, Thailand.

AIMS: The objective of this research was to determine the antimicrobial activity
of conventional and high-intensity ultrasound-assisted (HI-US) solvent-extracted
Thai spices, including ginger (Zingiber officinale Rose), fingerroot
(Bosenbergia pandurata Holtt) and turmeric (Curouma longa Linn). METHODS AND
RESULTS: Extracts were obtained using hexane, isopropanol and a 7 : 3
isopropanol : hexane mixture as solvents with and without HI-US. The
antimicrobial activity of the extracts was assayed against four strains each of
Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 using an agar dilution
assay. Application of HI-US did not alter antibacterial activity against S.
Typhimurium, but antilisterial activity of some HI-US spice extracts decreased.
Solvent type affected antimicrobial efficacy of extracts with hexane producing
the least antimicrobial activity. Fingerroot extracted with isopropanol-hexane
and without HI-US had the best antilisterial effect while HI-US-isopropanol
fingerroot extract had the greatest antimicrobial efficacy against S.
Typhimurium. CONCLUSIONS: Application of HI-US reduced time of extraction to 5
min, compared with the 24 h required for conventional extraction and maintained
antimicrobial activity against Salmonella but slightly reduced activity against
Listeria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: HI-US in combination with proper
solvent selection may offer a new tool to optimize extraction of spice essential
oil for use as antimicrobial agents, and reduce processing time and costs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15482429 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

90: Lett Appl Microbiol. 2004;39(5):395-400.

Five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon: their antibacterial
activity and ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Listeria
innocua examined by flow cytometry.

Nguefack J, Budde BB, Jakobsen M.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaounde-I, Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.
[email protected]

AIMS: To investigate the antibacterial effect of five essential oils (EO)
extracted from aromatic plants (Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimumbasilicum, Ocimum
gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale) of Cameroon against
strains of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua and Staphylococcus aureus. The
ability of selected EO to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of L. innocua
was also examined. METHODS AND RESULTS: The antibacterial activity of the EO
determined by the agar diffusion method showed that T. vulgaris had the highest
activity followed by O. gratissimum and C. citratus. Lowest activity was
recorded from Z. officinale and O. basilicum. Significant differences in
sensitivity between strains of Listeria and S. aureus were observed. Flow
cytometry of L. innocua stained with carboxy-fluorescein diacetate showed that
the fluorescence intensity of cells exposed to EO decreased faster than
nonexposed cells, indicating that EO permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane with
the leakage of carboxy-fluorescein. CONCLUSIONS: Almost all the EO tested showed
antibacterial activity to a different extent. The antibacterial effect was due
to permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membrane. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE
STUDY: This study has identified the preservative potential of the EO examined.
The use of sensitive method, such as flow cytometry, is advantageous for quick
generation of data on the antibacterial effect of EO.

PMID: 15482428 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

91: Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2004 Aug;19(4):422-35.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a dietary supplement, protects mice against
radiation-induced lethality: mechanism of action.

Jagetia G, Baliga M, Venkatesh P.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India.
[email protected]

The radioprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger rhizome (Zingiber
officinale; ZOE) was studied in mice administered 250 mg/kg ZOE orally using
oral gavage once daily for 5 consecutive days before exposure to 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
or 11 Gy of gamma-radiation. The animals were monitored daily up to 30 days
postirradiation for the development of symptoms of radiation sickness and
mortality. Pretreatment of mice with ZOE reduced the severity of symptoms of
radiation sickness and mortality at all the exposure doses and also increased
the number of survivors in a ZOE + irradiation group compared to the concurrent
double-distilled water + irradiation group. The ZOE treatment protected mice
against gastrointestinal-related deaths as well as bone-marrow-related deaths.
The dose-reduction factor was found to be 1.2. The administration of ZOE after
exposure to irradiation was not effective, as no survivors lasted up to 30 days
postirradiation. Reducing the administration schedule to 3 days or increasing
the schedule to 7 days was not as effective compared to a 5 consecutive days'
schedule. The irradiation of animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in
the lipid peroxidation, while depletion in the glutathione (GSH) contents
occurred on day 31 postirradiation. Treatment of mice with ZOE before
irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation followed by a
significant elevation in GSH concentration in the livers of mice at 31 days
postirradiation. The mechanism of action of ZOE was determined by evaluating its
free-radical scavenging capability. Ginger was found to scavenge *OH, O2*- and
ABTS*+ radicals in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The drug was nontoxic up to
a dose of 1500 mg/kg body weight, the highest drug dose that could be tested for
acute toxicity. Copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15453957 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

92: Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2004;30(3):99-109.

Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic

D'Souza P, Amit A, Saxena VS, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men,
women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when
the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic
rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal
membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy,
watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2)
has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique
combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus
emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper
nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant
efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl
radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay,
1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and
2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical
scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced
lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7
exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically
generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73 microg/ml); superoxide anion (IC50
24.65 microg/ml by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
[PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27 microg/ml by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium
[NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34 microg/ml); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl
hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62 microg/ml); and
2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical
(IC50 7.35 microg/ml). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the
concentration range of 20-80 microg/ml. Aller-7 also significantly inhibited
nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages.
These results demonstrate that Aller-7 is a potent scavenger of free radicals
and that it may serve.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 15366786 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

93: J Microbiol. 2004 Mar;42(1):60-3.

Use of sucrose-agar globule with root exudates for mass production of vesicular
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Selvaraj T, Kim H.

Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Chennai 600-025,
Tamil Nadu, INDIA.

A sucrose-agar globule (SAG) was newly introduced to increase production of the
vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal spores, Gigaspora gigantea and
Glomus fasciculatum. An SAG inoculum and a sucrose-agar globule with root
exudates (SAGE) inoculum were prepared, and their spore productions were
compared with a soil inoculum. When the SAGE was used as the inoculum on
sucrose-agar medium plates the number of spores was increased (35% more than the
soil inoculum). After the soil inoculum and SAGE were inoculated on an
experimental plant, Zingiber officinale, the percentage root colonization,
number of VAM spores, and dry matter content were analyzed. It was observed that
the SAGE showed a higher percentage of root colonization (about 10% more), and
increases in the number of spores (about 26%) and dry matter (more than 13%) for
the two VAM fungal spores than the soil inoculum. The results of this study
suggested that the SAGE inoculum may be useful for the mass production of VAM
fungi and also for the large scale production of VAM fungal fertilizer.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15357295 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

94: Indian J Exp Biol. 2004 Jul;42(7):736-8.

Protective effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc on experimental
atherosclerosis in rabbits.

Verma SK, Singh M, Jain P, Bordia A.

Indigenous Drug Research Centre and Department of Medicine, RNT Medical College,
Udaipur 313001, India. [email protected]

The effects of air dried ginger powder (0.1g/kg body weight, po, for 75 days)
were studied on experimentally induced atherosclerosis in rabbits by cholesterol
feeding (0.3g/kg body weight, po). Cholesterol feeding for 75 days lead to
distinct development of atheroma in the aorta and coronary arteriesof the
rabbits and this was significantly inhibited by about 50% following ginger
administration. There was distinct decrease in lipid peroxidation and
enhancement of fibrinolytic activity in ginger treated animals. However, ginger
did not lower blood lipidsto any significant extent. This distinct protection
from the development of atherosclerosis by ginger is probably because of its
free radical scavanging, prostaglandin inhibitory and fibri properties.

PMID: 15339040 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

95: J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1999;18(2):131-9.

Anti-tumor-promoting activities of selected pungent phenolic substances present
in ginger.

Surh YJ, Park KK, Chun KS, Lee LJ, Lee E, Lee SS.

College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) has been widely used as a
dietary spice, as well as in traditional oriental medicine. The rhizome of
ginger contains pungent vanillyl ketones, including [6]-gingerol and
[6]-paradol, and has been reported to possess a strong anti-inflammatory
activity. These pungent substances have a vanilloid structure found in other
chemopreventive phytochemicals, including curcumin. In our study, we found
anti-tumor-promoting properties of [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol. Thus, topical
application of [6]-gingerol or [6]-paradol 30 min prior to
12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) attenuated the skin papillomagenesis
initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in female ICR mice. These substances
also significantly inhibited the tumor-promoter-stimulated inflammation,
TNF-alpha production, and activation of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase in
mice. In another study, [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol suppressed the superoxide
production stimulated by TPA in differentiated HL-60 cells. Taken together,
these findings suggest that pungent vanilloids found in ginger possess potential
chemopreventive activities.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15281225 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

96: Phytochemistry. 2004 Jul;65(13):1937-54.

Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on
LPS-induced PGE2 production.

Jolad SD, Lantz RC, Solyom AM, Chen GJ, Bates RB, Timmermann BN.

Arizona Center for Phytomedicine Research, College of Pharmacy, University of
Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry, a technique previously
employed to analyze non-volatile pungent components of ginger extracts modified
to trimethylsilyl derivatives, was applied successfully for the first time to
analyze unmodified partially purified fractions from the dichloromethane
extracts of organically grown samples of fresh Chinese white and Japanese yellow
varieties of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). This analysis
resulted in the detection of 20 hitherto unknown natural products and 31
compounds previously reported as ginger constituents. These include paradols,
dihydroparadols, gingerols, acetyl derivatives of gingerols, shogaols,
3-dihydroshogaols, gingerdiols, mono- and diacetyl derivatives of gingerdiols,
1-dehydrogingerdiones, diarylheptanoids, and methyl ether derivatives of some of
these compounds. The thermal degradation of gingerols to gingerone, shogaols,
and related compounds was demonstrated. The major constituent in the two
varieties was [6]-gingerol, a chemical marker for Z. officinale. Mass spectral
fragmentation patterns for all the compounds are described and interpreted.
Anti-inflammatory activities of silica gel chromatography fractions were tested
using an in vitro PGE2 assay. Most of the fractions containing gingerols and/or
gingerol derivatives showed excellent inhibition of LPS-induced PGE2 production.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 15280001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

97: J Econ Entomol. 2004 Jun;97(3):846-53.

Aromatherapy in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sterile
males exposed to ginger root oil in prerelease storage boxes display increased
mating competitiveness in field-cage trials.

Shelly TE, McInnis DO, Pahio E, Edu J.

USDA-APHIS, 41-6.50 Ahiki St., Waimanalo, HI 96795, USA.

Previous research showed that exposure to ginger root, Zingiber officinale
Roscoe, oil increased the mating success of mass-reared, sterile males of the
Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This work, however,
involved the exposure of small groups of males (n = 25) in small containers
(volume 400 ml). Several sterile male release programs use plastic adult rearing
containers (so-called PARC boxes; hereafter termed storage boxes; 0.48 by 0.60
by 0.33 m) to hold mature pupae and newly emerged adults before release
(approximately = 36,000 flies per box). The objective of the current study was
to determine whether the application of ginger root oil to individual storage
boxes increases the mating competitiveness of sterile C. capitata males.
Irradiated pupae were placed in storage boxes 2 d before adult emergence, and in
the initial experiment (adult exposure) ginger root oil was applied 5 d later
(i.e., 3 d after peak adult emergence) for 24 h at doses of 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5,
1.0, and 2.0 ml. In a second experiment (pupal-adult exposure), ginger root oil
was applied to storage boxes immediately after pupal placement and left for 6 d
(i.e., 4 d after peak adult emergence) at doses of 0.25 and 1.0 ml. Using field
cages, we conducted mating trials in which ginger root oil-exposed (treated) or
nonexposed (control) sterile males competed against wild-like males for
copulations with wild-like females. After adult exposure, treated males had
significantly higher mating success than control males for all doses of ginger
root oil, except 2.0 ml. After pupal-adult exposure, treated males had a
significantly higher mating success than control males for the 1.0-ml but not
the 0.25-ml dose of ginger root oil. The results suggest that ginger root oil
can be used in conjunction with prerelease, storage boxes to increase the
effectiveness of sterile insect release programs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 15279263 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

98: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2004 May;46(4):470-7.

Effect of herbal molluscicides and their combinations on the reproduction of the
snail Lymnaea acuminata.

Singh A, Singh DK.

Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, India.

Effects of sublethal treatment (20 and 60% of LC50/24 h) of the plant-derived
molluscicides Annona squamosa Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn. and their
combinations with other herbal molluscicides, such as Cedrus deodara Roxb,
Azadirachta indica A. Juss, bulb powder of Allium sativum Linn. and Polianthes
tuberosa Linn., and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Rosc., and acetogenins
extracted from the seeds of A. squamosa Linn., on the reproduction of the snail
Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the plant-derived
molluscicides singly and in binary combinations with other herbal molluscicides
and the extracted acetogenins caused a significant reduction in the fecundity,
hatchability, and survival of young snails. Withdrawal of the snails to fresh
water after the above treatment caused a significant recovery in the fecundity
of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Twenty-four-hour sublethal treatment with the
acetogenins caused a maximum reduction in the protein, amino acid, DNA, and RNA
in the ovotestis of treated Lymnaea acuminata.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15253044 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

99: Int J Food Microbiol. 2004 Aug 1;94(3):329-34.

Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for
controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.

Nguefack J, Leth V, Amvam Zollo PH, Mathur SB.

Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries (DGISP),
Thorvaldsensvej 57, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C., Denmark. [email protected]

Five essential oils (EO) extracted from Cymbopogon citratus, Monodora myristica,
Ocimum gratissimum, Thymus vulgaris and Zingiber officinale were investigated
for their inhibitory effect against three food spoilage and mycotoxin producing
fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Five
strains of each fungus were tested. The agar dilution technique was used to
determine the inhibitory effect of each EO on the radial growth of the fungus,
and a dose response was recorded. The EO from O. gratissimum, T. vulgaris and C.
citratus were the most effective and prevented conidial germination and the
growth of all three fungi on corn meal agar at 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm,
respectively. Moderate activity was observed for the EO from Z. officinale
between 800 and 2500 ppm, while the EO from M. myristica was less inhibitory.
These effects against food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi indicated the
possible ability of each essential oil as a food preservative. A comparative
test on the preservative ability of the EO from O. gratissimum and potassium
sorbate against A. flavus at pH 3.0 and 4.5 showed that the EO remained stable
at both pH, whereas the efficacy of potassium sorbate was reduced at higher pH.
We concluded that the EO from O. gratissimum is a potential food preservative
with a pH dependent superiority against potassium sorbate, and these are novel
scientific information.

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15246244 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

100: Curr Med Chem. 2004 Jun;11(11):1423-30.

Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional chinese medicinal
herbs: a review.

Tan BK, Vanitha J.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, National University of
Singapore, 18 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597. [email protected]

The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals to support the immune system or
to fight infections is based on centuries-old tradition. We review reports on
seven Chinese herbs, (Aloe vera Mill. (Aloaceae), Angelica species
(Umbelliferae), Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. (Leguminosae), Ganoderma lucidum
(Fr.) Karst. (Ganodermataceae), Panax ginseng C.A Mey. (Araliaceae), Scutellaria
species (Lamiaceae) and Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Zingiberaceae) with emphasis
to their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities. While some of these
herbaceous plants have a direct inhibitory effect on microbial organisms, we
observe that each plant has at least one compound that selectively modulates
cells of the immune system. The successful derivation of pure bioactive
compounds from Ganoderma lucidum, ginseng and Zingiber officinale supports the
traditional practice of using these plants to stimulate the immune system. As
many modern drugs are often patterned after phytochemicals, studying the
influence of each compound on immune cells as well as microbes can provide
useful insights to the development of potentially useful new pharmacological

Publication Types:
Historical Article

PMID: 15180575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

101: Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2004 May;39(5):281-5.

[Is ginger a relevant antiemetic for postoperative nausea and vomiting?]

[Article in German]

Morin AM, Betz O, Kranke P, Geldner G, Wulf H, Eberhart LH.

Klinik fur Anasthesie und Intensivtherapie, Philipps-Universitat Marburg.
[email protected]

OBJECTIVE: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has traditionally been used in China for
gastrointestinal symptoms, including nausea and vomiting. A recent systematic
review on the possible antiemetic effect of ginger for various indications,
including PONV, morning sickness, and motion sickness, concluded that ginger was
a promising antiemetic herbal remedy, but the clinical data were insufficient to
draw firm conclusions. Since that publication, additional data has accumulated
and thus an updated meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: A systematic search of
the literature was performed using different search strategies in MEDLINE,
EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. Six randomized controlled trials including 538
patients were identified investigating ginger to prevent postoperative nausea
and vomiting (PONV). Data on the incidences of PONV, nausea, vomiting, and the
need for rescue antiemetics within the first 24 postoperative hours were
extracted and the pooled relative risk and the numbers needed to treat (NNT)
were calculated using a random effects model. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk
to suffer from PONV after pre-treatment with ginger was 0.84 (95 %-confidence
interval 0.69 - 1.03). About 11 patients must be treated with ginger for one
additional patient remaining free from PONV (NNT: 11; 95 %-CI: 6 - 250). Results
for nausea, vomiting, and need for antiemetic rescue treatment are similar.
CONCLUSION: Ginger is not a clinically relevant antiemetic in the PONV setting.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
English Abstract
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 15156419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

102: J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Apr;91(2-3):277-80.

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on interaction of "Trikatu" with
diclofenac sodium.

Lala LG, D'Mello PM, Naik SR.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Prin. K.M. Kundnani College of
Pharmacy, Dr. R.G. Thadani Marg, Worli, Mumbai-400 018, India.
[email protected]

"Trikatu"-an Ayurvedic formulation comprising of a 1:1:1 ratio of dried fruits
of Piper nigrum, Piper longum and dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale is
widely used to enhance the bioavailability of drugs, like vasicine,
indomethacin, etc. The enhanced biological response might lead to alteration of
therapeutic regimens of commonly prescribed drugs. The present work was aimed to
study the effect of concomitant administration of Trikatu on the
pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diclofenac sodium, a frequently
prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, having a poor oral
bioavailability (54 +/- 2%). The effect of Trikatu on the bioavailability
profile of diclofenac sodium was studied in rabbits. It was observed that
Trikatu significantly decreased the serum levels of diclofenac sodium. The
pharmacodynamic study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Trikatu on the
anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac sodium using carragenin-induced rat paw
edema model. It was observed that the mean percent edema inhibition shown by the
combination of Trikatu and diclofenac was similar to that shown by Trikatu alone
but significantly less than that shown by diclofenac alone. Thus, the
experimental findings indicated that Trikatu pretreatment might decrease the
bioavailability of certain drugs probably through a drug-herb interaction
thereby adversely affecting the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs.

PMID: 15120451 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

103: Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(8):1137-43.

Diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.

Ma J, Jin X, Yang L, Liu ZL.

National Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou,
Gansu 730000, China.

Seven new diarylheptanoids, i.e.,
enyl)heptane, (5S)-5-acetoxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)heptan-3-one,
-3-one and
yl)heptane were isolated from the rhizomes of Chinese ginger (Zingiber
officinale Roscoe), along with 25 known compounds, i.e., 8 diarylheptanoids, 14
gingerol analogs, a diterpene and 2 steroids. Their structures were elucidated
by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15110695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

104: Life Sci. 2004 Apr 23;74(23):2889-96.

Inhibitory effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on rat ileal motility in

Borrelli F, Capasso R, Pinto A, Izzo AA.

Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Via
D. Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale rhizome) is a widespread herbal medicine mainly used
for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, including dyspepsia, nausea and
diarrhoea. In the present study we evaluated the effect of this herbal remedy on
the contractions induced by electrical stimulation (EFS) or acetylcholine in the
isolated rat ileum. Ginger (0.01-1000 microg/ml) inhibited both EFS- and
acetylcholine-evoked contractions, being more potent in inhibiting the
contractions induced by EFS. The depressant effect of ginger on EFS-induced
contractions was reduced by the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine
(10(-5) M), but unaffected by the alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine
(10(-7) M), the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716A (10(-6) M), the opioid
antagonist naloxone (10(-6) M) or by the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (3 x
10(-4) M). Zingerone (up to 3 x 10(-4) M), one of the active ingredients of
ginger, did not possess inhibitory effects. It is concluded that ginger
possesses both prejunctional and postjunctional inhibitory effects on ileal
contractility; the prejunctional inhibitory effect of ginger on enteric
excitatory transmission could involve a capsazepine-sensible site (possibly
vanilloid receptors).

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15050426 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

105: Afr J Med Med Sci. 2003 Mar;32(1):75-80.

Comparative effects of some local food condiments on sodium arsenite-induced

Odunola OA.

Cancer Research and Molecular Biology Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry,
College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. [email protected]

The modulatory effects of the aqueous extracts of some locally consumed food
condiments namely garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), sconio
(Pimpinella anisumm LINNE) and cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) on the clastogenic
effects of sodium arsenite, a known inorganic clastogen were assessed in mouse
bone marrow cells using the micronucleus assay method. Results of preliminary
investigation of the clastogenicity of the condiments show that aqueous extracts
of these condiments have very mild clastogenic activity in mice in the order
garlic > ginger and sconio > cloves and that extracts of ginger and sconio seem
to have the same degree of clastogenicity. Pre-treatment of mice for seven days
with extracts of the condiments orally before exposure to the oral dose (2.5
mg/kg body wt.) of sodium arsenite resulted in a remarkable reduction of the
magnitude of formation of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of the bone
marrow. The degree of reduction of the clastogenic effect of arsenite was of the
order ginger > garlic > cloves > sconio. This reduction of arsenite induced
clastogenicity by aqueous extracts of the condiments may be due in part to the
antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents, thus suggesting that the
condiments may be useful in the prevention of arsenite-induced toxicity in areas
where arsenic is an environmental contaminant.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 15030071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

106: J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 Jan;56(1):101-5.

Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I
diabetic rats.

Akhani SP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK.

Department of Pharmacology, L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad-380 009, India.

The fresh and dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (commonly known as
ginger) is widely used in traditional medicine. We have studied the effect of
the juice of Z. officinale (4 mL kg(-1), p.o. daily) for 6 weeks on
streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic rats with particular reference to
the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptors in glycaemic
control. In normoglycaemic rats, 5-HT (1mg kg(-1), i.p.) produced hyperglycaemia
and hypoinsulinaemia, which was significantly prevented by the juice of Z.
officinale. STZ-diabetes produced a significant increase in fasting glucose
levels that was associated with a significant decrease in serum insulin levels.
Treatment with Z. officinale produced a significant increase in insulin levels
and a decrease in fasting glucose levels in diabetic rats. In an oral glucose
tolerance test, treatment with Z. officinale was found to decrease significantly
the area under the curve of glucose and to increase the area under the curve of
insulin in STZ-diabetic rats. Treatment with Z. officinale also caused a
decrease in serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride and blood pressure in diabetic
rats. Our data suggest a potential antidiabetic activity of the juice of Z.
officinale in type I diabetic rats, possibly involving 5-HT receptors.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14980006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

107: J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):323-8.

Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on decreasing the production of
inflammatory mediators in sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants.

Shen CL, Hong KJ, Kim SW.

Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock,
Texas 79409, USA.

The herbal remedy Zingiber officinale (ginger root) has been used for perhaps
thousands of years in the Far East to treat inflammatory diseases, including
osteoarthritis. However, the anti-arthritic effect of ginger root has never been
evaluated on osteoarthrotic cartilage of sow. The objective of this study was to
investigate the effects of ginger root extract (GRE) on the viability and the
production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by sow
osteoarthrotic cartilage explants. The cartilage explants (~20 mg/96-well plate)
were grown in Ham's F-12/Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium supplemented with
10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics for 72 hours and depleted for 24 hours.
GRE was then added at different concentrations (0-2,000 microg/mL), and the
explants were allowed to grow for 24 hours. The cell viability was reduced
(P<.05) with GRE >/=500 microg/mL, whereas it was not affected with GRE <100
microg/mL. In a follow-up experiment, the supernatants of cartilage explants
with GRE (0-500 microg/mL) in the presence of interleukin-1beta (2 ng/mL), tumor
necrosis factor-alpha (1 ng/mL), and lipopolysaccharides (10 microg/mL) were
used to measure NO and PGE production. Increasing GRE concentration (1-100
microg/mL) reduced (P <.05) NO production by cartilage tissue explants, and a
similar pattern was observed in the production of PGE(2). The inhibitory effects
of GRE on NO and PGE(2) production by sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants
observed in this study suggest an important role for GRE as an anti-arthritic
agent in osteoarthrosis in the sow.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14977440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

108: Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2003;29(3):107-15.

Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition,
antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical
formulation for allergic rhinitis.

Amit A, Saxena VS, Pratibha N, D'Souza P, Bagchi M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ.

Natural Remedies Research Center, Bangalore, India.

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a
major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's
population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic
rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the
treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven
medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T.
bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum,
which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical
manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released
from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation
was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging
them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of
Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes
involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses.
Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes
vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to
bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was
determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive
control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig
tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls.
Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus
demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 14708456 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

109: Fitoterapia. 2004 Jan;75(1):65-7.

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.

Konning GH, Agyare C, Ennison B.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kwame Nkrumah University of
Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of
Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale,
medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14693222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

110: Thromb Res. 2003;111(4-5):259-65.

Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of

Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra E, Ammit AJ, Roufogalis BD, Tran VH, Duke CC.

Herbal Medicines Research and Education Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, University
of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

BACKGROUND: Based on recent studies, pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber
officinale) and related substances represent a potential new class of
anti-platelet agents. The ability of 20 pungent constituents of ginger and
related substances to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA) induced platelet activation
in human whole blood was studied. METHODS: Anti-platelet activity of the
compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood platelet
aggregometer. Molecular hydrophobicity (log P) was measured by reversed-phase
high-performance liquid chromatography. COX-1 (ovine) inhibitory effect of
[8]-paradol and analogues 1 and 5 was carried out using a COX-1 inhibitor assay
kit. RESULTS: [8]-Gingerol, [8]-shogaol, [8]-paradol and gingerol analogues (1
and 5) exhibited anti-platelet activities with IC(50) values ranging from 3 to 7
microM, whilst under similar conditions the IC(50) value for aspirin was 20+/-11
microM. The COX-1 inhibitory activity of [8]-paradol (IC(50)=4+/-1 microM) was
more potent than the gingerol analogues (1 and 5) (IC(50) approximately 20
microM). CONCLUSION: The above findings show that gingerol compounds and their
derivatives are more potent anti-platelet agents than aspirin under the
conditions described in this study. [8]-Paradol, a natural constituent of
ginger, was found to be the most potent COX-1 inhibitor and anti platelet
aggregation agent. The mechanism underlying AA-induced platelet aggregation
inhibition may be related to attenuation of COX-1/Tx synthase enzymatic
activity. Lastly, important features of phenolic compounds for inhibition of
AA-induced platelet aggregation and COX-1 activity were revealed in this study.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14693173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

111: Anticancer Res. 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5A):3699-702.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag
A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori.

Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Yun GS, Lu ZZ, Stoia A.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, UIC/NIH Center for Botanical Dietary
Supplements Research, PAHO/WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine,
University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 S. Wood St, MC 877, Chicago, IL 60612,
USA. [email protected]

BACKGROUND: Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) has been used traditionally for
the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments such as motion sickness, dyspepsia
and hyperemesis gravidarum, and is also reported to have chemopreventative
activity in animal models. The gingerols are a group of structurally related
polyphenolic compounds isolated from ginger and known to be the active
constituents. Since Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the primary etiological agent
associated with dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease and the development of gastric
and colon cancer, the anti-HP effects of ginger and its constituents were tested
in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methanol extract of the dried powdered ginger
rhizome, fractions of the extract and the isolated constituents,
6-,8-,10-gingerol and 6-shogoal, were tested against 19 strains of HP, including
5 CagA+ strains. RESULTS: The methanol extract of ginger rhizome inhibited the
growth of all 19 strains in vitro with a minimum inhibitory concentration range
of 6.25-50 micrograms/ml. One fraction of the crude extract, containing the
gingerols, was active and inhibited the growth of all HP strains with an MIC
range of 0.78 to 12.5 micrograms/ml and with significant activity against the
CagA+ strains. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that ginger root extracts
containing the gingerols inhibit the growth of H. pylori CagA+ strains in vitro
and this activity may contribute to its chemopreventative effects.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 14666666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

112: Life Sci. 2003 Nov 14;73(26):3427-37.

[6]-Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in activated J774.1 mouse
macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration

Ippoushi K, Azuma K, Ito H, Horie H, Higashio H.

National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science, National Agricultural Research
Organization, Ano, Mie 514-2392, Japan. [email protected]

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), such as nitric oxide (NO) and its derivatives,
e.g. peroxynitrite (ONOO-), have been proposed as being able to influence signal
transduction and cause DNA damage, contributing to carcinogenic processes. In
this study, the effect of [6]-gingerol, a pungent phenolic compound present in
ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), on NO synthesis in lipopolysaccharide
(LPS)-activated J774.1 macrophages was tested, and the protective ability of
this compound against peroxynitrite-mediated oxidation and nitration reactions
were evaluated. [6]-Gingerol exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of NO
production and significant reduction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in
LPS-stimulated J774.1 cells. Moreover, [6]-gingerol effectively suppressed
peroxynitrite-induced oxidation of dichlorodihydrofluorescein, oxidative single
strand breaks in supercoiled pTZ 18U plasmid DNA, and formation of
3-nitrotyrosine in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and J774.1 cells. Our results
indicate that [6]-gingerol is a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis and also an
effective protector against peroxynitrite-mediated damage.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14572883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

113: Radiat Res. 2003 Nov;160(5):584-92.

Influence of ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale Rosc) on survival, glutathione
and lipid peroxidation in mice after whole-body exposure to gamma radiation.

Jagetia GC, Baliga MS, Venkatesh P, Ulloor JN.

Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal 576 119, India.
[email protected]

The radioprotective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of ginger rhizome,
Zingiber officinale (ZOE), was studied. Mice were given 10 mg/kg ZOE
intraperitoneally once daily for five consecutive days before exposure to 6-12
Gy of gamma radiation and were monitored daily up to 30 days postirradiation for
the development of symptoms of radiation sickness and mortality. Pretreatment of
mice with ZOE reduced the severity of radiation sickness and the mortality at
all doses. The ZOE treatment protected mice from GI syndrome as well as bone
marrow syndrome. The dose reduction factor for ZOE was found to be 1.15. The
optimum protective dose of 10 mg/kg ZOE was 1/50 of the LD50 (500 mg/kg).
Irradiation of the animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in the lipid
peroxidation and depletion of GSH on day 31 postirradiation; both effects were
lessened by pretreatment with ZOE. ZOE also had a dose-dependent antimicrobial
activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia
coli and Candida albicans.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 14565823 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

114: J Econ Entomol. 2003 Aug;96(4):1132-41.

Effects of diet, ginger root oil, and elevation on the mating competitiveness of
male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a mass-reared,
genetic sexing strain in Guatemala.

Shelly TE, Rendon P, Hernandez E, Salgado S, McInnis D, Villalobos E, Liedo P.

USDA-APHIS, P.O. Box 1040, Waimanalo, HI 96795, USA.

The release of sterile males is a key component of an areawide program to
eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from
Guatemala and southern Mexico. The objective of our study was to assess the
effects of adult diet, exposure to ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe),
and elevation on the mating competitiveness of the sterile males used in an
areawide program. Sterile males were maintained on a protein-sugar (protein-fed)
or a sugar-only (protein-deprived) diet and were exposed (for 4 h 1 d before
testing) or not exposed to ginger root oil. In field-cage trials conducted at a
high (1,500 m) and low (700 m) site, we monitored the influence of these
treatments on the mating success of sterile males in competition with wild males
(reared exclusively on the protein-sugar diet and without ginger root oil
exposure) for wild females. Elevation and ginger root oil exposure had
significant effects, with sterile males having higher mating success at the
low-elevation site and ginger root oil-exposed males having greater success than
ginger root oil-deprived males at both sites. Diet did not have a significant
overall effect, and its influence varied with elevation (dietary protein seemed
to provide an advantage at the high-elevation site but not at the low-elevation
site). Possible implications of these findings for eradication programs against
the Mediterranean fruit fly are discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 14503584 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

115: Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):897-902.

Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from

Ficker C, Smith ML, Akpagana K, Gbeassor M, Zhang J, Durst T, Assabgui R,
Arnason JT.

Ottawa-Carleton Institutes of Biology and Chemistry, Carleton University and
University of Ottawa, Ottawa ON, Canada.

A bioassay-guided isolation of antifungal compounds from an African land race of
ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, led to the identification of [6], [8] and
[10]-gingerols and [6]-gingerdiol as the main antifungal principles. The
compounds were active against 13 human pathogens at concentrations of <1 mg/mL.
The gingerol content of the African land race was at least 3 x higher than that
of typical commercial cultivars of ginger. Therefore, ginger extracts
standardized on the basis of the identified compounds, could be considered as
antifungal agents for practical therapy. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 13680820 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

116: Nahrung. 2003 Aug;47(4):261-4.

Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain spices in vitro: a
preliminary study.

Baliga MS, Jagetia GC, Rao SK, Babu K.

Department of Radiobiology Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576 119, Karnataka,

The plant extracts of some commonly used spices were examined for their possible
regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as a NO
donor in vitro. Most of the extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO
and exhibited significant activity and the potency of scavenging activity was in
the following order: Foeniculum vulgare (aqueous) > Citrus limettiodes > Murraya
koenigii (seed, aqueous) > Murraya koenigii (leaf, aqueous) > Curcuma aromatica
(aqueous) > Murraya koenigii (leaf, dichloromethane:methanol) > Mentha arvensis
(chloroform) > Mentha arvensis (aqueous) > Curcuma longa > Gingko biloba >
Foeniculum vulgare (dichloromethane:methanol) > Zingiber officinale (aqueous) >
Curcuma aromatica (ethanolic) > Murraya koenigii (seed,
dichloromethane:methanol). All the evaluated extracts exhibited a dose-dependent
NO scavenging activity. The aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare showed a
greatest NO scavenging effect of 79.75% at 62.5 microg/mL as compared to the
positive control, Gingko biloba where 36.22% scavenging was observed at similar
concentration. The present results suggest that these spices might be potent and
novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological
conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product,

Publication Types:
Evaluation Studies
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 13678266 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

117: Altern Med Rev. 2003 Aug;8(3):331-5.

Zingiber officinale (ginger). Monograph.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 12946242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

118: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Sep;88(1):99-106.

Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish.

Dugenci SK, Arda N, Candan A.

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu Cad. No. 200, 34470
Laleli/Istanbul, Turkey. [email protected]

Immunostimulant effects of the dietary intake of various medicinal plant
extracts on fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were investigated. For
this purpose fish were fed with diets containing aqueous extracts of mistletoe
(Viscum album), nettle (Urtica dioica), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Food
containing lyophilized extracts of these plants as 0.1 and 1% was used at a rate
of 2% of body weight per day for three weeks. At the end of the experimental
period, various parameters of non-specific defence mechanisms, including
extracellular and intracellular respiratory burst activities, phagocytosis in
blood leukocytes and total plasma protein level were examined. Specific growth
rates (SGRs) and condition factors (CFs) of the fish were also measured. Plant
materials tested for immunostimulatory food additives caused an enhanced
extracellular respiratory burst activity (P<0.001) compared to the control
group. Especially the rainbow trout fed with a diet containing 1% aqueous
extract of powdered ginger roots for three weeks exhibited a significant
non-specific immune response. Phagocytosis and extracellular burst activity of
blood leukocytes were significantly higher in this group than those in the
control group. All plant extracts added to fish diet increased the total protein
level in plasma except 0.1% ginger. The highest level of plasma proteins was
observed in the group fed with 1% ginger extract containing feed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12902058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

119: J Environ Sci Health B. 2003 Jul;38(4):489-500.

Zingiberene and curcumene in wild tomato.

Antonious GF, Kochhar TS.

Department of Plant and Soil Science, Kentucky State University, Frankfort,
Kentucky 40601, USA. [email protected]

Composition of ginger oil prepared from fresh ginger rhizomes, Zingiber
officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and
GC-mass spectrometric techniques. The main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons identified
were alpha-zingiberene (27-30%), alpha-curcumene (8-9%), beta-sesquiphellandrene
(4.8%). and bisabolene (3.2%). The function of zingiberene and curcumene as
insecticides, repellents, and insect feeding deterrents has been previously
reported. Other plant species having similar constituents might be found. Leaves
of six wild tomato accessions of Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum (Mull);
three accessions of L. hirsutum f. typicum (Humb & Bonpl.); two accessions of L.
pennellii Corr. (D'Arcy); one accession of L. pimpinellifolium; and one
commercial tomato L. esculentumm cv. Fabulous were analyzed. Analysis of L.
hirsutum f. typicum (Solanaceae) accessions indicated the presence of
zingiberene, curcumene, and other lipophilic secondary metabolites in the leaves
of two accessions (PI-127826 and PI-127827). An average three month old wild
tomato plant of accessions PI-127826 and PI-127827 provided 1.93 and 1.30 kg
fresh leaves (averaging about 38,307 and 28,130 cm2 exposed leaf surface area,
respectively) and produced 19.3 and 10.1 g of zingiberene and curcumene
(PI-127826) and 17.2 and 1.8 g of zingiberene and curcumene (PI-127827),
respectively. Leaf extracts of the wild tomato L. hirsutum f. typicum
(accessions PI-127826 and PI-127827) can be used as a biorational source of
zingiberene and curcumene.

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 12856930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

120: Phytomedicine. 2003;10(5):381-5.

Anti-inflammatory effect of the hydralcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale
rhizomes on rat paw and skin edema.

Penna SC, Medeiros MV, Aimbire FS, Faria-Neto HC, Sertie JA, Lopes-Martins RA.

Laboratorio de Farmacologia e Experimentacao Animal, Instituto de Pesquisa e
Desenvolvimento--IP&D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba--UNIVAP, Urbanova, Sao
Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil.

Plant extracts have been used for centuries as a popular mode of treatment for
several health disorders. Over the last ten years, the study of those extracts
has attracted attention in different fields of the biological sciences. Ginger,
the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), is a commom
constituent of diet worldwide and it has been reported that its extracts present
some pharmacological activities. Here we investigate the effects of the crude
hydralcoholic extract of ginger rhizomes on the classical models of rat paw and
skin edema. The carrageenan-, compound 48/80- or serotonin-induced rat paw edema
were inhibited significantly by the intraperitoneal administration of alcoholic
ginger extract. Ginger extract was also effective in inhibiting 48/80-induced
rat skin edema at doses of 0.6 and 1.8 mg/site. Rat skin edema induced by
substance P or bradikinin was not affected by treatment with Z. officinalle
extract. The intraperitoneal administration of ginger extract (186 mg/kg(-1)
body wt.) 1 h prior to serotonin injections, reduced significantly the
serotonin-induced rat skin edema. Our results demonstrated that crude extract of
Zingiber officinale was able to reduce rat paw and skin edema induced by
carrageenan, 48/80 compound and serotonin. The antiedematogenic activity seems
to be related, at least partially, to an antagonism of the serotonin receptor.

PMID: 12834002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

121: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2003 Jan;32(1):22-3.

[Effect of Zingiber OfficinaleRosc on lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemia rats]

[Article in Chinese]

Liu N, Huo G, Zhang L, Zhang X.

School of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Zingiber Officinale Rosc(ginger) is the food of rhizoma species as well as
Chinese traditional medicine and has various pharmacological effects. The last
researches showed that ginger not only reduced plasma lipid levels but also the
mouse atherosclerotic lesion areas. The ginger antioxidative effect maybe pay an
important role in attenuation of development of atherosclerosis. Antioxidative
effect of Zingiber Officinale Rosc on hyperlipidemia rats have been studied and
the changes of GSH-Px and LPO in their blood have been observed in this paper.
Male adult Wistar rats were grouped into control, preventive and curative teams.
The experimental teams were respectively fed on the test diet containing 2%
ginger and 5% ginger, in order to measure the changes of plasma lipid peroxides
(LPO) and glutathione (GSH-Px) after the experiment. The results show that
ginger increased GSH-Px and reduced LPO in the rats' blood. Ginger could inhibit
and/or scaving radicals of rat body in different degrees.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 12731279 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

122: J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Apr 23;51(9):2520-5.

Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid

Leal PF, Braga ME, Sato DN, Carvalho JE, Marques MO, Meireles MA.

LASEFI-DEA/FEA-UNICAMP (State University of Campinas), Caixa Postal 6121,
13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial
activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary
(Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The
extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or
isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed
using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the
antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA
test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer
ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia,
and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the
lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest
antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective
anticancer activities.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12696930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

123: Anesth Analg. 2003 Apr;96(4):995-8, table of contents.

Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic

Eberhart LH, Mayer R, Betz O, Tsolakidis S, Hilpert W, Morin AM, Geldner G, Wulf
H, Seeling W.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Philipps-University of
Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, D-35033 Marburg, Germany.
[email protected]

IMPLICATIONS: The potential antiemetic effect of two different oral doses of the
herbal remedy ginger (Zingiber officinale) to prevent postoperative nausea and
vomiting in 180 patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy was investigated in
this randomized, double-blinded trial. Ginger failed to reduce the incidence of
postoperative nausea and vomiting after these procedures.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12651648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

124: East Afr Med J. 2002 Nov;79(11):588-92.

Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory
tract pathogens.

Akoachere JF, Ndip RN, Chenwi EB, Ndip LM, Njock TE, Anong DN.

Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, PO Box 63,

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antibacterial activity of Zingiber officinale
(ginger) Garcinia kola (bitter kola) on four respiratory tract pathogens.
DESIGN: A prospective study based on laboratory investigations. SETTING:
Department of Life Sciences, University of Buea. Throat swabs were collected
from 333 individuals with running nostrils, cough and/or catarrh in three
localities of Buea namely Bokwango, Molyko and Bolifamba. Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were
isolated from the specimens using standard microbiological procedures. The
antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of ginger and bitter kola, were
investigated on these pathogens using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. RESULTS: The extracts
exhibited antibacterial activity against the pathogens. The MIC of extracts
ranged from 0.0003 microg/ml to 0.7 microg/ml for ginger and 0.00008 microg/ml,
to 1.8 microg/mL for bitter kola, while MBC ranged from 0.1.35 microg/ml to 2.04
microg/ml for ginger and 0.135 microg/ml to 4.2 microg/ml for bitter kola.
CONCLUSION: Results indicated that extracts of ginger root and bitter kola may
contain compounds with therapeutic activity.

PMID: 12630492 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

125: Mycoses. 2003 Feb;46(1-2):29-37.

Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant

Ficker CE, Arnason JT, Vindas PS, Alvarez LP, Akpagana K, Gbeassor M, De Souza
C, Smith ML.

Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

In this study, 36 extracts derived from 29 plant species selected using an
ethnobotanical approach were tested for antifungal activity against a
taxonomically diverse group of 13 human pathogenic fungi. We compared the
inhibitory characteristics of these plant extracts with those of the commonly
used antifungals, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, and the plant-derived
antifungal, berberine. Several plant extracts, notably those from Zingiber
officinale (ginger) and Juglans cinerea (butternut), had pronounced antifungal
activity against a wide variety of fungi, including strains that were highly
resistant to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Further exploration of Z.
officinale as an antifungal is warranted as this species is generally regarded
as safe for human consumption.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12588480 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

126: Zhong Yao Cai. 1999 Mar;22(3):134-5.

[Studies on the supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction and quality evaluation of
ginger oils]

[Article in Chinese]

Shi Q, Li J, Tong X, Tan X, Ge F, Liang J.

Guangzhou Pharmaceutical Industrial Research Institute, Guangzhou 510240.

Essential oils from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale were extracted by
supercritical-CO2 fluid(SFE-CO2) and traditional water still distillation (WSD)
methods, and the SFE extraction technology and quality (GC-MS, etc.) of the oils
were studied. The results showed that the SFE-CO2 contains 49 constituents, such
as 6-paradol, etc, the ginger peppery component of them gets to 22.90%.

PMID: 12575096 [PubMed - in process]

127: Asian J Androl. 2002 Dec;4(4):299-301.

Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra
brazzeana in male rats.

Kamtchouing P, Mbongue Fandio GY, Dimo T, Jatsa HB.

Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde
I, Cameroun.

AIM: Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra brazzeana were
tested for their possible androgenic activity in male Wistar rats. METHODS: The
aqueous extracts of the two plants were gavaged separately to 2 groups of rats
at a similar dose of 600 mg middot kg(-1) middot day(-1) for 8 days. At the end
of the treatment, the animals were killed and the blood, testis, epididymis,
seminal vesicles and prostate were collected for biochemical analysis. RESULTS:
The aqueous extract of Z. officinale significantly increased in the relative
weight of the testis, the serum testosterone level, testicular cholesterol level
and epididymal a-glucosidase activity. The aqueous extract of P. brazzeana
significantly increased the weights of the testis, seminal vesicles and
prostate. It also significantly increased the serum and testicular testosterone
level. The fructose, alpha-glucosidase and cholesterol levels in P.
brazzeana-treated rats were increased by 28 %, 35 % and 114 %, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The aqueous extracts of both P. brazzeana and Z. officinale have an
androgenic activity, which seems to be more potent with P. brazzeana than with
Z. officinale.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 12508133 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

128: J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan;84(1):105-8.

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants
in alloxan diabetic rats.

Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG.

Satsang Herbal Research and Analytical Laboratories, PO Satsang-814 116 Deoghar,
India. [email protected]

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have
been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic,
Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different
herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose
lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino
rats. Blood glucose values are brought down close to normal fasting level using
herbal samples at a dose of 250 mg/kg once, twice or thrice daily, as needed.
While evaluating comparative hypoglycaemic activity of the experimental herbal
samples, significant blood glucose lowering activities are observed in
decreasing order in the following 24 samples-Coccinia indica, Tragia
involucrata, G. sylvestre, Pterocarpus marsupium, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa
oleifera, Eugenia jambolana, Tinospora cordifolia, Swertia chirayita, Momordica
charantia, Ficus glomerata, Ficus benghalensis, Vinca rosea, Premna
integrifolia, Mucuna prurita, Terminalia bellirica, Sesbenia aegyptiaca,
Azadirachta indica, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Zingiber officinale, Aegle
marmelos, Cinnamomum tamala, Trichosanthes cucumerina and Ocimum sanctum.
Present studies besides confirming hypoglycaemic activities of the experimental
herbal samples, help identify more potent indigenous hypoglycaemic herbs (in
crude ethanolic extract) from the comparative study of the reported experimental
results. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

PMID: 12499084 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

129: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2002 Dec;67(6):475-8.

The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory
and antithrombotic agent.

Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, Alnaqeeb MA, Khan I, Ali M.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Safat, Kuwait.

The effect of an aqueous extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on serum
cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as platelet thromboxane-B(2) and
prostaglandin-E(2) production was examined. A raw aqueous extract of ginger was
administered daily for a period of 4 weeks, either orally or intraperitoneally
(IP) to rats. Fasting blood serum was investigated for thromboxane-B(2),
prostaglandin-E(2), cholesterol and triglycerides. A low dose of ginger (50
mg/kg) administered either orally or IP did not produce any significant
reduction in the serum thromboxane-B(2) levels when compared to saline-treated
animals. However, ginger administered orally caused significant changes in the
serum PGE(2) at this dose. High doses of ginger (500 mg/kg) were significantly
effective in lowering serum PGE(2) when given either orally or IP. However,
TXB(2) levels were significantly lower in rats given 500 mg/kg ginger orally but
not IP. A significant reduction in serum cholesterol was observed when a higher
dose of ginger (500 mg/kg) was administered. At a low dose of ginger (50 mg/kg),
a significant reduction in the serum cholesterol was observed only when ginger
was administered IP. No significant changes in serum triglyceride levels were
observed upon administration of either the low or high dose of ginger. These
results suggest that ginger could be used as an cholesterol-lowering,
antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12468270 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

130: Int J Food Microbiol. 2003 Feb 15;80(3):223-30.

Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in

Alzoreky NS, Nakahara K.

Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Science, Sana'a University, Sana'a,

Extracts of edible plants (26 species) from China, Japan, Thailand and Yemen
were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus,
Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella
infantis. Buffered methanol (80% methanol and 20% PBS) and acetone extracted
inhibitory substances against tested bacteria from 16 plants, as revealed by the
disc assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined
by the agar dilution method ranged from 165 to 2640 mg l(-1). The most sensitive
microorganism to extracts from Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum cassia, Rumex
nervosus, Ruta graveolens, Thymus serpyllum and Zingiber officinale was B.
cereus, with MIC of 165 to 660 mg l(-1). E. coli and S. infantis were only
inhibited by Cinnamomum cassia extracts at the highest MIC (2640 mg l(-1)). L.
monocytogenes (Tottori) was more resistant than the ATCC 7644 strain to extracts
from Ruta chalepensis, Artemisia absinthium and Cissus spp. EDTA (0.85 mM)
reduced the MICs of Cinnamomum cassia and Cissus rotundifolia by at least 50%
when tested against E. coli, S. infantis, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes.
Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12423924 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

131: Phytother Res. 2002 Nov;16(7):621-6.

Anxiolytic and antiemetic activity of Zingiber officinale.

Vishwakarma SL, Pal SC, Kasture VS, Kasture SB.

N.D.M.V.P. Samaj's College of Pharmacy, Nashik - 422 002, India.

The benzene fraction (BF) of a petroleum ether extract of dried rhizomes of
ginger, which contained anticonvulsant principle(s), was screened for anxiolytic
and antiemetic activity. Motor coordination was not affected by BF per se, but
diazepam-induced motor incoordination was potentiated. Animals treated with BF
showed decreased occupancy in the closed arm of the elevated plus maze
suggesting the presence of anxiolytic principles in the BF. BF also blocked
lithium sulphate-induced conditioned place aversion indicating antiemetic
activity. These findings suggest that the fraction (BF) possesses
anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and antiemetic activity. Copyright 2002 John Wiley &
Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12410541 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

132: Planta Med. 2002 Oct;68(10):936-9.

Component of Zingiber officinale that improves the enhancement of small
intestinal transport.

Hashimoto K, Satoh K, Murata P, Makino B, Sakakibara I, Kase Y, Ishige A,
Higuchi M, Sasaki H.

Kampo & Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Tsumura & Co., Ami-machi, Ibaraki 300-1192,
Japan. [email protected]

6-Shogaol, a constituent of Zingiber officinale, improved carbachol-induced
accelerated small intestinal transit in vivo, as well as improving longitudinal
muscle contraction induced by low-frequency electrical stimulation of the
isolated guinea pig small intestine in vitro. In addition, 6-shogaol ameliorated
BaCl(2) -induced hyperperistalsis of the small intestine in vivo.

PMID: 12391562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

133: J Helminthol. 2002 Sep;76(3):241-7.

In vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of a ginger (Zingiber
officinale) extract towards adult schistosomes and their egg production.

Sanderson L, Bartlett A, Whitfield PJ.

Division of Life Sciences, King's College London, Franklin Wilkins Building, 150
Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NN, UK.

The bioactivity of an ethyl acetate extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale)
towards Schistosoma mansoni adult pairs, both cultured in vitro and in vivo in
laboratory mice, was investigated by monitoring worm mortality and fecundity. In
vitro, a concentration of 200 mg l(-1) of extract killed almost all worms within
24 h. Male worms seemed more susceptible than female under these conditions.
Cumulative egg output of surviving worm pairs in vitro was considerably reduced
when exposed to the extract. For example, after 4 days of exposure to 50 mg
l(-1), cumulative egg output was only 0.38 eggs per worm pair compared with
36.35 for untreated worms. In vivo efficacy of the extract was tested by oral
and subcutaneous delivery of 150 mg kg(-1) followed by assessment of worm
survival and fecundity. Neither delivery route produced any significant
reduction in worm numbers compared with untreated controls. Worm fecundity was
assessed in vivo by cumulative egg counts per liver at 55 days post infection
with mice treated subcutaneously. Such infections showed egg levels in the liver
of about 2000 eggs per worm pair in 55 days, in both treated and control mice,
with no significant difference between the two groups. To ensure that
density-dependent effects did not confound this analysis, a separate experiment
demonstrated no such influence on egg output per worm pair, at intensities
between 1 and 23 worms per mouse.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12363378 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

134: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Aug;66(8):1748-50.

Shogaols from Zingiber officinale as promising antifouling agents.

Etoh H, Kondoh T, Noda R, Singh IP, Sekiwa Y, Morimitsu K, Kubota K.

Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Japan. [email protected]

We isolated the highly potent attachment-inhibitors (three times more active
than standard CuSO4 in the blue mussel assay), trans-6-, 8-, and 10-shogaols,
from a hexane extract of the roots of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe.
Trans-8-shogaol showed the highest antifouling activity comparable with that of
tributyltin fluoride (TBTF), which is recognized as one of the most effective
antifouling agents, in the conventional submerged assay.

PMID: 12353640 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

135: Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Sep-Oct;8(5):89-91.

Comment in:
Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Jan-Feb;9(1):19-21; author reply 19-21.

Ginger syrup as an antiemetic in early pregnancy.

Keating A, Chez RA.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida, Tampa,

CONTEXT: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used to ameliorate symptoms of
nausea. A beverage containing ginger in a syrup may be easier to consume than a
capsule or solid food. OBJECTIVE: To determine if ginger syrup mixed in water is
an effective remedy for the relief of nausea and vomiting in the first trimester
of pregnancy. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical
trial. SETTING: Subjects were enrolled from the University of South Florida
department of obstetrics and gynecology private practice office. PATIENTS: 26
subjects in the first trimester of pregnancy. INTERVENTION: Subjects ingested 1
tablespoon of commercially prepared study syrup (or placebo) in 4 to 8 ounces of
hot or cold water 4 times daily. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration and severity of
nausea and vomiting over a 2-week period measured on a 10-point scale. RESULTS:
After 9 days, 10 of the 13 (77%) subjects receiving ginger had at least a
4-point improvement on the nausea scale. Only 2 of the 10 (20%) remaining
subjects in the placebo group had the same improvement. Conversely, no woman in
the ginger group, but 7 (70%) of the women in the placebo group, had a 2-point
or less improvement on the nausea scale. Eight of the 12 (67%) women in the
ginger group who were vomiting daily at the beginning of the treatment stopped
vomiting by day 6. Only 2 of the 10 (20%) women in the placebo group who were
vomiting stopped by day 6. CONCLUSION: The ingestion of 1 g of ginger in syrup
in a divided dose daily may be useful in some patients experiencing nausea and
vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 12233808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

136: Am J Chin Med. 2002;30(2-3):207-14.

Effect of the aqueous extract of xiao-ban-xia-tang on gastric emptying in mice.

Chen D, Wu CF, Huang L, Ning Z.

Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University Shenyang,
People's Republic of China.

Gastric emptying effect of the aqueous extract of xiao-ban-xia-tang (XBXT) was
investigated in mice. Mice with food deprived for 18 hours were orally
administered a certain amount of test meal (ca. 0.8 g) equaling 0.8 ml in
volume. The percentage of 0.8 g test meal remaining in the stomach after 20
minutes was estimated. It was shown that XBXT significantly antagonized
dopamine- (0.56 mg/kg, i.p.), not atropine- (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.), induced gastric
emptying inhibition. It also significantly restored metoclopramide-induced (8
mg/kg, p.o.) propulsion and potentiated methylneostigmine-induced (2 mg/kg,
p.o.) gastric emptying enhancement. The aqueous extract of Pinellia ternata, but
not that of Zingiber officinale showed an inhibitory activity on gastric
emptying. The present results suggest that XBXT possesses a regulative effect on
gastric motility.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12230009 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

137: Rev Biol Trop. 2001 Sep-Dec;49(3-4):965-71.

Onset of in vitro rhizogenesis response and peroxidase activity in Zingiber
officinale (Zingiberaceae).

Rout GR, Palai SK, Das P.

Plant Biotechnology Division, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Regional Plant
Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar-751 015, India. [email protected]

The induction of rooting in microshoots of Zingiber officinale cvs. Suprava,
Turia local, Suruchi and V3S18 was achieved on half-strength basal Murashige and
Skoog's medium supplemented with 0.5-1.0 mg/l either indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)
or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2% (w/v) sucrose within 7-9 days of culture.
Rooting was inhibited when the microshoots were cultured under higher
concentration of auxins. The microshoots cultured on medium supplemented with
NAA induced large number of thin root hairs with friable calluses within 6-7
days. Peroxidase activity was determined during root induction (0-day to the
10th day at every 2 day interval) from microshoots derived in vitro. The
activity was minimum in the inductive phase (primary) and at the maximum level
during the root initiative phase. These finding may be useful in monitoring the
rooting behaviour in microshoots derived from different subculture and
peroxidase activity as a marker for root initiation.

PMID: 12189828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

138: Phytother Res. 2002 Jun;16(4):312-5.

Enhanced conditioned inhibitory avoidance by a combined extract of Zingiber
officinale and Ginkgo biloba.

Topic B, Hasenohrl RU, Hacker R, Huston JP.

Institute of Physiological Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-University of Dusseldorf,
Universitatsstr. 1, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany. [email protected]

Previous work has shown that intragastric administration of Zingicomb, a
preparation consisting of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba extracts, has
anxiolytic-like properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the
effects of acute treatment with this preparation on inhibitory avoidance
learning. The influence of pre-trial administered Zingicomb (ZC) on inhibitory
avoidance conditioning was investigated in adult male Wistar rats, with a
one-trial step-through avoidance task. The animals were treated intragastrically
with either vehicle, 0.5, 1, 10 or 100 mg/kg ZC 60 min prior to the acquisition
trial. When tested 24 h after training, rats which had received 10 mg/kg ZC
exhibited significantly longer step-through latencies than vehicle treated
animals. This result, thus, demonstrates the beneficial effects of Zingicomb on
conditioned inhibitory avoidance. Unlike conventional anxiolytic drugs, such as
the benzodiazepines, which tend to have amnesic properties, this phytopharmacon
is a potent anxiolytic agent which, additionally, can facilitate performance on
a learning task, indicating promising clinical applications. Copyright 2002 John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12112284 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

139: Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Aug;40(8):1091-7.

Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative
and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

Surh YJ.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Seoul
National University, 151-742, Seoul, South Korea. [email protected]

A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent
antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow
colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae),
[6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale
Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili
pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by
these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and
anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a
molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents.
Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic
transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular
mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice
ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades,
particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 12067569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

140: Life Sci. 2002 Mar 22;70(18):2165-75.

Metabolism of [6]-gingerol in rats.

Nakazawa T, Ohsawa K.

Department of Phytochemistry, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Miyagi,

The metabolic fate of [6]-gingerol, one of the active constituents of Zingiber
officinale Roscoe, was investigated using rats. The bile of rats orally
administered [6]-gingerol was shown to contain a major metabolite (1) by HPLC
analysis. Although the metabolites derived from [6]-gingerol were not detected
in the urine, the ethyl acetate extract of the urine after enzymatic hydrolysis
was shown to contain six minor metabolites (2-7). Their structures were
determined to be (S)-[6]-gingerol-4'-O-beta-glucuronide (1), vanillic acid (2),
ferulic acid (3), (S)-(+)-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) octanoic
acid (4), 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butanoic acid (5), 9-hydroxy [6]-gingerol
(6) and (S)-(+)-[6]-gingerol (7) based on spectroscopic and chemical data. The
total cumulative amount of 1 excreted in the bile and 2-7 in the urine during 60
h after the oral administration of [6]-gingerol were approximately 48% and 16%
of the dose, respectively. The excretion of 2-7 in the urine decreased after gut
sterilization. On the other hand, the incubations of [6]-gingerol with rat liver
showed the presence of 9-hydroxy [6]-gingerol, gingerdiol (8), and
(S)-[6]-gingerol-4'-O-beta-glucuronide (1). These findings suggest that the gut
flora and enzymes in the liver play an important part in the metabolism of

PMID: 12002808 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

141: Phytomedicine. 2002 Mar;9(2):146-52.

Structure-antiemetic-activity of some diarylheptanoids and their analogues.

Yang Y, Kinoshita K, Koyama K, Takahashi K, Kondo S, Watanabe K.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University,
Tokyo, Japan.

The structure-activity relationship of diarylheptanoids and their analogues
inhibitory of emesis induced by copper sulfate in young chicks was investigated
by testing 19 compounds. The compounds are 5 diarylheptanoids isolated from
Alpinia katsumadai (Zingiberacea), 5 chemical derivatives of them, 6 analogues
isolated from Zingiber officinale rhizome (Zingiberaceae), and 3 analogues
available on the market. Among them, two types of essential functional structure
of diarylheptanoids and their analogues showed the inhibitory effects against

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11995948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

142: Planta Med. 2002 Apr;68(4):375-6.

Shogaols from Zingiber officinale protect IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal
human umbilical vein endothelial cells from beta-amyloid(25-35) insult.

Kim DS, Kim DS, Oppel MN.

From the rhizome of Zingiber officinale L. (Zingiberaceae), four shogaols that
protect IMR32 human neuroblastoma and normal human umbilical vein endothelial
cells from beta-amyloid(25 - 35) insult at EC50 = 4.5 - 81 microM were isolated.
The efficacy of cell protection from beta-amyloid(25 - 35) insult by these
shogaols was shown to improve as the length of the side chain increases.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11988870 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

143: Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2001 Nov;23(9):501-3.

Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger
(Zingiber officinale).

Gupta YK, Sharma M.

Neuropharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of
Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. [email protected]

The effects of the acetone extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was studied
against pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats. Wistar rats of
either sex, weighing between 200-250 g, were used. Pyrogallol, at a dose of 100
mg/kg i.p., significantly delayed the gastric emptying of a methyl cellulose
meal. One-hour pretreatment with ginger acetone extracts (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg
p.o.) reversed the pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying. The effect was
significant at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. When the low dose of ginger (100
mg/kg p.o.) was given with vitamin C and vitamin E (100 mg/kg p.o., each), the
reversal of gastric emptying was more pronounced than when only two vitamins or
ginger (100 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) were given alone. The present study indicates
the potential of ginger in improving symptoms such as abdominal discomfort and
bloating, which may accompany several gastrointestinal illnesses.

PMID: 11876024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

144: Nat Prod Lett. 2001;15(4):267-74.

First isolation of geranyl disaccharides from ginger and their relations to
aroma formation.

Sekiwa Y, Kobayashi A, Kubota K, Takenaka M.

Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.

Three geraniol glycosides were isolated from immature fresh ginger rhizomes
(Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Their structures were identified as geranyl
6-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) geranyl
6-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and geranyl
6-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3) by spectrometric analyses.
After incubating each glycoside with a crude enzyme solution prepared from
ginger, geraniol was liberated in all of those fractions. This result indicates
that the glycosides are related to the formation of geraniol-related compounds
in ginger aroma.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 11833622 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

145: Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2001;18(3-4):159-90.

Ginger: an ethnomedical, chemical and pharmacological review.

Afzal M, Al-Hadidi D, Menon M, Pesek J, Dhami MS.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kuwait University.

Powerful medicinal properties have been recorded for Zingiber officinale,
commonly known as ginger. All of these medicinal activities have been compiled
with 99 references to the present status of the plant in the literature.
Volatile components and the presence of trace metals are included. In addition,
details of individual medicinal activities are given and the molecular
structures of identified organic metabolites and their synthesis are described.

Publication Types:

PMID: 11791883 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

146: J Econ Entomol. 2001 Dec;94(6):1413-8.

Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared
males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Shelly TE, McInnis DO.

USDA-APHIS, Waimanalo, HI 96795, USA.

Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale
Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating
success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from
a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to
determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating
competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared
strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees
(Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared
and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure,
wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings.
However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating
frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature
(1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in
tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated,
mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to
the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an
additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between
males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant
differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile
insect technique are discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11777043 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

147: Fresenius J Anal Chem. 2001 Dec;371(7):1009-17.

Non-destructive NIR-FT-Raman analyses in practice. Part I. Analyses of plants
and historic textiles.

Andreev GN, Schrader B, Schulz H, Fuchs R, Popov S, Handjieva N.

Department of Chemistry, University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Non-destructive analysis of natural substances in plants as well as of old dyed
textiles by Raman spectroscopy has not been possible using conventional
techniques. Exciting lines from the visible part of the spectrum produced
photochemical and thermal decomposition of the objects as well as strong
fluorescence. Using Nd:YAG laser excitation at 1,064 nm together with a special
sample arrangement and interferometric recording, various polyacetylenes in
Aethusa cynapium and in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and the main valuable
substances in gentian species (Gentiana lutea and G. punctata), curcuma roots
(Curcuma longa), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare),
clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus), and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were analyzed
non-destructively and discussed in comparison with the corresponding pure
standard compounds. We further analyzed non-destructively the FT Raman spectra
of collections of historical textiles and lakes used for dyeing. It is possible
to distinguish the main dye component non-destructively by using Raman bands.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11769790 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

148: Neurobiol Aging. 2002 Jan-Feb;23(1):135-43.

Enhanced maze performance and reduced oxidative stress by combined extracts of
zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba in the aged rat.

Topic B, Tani E, Tsiakitzis K, Kourounakis PN, Dere E, Hasenohrl RU, Hacker R,
Mattern CM, Huston JP.

Institute of Physiological Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-University of Dusseldorf,
Universitatsstr. 1, D-40225, Dusseldorf, Germany. [email protected]

Here we assessed the effects of i.g. administration of Zingicomb (ZC), a mixture
of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba extracts, on learning and memory, and
on indicators of oxidative stress in aged rats. Effects of ZC (1 and 10 mg/kg)
were investigated in 22-24 months old Wistar rats using the Morris water maze,
in which they show deficient performance as compared to 3 months old rats in the
undrugged state (days 1 and 2). Treatment was administered on days 3 and 4 of
training, then over 7 days with training discontinued, and again on days 5 and 6
when training was resumed. Thereafter chronic treatment was maintained over 5
months. 1 mg/kg ZC improved escape learning in the water maze. The two capital
indicators of oxidative stress in brain homogenates, the amount of oxidized
proteins (assessed as carbonyl group containing proteins) and lipid
peroxidation, were significantly reduced in ZC treated animals. Thus, ZC, which
had previously been shown to improve inhibitory avoidance learning and to have
anxiolytic properties in adult animals, might also facilitate spatial learning
in aged animals, and reduces indices of oxidative stress in brain tissue after
chronic treatment.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11755028 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

149: J Pharm Sci. 2001 Oct;90(10):1658-64.

The stability of gingerol and shogaol in aqueous solutions.

Bhattarai S, Tran VH, Duke CC.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Gingerols, pungent principles of ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale),
are biologically active components that may make a significant contribution
towards medicinal applications of ginger and some products derived from ginger.
Gingerols, however, are thermally labile due to the presence of a beta-hydroxy
keto group in the structure, and undergo dehydration readily to form the
corresponding shogaols. This study investigated the stability of [6]-gingerol
[5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] at temperatures ranging
from 37 to 100 degrees C in aqueous solutions, at pH 1, 4, and 7. Quantitative
measurements of [6]-gingerol and its major degradation product [6]-shogaol
[1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-4-ene-3-one] were performed by HPLC.
Kinetics of [6]-gingerol degradation was characterized by least square fitting
of a rate equation. It was found that gingerol exhibited novel reversible
kinetics, in which it undergoes dehydration-hydration transformations with
shogaol, the major degradation product. Degradation rates were found to be pH
dependent with greatest stability observed at pH 4. The reversible degradation
of [6]-gingerol at 100 degrees C and pH 1 was relatively fast and reached
equilibrium within 2 h. Activation energies for the forward and reverse
reactions for [6]-gingerol were calculated from the Arrhenius equation using
reaction rates obtained at temperatures ranging from 37 to 100 degrees C.
Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J
Pharm Sci 90:1658-1664, 2001

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11745724 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

150: J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Dec;49(12):5902-6.

Geraniol dehydrogenase activity related to aroma formation in ginger (Zingiber
officinale Roscoe).

Sekiwa-Iijima Y, Aizawa Y, Kubota K.

Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Laboratory of Food Chemistry,
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. [email protected]

Geranial is one of the potent odor compounds in fresh ginger. To clarify the
generation of geranial in ginger, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity was
measured in a crude enzymatic system of ginger. This enzyme solution was found
to contain geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH) specifically acting on geraniol as a
substrate with NADP as a coenzyme. Geranial generation and GeDH activity were
investigated for different maturity stages and storage periods of ginger. Both
were at maximum levels from just after harvesting to initial storage. The GeDH
activity subsequently dropped, and the generation of geranial also stopped.
These results suggest that the GeDH activity in ginger is related to the
generation of geranial.

PMID: 11743782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

151: Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Nov;44(11):2531-8.

Comment in:
Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Nov;44(11):2461-2.

Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis.

Altman RD, Marcussen KC.

Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Miami, Florida, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a standardized and highly
concentrated extract of 2 ginger species, Zingiber officinale and Alpinia
galanga (EV.EXT 77), in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS:
Two hundred sixty-one patients with OA of the knee and moderate-to-severe pain
were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter,
parallel-group, 6-week study. After washout, patients received ginger extract or
placebo twice daily, with acetaminophen allowed as rescue medication. The
primary efficacy variable was the proportion of responders experiencing a
reduction in "knee pain on standing," using an intent-to-treat analysis. A
responder was defined by a reduction in pain of > or = 15 mm on a visual analog
scale. RESULTS: In the 247 evaluable patients, the percentage of responders
experiencing a reduction in knee pain on standing was superior in the ginger
extract group compared with the control group (63% versus 50%; P = 0.048).
Analysis of the secondary efficacy variables revealed a consistently greater
response in the ginger extract group compared with the control group, when
analyzing mean values: reduction in knee pain on standing (24.5 mm versus 16.4
mm; P = 0.005), reduction in knee pain after walking 50 feet (15.1 mm versus 8.7
mm; P = 0.016), and reduction in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities
osteoarthritis composite index (12.9 mm versus 9.0 mm; P = 0.087). Change in
global status and reduction in intake of rescue medication were numerically
greater in the ginger extract group. Change in quality of life was equal in the
2 groups. Patients receiving ginger extract experienced more gastrointestinal
(GI) adverse events than did the placebo group (59 patients versus 21 patients).
GI adverse events were mostly mild. CONCLUSION: A highly purified and
standardized ginger extract had a statistically significant effect on reducing
symptoms of OA of the knee. This effect was moderate. There was a good safety
profile, with mostly mild GI adverse events in the ginger extract group.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Multicenter Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11710709 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

152: Eur J Nutr. 2001 Jun;40(3):127-33.

Investigations on possible serotonergic involvement in effects of OB-200G
(polyherbal preparation) on food intake in female mice.

Kaur G, Kulkarni SK.

Pharmacology Division, Univ Inst Pharm Sci, Panjab University, Chandigarh,

BACKGROUND: OB-200G is a polyherbal preparation containing aqueous extracts of
Garcinia cambogia, Gymnema sylvestre, Zingiber officinale, Piper longum and
resin from Commiphora mukul, all possessing thermogenic properties. Our previous
studies reveal OB-200G to exert antiobesity effects in dietary animal models of
obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study investigated the possible
involvement of serotonergic system in the effect of OB-200G on food intake. We
examined the effects of systemic pretreatment with 5-HT depletor,
p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg, i. p. for 6 days), 5-HT1A agonist,
(8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 0.1 mg/kg, i. p.),
nonselective 5-HT antagonist, cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg, i. p.), 5-HT2 receptor
antagonist, seganserin (1 and 2 mg/kg, i. p.) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG,
glucose antimetabolite, 500 mg/kg, i. p.) on satiety induced by OB-200G (500
mg/kg, p. o.) in non-deprived female mice. The results were compared with
fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i. p.), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. METHODS:
Fifteen minutes after the last drug administration, groups of mice were
presented with sweetened chow and the amount of food consumed was recorded at
0.5,1,2, 3 and 4h time intervals. RESULTS: The hyperphagic effect of PCPA,
8-OH-DPAT, cyproheptadine and 2-DG was significantly (p < 0.05) antagonized by
both OB-200G and fluoxetine. However, the anorectic effect of fluoxetine was not
reversed by centrally acting 5-HT2 antagonist, seganserin but the latter
markedly attenuated the satiety action of OB-200G. CONCLUSION: The present
observations suggest the role of serotonin in mediation of satiety by OB-200G
and hence its antiobesity effect.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11697445 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

153: Thromb Res. 2001 Sep 1;103(5):387-97.

Gingerols and related analogues inhibit arachidonic acid-induced human platelet
serotonin release and aggregation.

Koo KL, Ammit AJ, Tran VH, Duke CC, Roufogalis BD.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Gingerols, the active components of ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale,
Roscoe), represent a potential new class of platelet activation inhibitors. In
this study, we examined the ability of a series of synthetic gingerols and
related phenylalkanol analogues (G1-G7) to inhibit human platelet activation,
compared to aspirin, by measuring their effects on arachidonic acid (AA)-induced
platelet serotonin release and aggregation in vitro. The IC(50) for inhibition
of AA-induced (at EC(50)=0.75 mM) serotonin release by aspirin was 23.4+/-3.6
microM. Gingerols and related analogues (G1-G7) inhibited the AA-induced
platelet release reaction in a similar dose range as aspirin, with IC(50) values
between 45.3 and 82.6 microM. G1-G7 were also effective inhibitors of AA-induced
human platelet aggregation. Maximum inhibitory (IC(max)) values of 10.5+/-3.9
and 10.4+/-3.2 microM for G3 and G4, respectively, were approximately 2-fold
greater than aspirin (IC(max)=6.0+/-1.0 microM). The remaining gingerols and
related analogues maximally inhibited AA-induced platelet aggregation at
approximately 20-25 microM. The mechanism underlying inhibition of the
AA-induced platelet release reaction and aggregation by G1-G7 may be via an
effect on cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in platelets because representative
gingerols and related analogues (G3-G6) potently inhibited COX activity in rat
basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. These results provide a basis for the
design of more potent synthetic gingerol analogues, with similar potencies to
aspirin, as platelet activation inhibitors with potential value in
cardiovascular disease.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 11553371 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

154: Planta Med. 2001 Aug;67(6):580-4.

Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of three Zingiberaceae from
S.Tome e Principe.

Martins AP, Salgueiro L, Goncalves MJ, da Cunha AP, Vila R, Canigueral S,
Mazzoni V, Tomi F, Casanova J.

The essential oil composition of three Zingiberaceae widely used as medicinal
aromatic plants from S. Tome and Principe: Aframomum danielli (Hook. f.) K.
Schum., Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale Rosc. was studied. Two samples
of the essential oils from fruit of A. danielli and from rhizomes of the other
two species, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and
(13)C-NMR. The essential oil from fruits of A. danielli has been studied for the
first time and was characterised by its high content of monoterpenes, with
1,8-cineole (25.5 - 34.4 %) the major constituent, followed by beta-pinene (14.1
- 15.2 %) and alpha-terpineol (9.9 - 12.1 %). Essential oils from the rhizomes
of C. longa contained a lower content of ar-turmerone (4.0 - 12.8 %) than those
reported in the literature for C. longa from other origins (24.7 - 31.4 %),
whereas the results for Z. officinale essential oils were in accordance with the
literature data. The essential oils of A. danielli and Z. officinale showed
antimicrobial activity against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria
tested, as well as against yeasts and filamentous fungi, using the agar
diffusion method.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11509990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

155: Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Mar;39(3):263-8.

Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary
combinations with other plant derived molluscicides.

Singh A, Singh DK.

Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, India.

Molluscicidal activity of leaf, bark and seed of Lawsonia inermis against
Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus was studied. Highest toxicity was
observed in the seed of Lawsonia inermis. Toxicity of binary (1:1) and tertiary
(1:1:1) combinations of the essential oil of cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxh) and
neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), powder from bulb of garlic (Allium sativum
Linn), and oleoresin extracted from rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc)
with Lawsonia inermis and Embelia ribes fruit powder were studied against L.
acuminata and I. exustus. L. inermis seed powder in combination with Cedrus
deodara oil and Azadirachta indica oil was more toxic than their individual
components and other combinations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11495286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

156: Pest Manag Sci. 2001 Mar;57(3):289-300.

Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds
isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.

Agarwal M, Walia S, Dhingra S, Khambay BP.

Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New
Delhi-110 012, India.

Fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), when subjected to steam
distillation, yielded ginger oil in which curcumene was found to be the major
constituent. The thermally labile zingiberene-rich fraction was obtained from
its diethyl ether extract. Column chromatography of ginger oleoresin furnished a
fraction from which [6]-gingerol was obtained by preparative TLC. Naturally
occurring [6]-dehydroshogaol was synthesised following condensation of
dehydrozingerone with hexanal, whereas zingerone and
3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butane were obtained by hydrogenation of
dehydrozingerone with 10% Pd/C. The structures of the compounds were established
by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass (EI-MS and ES-MS) spectral analysis. The test
compounds exhibited moderate insect growth regulatory (IGR) and antifeedant
activity against Spilosoma obliqua, and significant antifungal activity against
Rhizoctonia solani. Among the various compounds, [6]-dehydroshogaol exhibited
maximum IGR activity (EC50 3.55 mg ml-1), while dehydrozingerone imparted
maximum antifungal activity (EC50 86.49 mg litre-1).

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11455660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

157: Bioorg Chem. 2001 Jun;29(3):156-63.

Effect of ginger constituents and synthetic analogues on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme
in intact cells.

Tjendraputra E, Tran VH, Liu-Brennan D, Roufogalis BD, Duke CC.

Herbal Medicines Research and Education Centre, University of Sydney, NSW 2006,

Seventeen pungent oleoresin principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe)
and synthetic analogues were evaluated for inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2) enzyme activity in the intact cell. These compounds exhibited a
concentration and structure dependent inhibition of the enzyme, with IC(50)
values in the range of 1-25 microM. Ginger constituents, [8]-paradol and
[8]-shogaol, as well as two synthetic analogues,
3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decane and
5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)dodecane, showed strong inhibitory
effects on COX-2 enzyme activity. The SAR analysis of these phenolic compounds
revealed three important structural features that affect COX-2 inhibition: (i)
lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain, (ii) substitution pattern of hydroxy and
carbonyl groups on the side chain, and (iii) substitution pattern of hydroxy and
methoxy groups on the aromatic moiety. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11437391 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

158: Biofactors. 2000;13(1-4):141-6.

Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices.

Nakatani N.

Department of Food aind Nutrition, Faculty of Human Life Science, Osaka City
University, Sumiyoshi, Japan. [email protected]

Spices and herbs are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants and thus play
an important role in the chemoprevention of diseases resulting from lipid
peroxidation. Our studies on spices and herbs have given us over a hundred
compounds, known and new, having high antioxidant activity. From the Labiatae
family, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare and O.
majorana gave 26 active comopounds. Over 40 antioxidative compounds from
Zingiber officinale, 26 compounds from Curcuma domestica = C. longa, C.
xanthorrhiza and Z. cassumunar were determined, these belonging to the family
Zingiberaceae. From the family Myrtaceae, 25 compounds from the berries of
Pimenta dioica were determined and 3 carbazoles were isolated from Murraya
koenigii. Structure-activity relationships of some of the isolated compounds
were also discussed.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11237173 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

159: Reprod Toxicol. 2001 Jan-Feb;15(1):75-80.

Investigation of the teratogenic potential of a zingiber officinale extract in
the rat.

Weidner MS, Sigwart K.

Institute of Drug Analysis A/S, Symbion Science Park, Fruebjergvej 3, DK-2100,
Copenhagen, Denmark. [email protected]

The teratogenicity of EV.EXT 33, a patented Zingiber officinale extract, was
examined in Wistar SPF rats according to GLP Guidelines. EV.EXT 33 was
administered by oral gavage in concentrations of 100, 333, and 1000 mg/kg, to
three groups of 22 pregnant female rats from days 6 to 15 of gestation. For
comparison, a fourth group received the vehicle, sesame oil. Body weight and
food and water intake were recorded during the treatment period. The rats were
killed on day 21 of gestation and examined for standard parameters of
reproductive performance. The fetuses were examined for signs of teratogenic and
toxic effects.EV.EXT 33 was well tolerated. No deaths or treatment-related
adverse effects were observed. Weight gain and food consumption were similar in
all groups during gestation. Reproductive performance was not affected by
treatment with EV.EXT 33. The examination of fetuses for external, visceral, and
skeletal changes showed no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects of EV.EXT 33.
Based on these results, it was concluded that EV.EXT 33, when administered to
pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis, caused neither maternal nor
developmental toxicity at daily doses of up to 1000 mg/kg body weight.

PMID: 11137381 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

160: J Stored Prod Res. 2000 Jan 15;37(1):47-62.

Susceptibility of unprotected seeds and seeds of local bambara groundnut
cultivars protected with insecticidal essential oils to infestation by
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

Ajayi FA, Lale NE.

Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maiduguri,
P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Nigeria

Ten local cultivars of bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdcourt
obtained directly from farmers in Potiskum, Nigeria and from the Institute for
Agricultural Research, Samaru, Nigeria were compared with three improved
varieties developed at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture,
Ibadan, Nigeria for their susceptibility to infestation by Callosobruchus
maculatus (F.). Three cultivars (Maifarinhaneh, Angale and Bunmonu) with a
susceptibility index (SI) of 3.06-3.71 were identified as slightly susceptible
to C. maculatus; four cultivars (Bagantere, Bakingangala, Ole and Bakiyawa 1)
and one improved variety (TVSU 1061) with an SI of 4.39-4.93 as moderately
susceptible; and three cultivars (Bidi, Uzu and Dadinkowa 1) and two improved
varieties (TVSU 702 and TVSU 751) with an SI of 5.00-5.34 as susceptible. Five
of the cultivars were used to examine the ability of beetle populations to
overcome varietal resistance over six successive generations. Development time
was significantly longer but percentage of adults that emerged and
susceptibility of bambara groundnuts were significantly lower in F(4), F(5) or
F(6) generations than in the F(1) or F(2) generation. The efficacy of combining
insecticidal essential oils obtained from clove, Syzgium aromaticum, West
African black pepper (WABP), Piper guineense, and ginger, Zingiber officinale
applied at the rate of 2 mg/20 g seed and six of the local bambara groundnut
cultivars (Angale, Maifarinhaneh, Bakingangala, Bagantere, Bunmonu and Bidi)
with differing susceptibilities to C. maculatus (F.) was also assessed during a
3-month storage period. The three essential oils significantly reduced the
percentage of C. maculatus adults that emerged from the bambara groundnut
cultivars in the F(1) generation and the number of adult offspring that
developed in the cultivars during the 3-month storage period. The mean number of
progeny that developed in untreated seeds and seeds treated with clove, WABP and
ginger oils during the study period were 73.0, 0.0, 0.1 and 0.2, respectively.
No adult C. maculatus, however, developed in slightly and moderately susceptible
cultivars treated with essential oils. Treatment of seeds of Bidi (a susceptible
cultivar) with the essential oils reduced the percentage of adults that emerged
in the F(1) generation from 26.8% in untreated seeds to 0.0, 0.1 and 0.4% in
seeds treated with clove, WABP and ginger oils, respectively; and reduced loss
in seed weight after three months' storage from 34% to 0.0, 0.01 and 0.1%,

PMID: 11124369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

161: Fitoterapia. 2000 Dec;71(6):716-8.

New gingerdione from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.

Charles R, Garg SN, Kumar S.

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow-226015,

A new gingerdione has been isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale and
identified as 1-dehydrogingerdione (1).

PMID: 11077185 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

162: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):277-81.

Antidepressant effects of Banxia Houpu decoction, a traditional Chinese
medicinal empirical formula.

Luo L, Nong Wang J, Kong LD, Jiang QG, Tan RX.

Institute of Functional Biomolecules, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical
Biotechnology, School of Life Science, Nanjing University, 210093, Nanjing, PR

Banxia Houpu Decoction, having been used for the treatment of depression-related
diseases since ancient times, is a traditional Chinese medicinal empirical
formula consisting of Pinellia ternata, Poria cocos, Magnolia officinalis,
Perilla frutescens and Zingiber officinale. The effects of the total decoction
extract and five fractions therefrom, were evaluated in mice by tail suspension
and forced swimming tests. The total 90% ethanol extract of the decoction was
shown to possess an antidepressant activity that was close to that of Prozac, an
antidepressant agent being applied clinically. Furthermore, the active
principles were desmonstrated to be mainly in the aqueous (Bx4) and lipophic
(Bx5) parts of the decoction extract while the polyphenol fraction (Bx2)
exhibited a moderate action.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 11025166 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

163: Microbios. 2000;102(403):165-73.

Antifungal potential of some higher plants against Fusarium udum causing wilt
disease of Cajanus cajan.

Singh R, Rai B.

Soil Microbiology and Ecopathology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study in
Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

The fungitoxic effects of different plant extracts on Fusarium udum, which
causes wilt disease of Cajanus cajan in vitro and in vivo, were examined. The
complete arrest of the radial growth of the pathogen occurred at a 10%
concentration of leaf extract from Adenocallyma alliaceum. A leaf extract of
Citrus medica, a root extract of Asparagus adscendens, rhizome extracts of
Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale, and a bulb extract of Allium sativum
inhibited up to 100% growth at higher concentrations. A. alliaceum controlled
the disease up to 100% by amending its 4% powder in unsterilized soil and 2% in
sterilized soil. The population of F. udum was found to be markedly reduced
following treatments with plant powders.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10955831 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

164: J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Jul;71(1-2):89-92.

Immunostimulant activity of dry fruits and plant materials used in indian
traditional medical system for mothers after child birth and invalids.

Puri A, Sahai R, Singh KL, Saxena RP, Tandon JS, Saxena KC.

Division of Biochemistry, Central Drug Research Institute, -226 001, Lucknow,

Products of certain plants given to mothers after child birth or to invalids
were studied for immunostimulant activity using the macrophage migration index
(MMI) as a parameter of macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity and
haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titres and plaque-forming cell (PFC) counts as
parameters of humoral immunity. Feeding of Prunus amygdalus (Almond(1)) and
Buchanania lanzan (Chirronji(1)) significantly stimulated both CMI and humoral
immunity in BALB/c mice as evidenced by the enhancement of MMI, HA titres, and
PFC counts. Euryale ferox (Tel makhana(1)), Phoenix dactylifera (Chhohara(1))
and Zingiber officinale (Sonth(1)), however, stimulated humoral immunity to a
greater extent than CMI. The observation provides scientific basis for feeding
the products of above plants to mothers after child birth and to invalids with a
relatively poor immune status.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10904150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

165: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2000 Apr;64(4):837-40.

Superoxide-scavenging and prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activities of
Bangladeshi indigenous medicinal plants.

Khanom F, Kayahara H, Tadasa K.

The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Gifu University, Japan.

The superoxide-scavenging and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) inhibitory activities
of 15 different kinds of Bangladeshi medicinal plants were evaluated. Methanol
extraction was performed for the screening tests. Swertia chirata, Emblica
officinalis, Zingiber officinale and Myristica malabarica were screened as
superoxide-scavenging samples. Similarly, E. officinalis was identified as one
of the strongest PEP inhibitory samples. The 50% (O2-)-scavenging and
PEP-inhibitory concentrations from E. officinalis methanol extracts were found
to be 13.17 and 26.10 microg/ml, respectively.

PMID: 10830501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

166: Br J Anaesth. 2000 Mar;84(3):367-71.

Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized
clinical trials.

Ernst E, Pittler MH.

Department of Complementary Medicine, School of Postgraduate Medicine and Health
Sciences, University of Exeter, UK.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is often advocated as beneficial for nausea and
vomiting. Whether the herb is truly efficacious for this condition is, however,
still a matter of debate. We have performed a systematic review of the evidence
from randomized controlled trials for or against the efficacy of ginger for
nausea and vomiting. Six studies met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed.
Three on postoperative nausea and vomiting were identified and two of these
suggested that ginger was superior to placebo and equally effective as
metoclopramide. The pooled absolute risk reduction for the incidence of
postoperative nausea, however, indicated a non-significant difference between
the ginger and placebo groups for ginger 1 g taken before operation (absolute
risk reduction 0.052 (95% confidence interval -0.082 to 0.186)). One study was
found for each of the following conditions: seasickness, morning sickness and
chemotherapy-induced nausea. These studies collectively favoured ginger over

Publication Types:

PMID: 10793599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

167: Phytomedicine. 2000 Mar;7(1):69-72.

Effect of shitei-to, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, on
pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice.

Minami E, Shibata H, Nomoto M, Fukuda T.

Central Research Laboratory, Kotaro Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.

This study measured the effects of Shitei-To (STT), a traditional Chinese
Medicine, which is a mixture of extracts from three medicinal herbs, Shitei (SI,
Kaki Calyx; calyx of Diospyros kaki L. f.), Shokyo (SK, Zingiberis Rhizoma;
rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Choji (CJ, Caryophylli flos;
flowerbud of Syzygium aromaticum [L.] Merrill et. Perry), has long been used for
the treatment of hiccups in Japan and China, against fully
pentylenetetrazol-kindled seizures and on the development of pentylenetetrazol
kindling in mice. Repeated administration of STT (3.0 g/kg p.o.) mildly retards
the development of pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. STT also
decreased the number of tonic-clonic convulsions resulting from progression
kindling. On the other hand, STT had no effect on convulsions in fully
pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice. These findings suggest that STT protects against
the development of convulsions, and that STT may have therapeutic effects in the
prevention of secondarily generalized seizures.

PMID: 10782493 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

168: Eur J Biochem. 2000 Mar;267(5):1516-26.

Amino-acid sequence and glycan structures of cysteine proteases with proline
specificity from ginger rhizome Zingiber officinale.

Choi KH, Laursen RA.

Department of Chemistry, Boston University, MA, USA.

The ginger proteases (GP-I and GP-II), isolated from the ginger rhizome Zingiber
officinale, have an unusual substrate specificity preference for cleaving
peptides with a proline residue at the P2 position. The complete amino-acid
sequence of GP-II, a glycoprotein containing 221 amino acids, and about 98% that
of GP-I have been determined. Both proteases, which are 82% similar, have
cysteine residues at positions 27 and histidines at position 161, corresponding
to the essential cysteine-histidine diads found in the papain family of cysteine
proteases, and six corresponding cysteine residues that form the three invariant
disulfide linkages seen in this family of proteins. The sequence homology with
other members (papain, bromelain, actinidin, protease omega, etc.) of this
family is approximately 50%. GP-II has two predicted glycosylation sites at
Asn99 and Asn156. Analyisis by electrospray and collision-induced dissociation
MS showed that both sites were occupied by the glycans
(Man)3(Xyl)1(Fuc)1(GlcNAc)2 and (Man)3(Xyl)1(Fuc)1(GlcNAc)3, in a ratio of
approximately 7 : 1. Both glycans are xylose containing biantennary complex
types that share the common core structural unit, Man1-->6(Man1-->3)
(Xyl1-->2)Man1-->4GlcNAc1-->4(Fuc1-->3)GlcNAc for the major form, with an
additional N-acetylglucosamine residue being linked, in the minor form, to one
of the terminal mannose units of the core structure.

PMID: 10691991 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

169: J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Feb;48(2):373-7.

Isolation of novel glucosides related to gingerdiol from ginger and their
antioxidative activities.

Sekiwa Y, Kubota K, Kobayashi A.

Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Laboratory of Food Chemistry,
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Ohtsuka,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. [email protected]

Two novel glucosides of 6-gingerdiol were isolated from fresh ginger (Zingiber
officinale Roscoe). Their structures were determined as
1-(4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxydecane (1) and
5-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)deca ne (2) by
HRFAB-MS and NMR analyses, and the absolute configurations of both aglycons were
identified as (3S,5S) by a comparison with synthetic compounds. After incubating
these glucosides with acetone powder prepared from fresh ginger, they were
confirmed to have been hydrolyzed to 6-gingerdiol by HPLC. This result suggests
that these glucosides are the precursors or intermediates of 6-gingerdiol. To
recognize their function, their antioxidative activities were investigated and
compared to that of their aglycon, 6-gingerdiol, by a linoleic acid model system
and by their DPPH radical-scavenging ability. Although 1 did not indicate any
activity, 2 had as strong activity as the aglycon in both measurements.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10691642 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

170: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2000 Feb;38(2):182-90.

Effect of different combinations of MGK-264 or piperonyl butoxide with
plant-derived molluscicides on snail reproduction.

Singh K, Singh DK.

Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur (U.P.) 273 009,

Effect of sublethal treatment (20% and 60% of LC(50)/24 h) of plant-derived
molluscicides, viz. Polianthes tuberosa, Trachyspermum ammi, Allium sativum
powder; Azadirachta indica oil; oleoresin of Zingiber officinale; and their
active molluscicidal component in combination (1:5) with MGK-264 or piperonyl
butoxide on the reproduction of snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It
was observed that the combination of plant derived molluscicide and their active
molluscicidal components, viz. tigogenin, hecogenin, azadirachtin, allicin,
thymol, and [6]-gingerol combination with MGK-264 or piperonyl butoxide caused a
significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survival of young snails.
Withdrawal of snails to fresh water after the above treatment caused a
significant recovery in the fecundity of L. acuminata.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10629280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

171: Phytother Res. 1999 Dec;13(8):649-54.

Effect of active molluscicidal component of spices on different enzyme
activities and biogenic amine levels in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata.

Singh VK, Singh S, Singh DK.

Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur PIN-273 009, U.P.,

In vivo exposure of Lymnaea acuminata to thymol and [6]-gingerol (active
molluscicidal components of Trachyspermum ammi and Zingiber officinale,
respectively) indicates that they significantly alter acetylcholinesterase,
lactic dehydrogenase, succinic dehydrogenase and cyto-oxidase activity in the
nervous -tissue of snails. In vitro exposure showed that, except for
acetylcholinesterase and lactic dehydrogenase, no significant changes were
observed in cyto-oxidase and succinic dehydrogenase activity in the nervous
tissue of L. acuminata. Sublethal exposure to thymol and [6]-gingerol reduced
the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the nervous tissue
of L. acuminata. There was, however, no significant change in the level of
5-hydroxy indol acetic acid (5-HIAA). Thymol and [6]-gingerol thus affects all
the known neurotransmission mechanisms in the snail either separately or through
a complex interaction between the different neurotransmitters. This may account
for their toxicity to snails. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10594932 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

172: Mutat Res. 1999 Jul 16;428(1-2):305-27.

Molecular mechanisms of chemopreventive effects of selected dietary and
medicinal phenolic substances.

Surh Y.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Seoul
National University, Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
[email protected]

Recently, considerable attention has been focused on identifying naturally
occurring chemopreventive substances capable of inhibiting, retarding, or
reversing the multi-stage carcinogenesis. A wide array of phenolic substances,
particularly those present in dietary and medicinal plants, have been reported
to possess substantial anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. The
majority of these naturally occurring phenolics retain antioxidative and
anti-inflammatory properties which appear to contribute to their chemopreventive
or chemoprotective activity. Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide),
a pungent ingredient of hot chili pepper, protects against
experimentally-induced mutagenesis and tumorigenesis. It also induces apoptosis
in various immortalized or malignant cell lines. Plants of ginger family
(Zingiberaceae) have been frequently and widely used as spices and also, in
traditional oriental medicine. Curcumin, a yellow ingredient from turmeric
(Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), has been extensively investigated for its
cancer chemopreventive potential. Yakuchinone A
[1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-phenyl-3-heptanone] and yakuchinone B
[1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-phenylhept-1-en-3-one] present in Alpinia
oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae) have inhibitory effects on phorbol
ester-induced inflammation and skin carcinogenesis in mice, and oxidative stress
in vitro. These diarylheptanoids suppress phorbol ester-induced activation of
ornithine decarboxylase and production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or
interleukin-1alpha and their mRNA expression. They also nullified the phorbol
ester-stimulated induction of activator protein 1 (AP-1) in cultured human
promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. In addition, both yakuchinone A and B
induced apoptotic death in HL-60 cells. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe,
Zingiberaceae) contains such pungent ingredients as [6]-gingerol and
[6]-paradol, which also have anti-tumor promotional and antiproliferative
effects. Resveratrol (3, 5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), a phytoalexin found in
grapes and other dietary and medicinal plants, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate,
a major antioxidative green tea polyphenol, exert striking inhibitory effects on
diverse cellular events associated with multi-stage carcinogenesis. In addition,
these compounds have ability to suppress proliferation of human cancer cells via
induction of apoptosis.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 10518003 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

173: Biochemistry. 1999 Sep 7;38(36):11624-33.

The 2.1 A structure of a cysteine protease with proline specificity from ginger
rhizome, Zingiber officinale.

Choi KH, Laursen RA, Allen KN.

Department of Chemistry, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston,
Massachusetts 02215, USA.

A cysteine protease from ginger rhizome (GP-II) cleaves peptides and proteins
with proline at the P(2) position. The unusual specificity for proline makes
GP-II an attractive tool for protein sequencing and identification of stably
folded domains in proteins. The enzyme is a 221 amino acid glycoprotein
possessing two N-linked oligosaccharide chains (8% glycosylated by weight) at
Asn99 and Asn156. The availability of the sequence of these glycosyl chains
afforded the opportunity to observe their structure and impact on protein
conformation. The three-dimensional structure of GP-II has been determined by
X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.1 A (overall R-factor = 0.214, free R
= 0.248). The overall structure of GP-II is similar to that of the homologous
cysteine proteases papain, actinidin, and glycyl endopeptidase, folding into two
distinct domains of roughly equal size which are divided by a cleft. The
observed N-linked glycosyl chains (half the total carbohydrate sequence)
participate in both crystallographic and noncrystallographic contacts, tethering
the proteins together via hydrogen bonds to the carbohydrate residues without
intervening ordered water molecules. The putative S(2) binding pocket (the
proline recognition site) was identified by superposition of the GP-II structure
with structures of four previously determined papain-inhibitor complexes. The
particular enzymic amino acids forming the S(2) pocket of GP-II (Trp, Met, and
Ala) are similar to those found in the proline binding pockets of the unrelated
enzymes alpha-lytic protease and cyclophilin. However, there is no conserved
three-dimensional arrangement of these residues between the three enzymes (i.e.,
no proline binding motif). Thus, the particular amino acids found at S(2) are
consistent with a binding pocket for a moiety with the steric characteristics
and charge distribution of proline. Size exclusion is also a mechanism for
selectivity compared to the S(2) binding pocket of papain. The S(2) binding
pocket of GP-II greatly restricts the size of the side chain which could be
bound because of the occurrence of a tryptophan in place of the corresponding
tyrosine in papain. In light of the nature of the binding pocket, the
specificity of GP-II for proline over other small nonpolar amino acids may be
attributed to a direct effect of proline on the substrate peptide backbone

Publication Types:
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 10512617 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

174: J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Aug;62(1):49-55.

Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger
(Zingiber officinale).

Sharma SS, Gupta YK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Cisplatin causes nausea, vomiting and inhibition of gastric emptying. We have
demonstrated the antiemetic effect of the acetone and ethanolic extract of
ginger (Zingiber officinale, Roscoe, Zingiberacae) against cisplatin-induced
emesis in dogs. In the present study, the acetone and 50% ethanolic extract of
ginger in the doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg (p.o.) and ginger juice, in the
doses of 2 and 4 ml/kg, were investigated against cisplatin effect on gastric
emptying in rats. All three ginger preparations significantly reversed
cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying. The ginger juice and acetone
extract were more effective than the 50% ethanolic extract. The reversal
produced by the ginger acetone extract was similar to that caused by the 5-HT3
receptor antagonist ondansetron; however, ginger juice produced better reversal
than ondansetron. Therefore, ginger, an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy, may
also be useful in improving the gastrointestinal side effects of cancer

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9720611 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

175: J Food Prot. 1998 Jun;61(6):725-7.

Microbial stability of mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice preserved by combined
application of mild heat and extracts of two tropical spices.

Ejechi BO, Souzey JA, Akpomedaye DE.

Department of Microbiology, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

The microbial stability of mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice (pH 4.9)
supplemented with extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and nutmeg (Myristica
fragrans) was investigated during 3 months of ambient-temperature storage.
Heating at 55 degrees C for 15 min markedly reduced the levels of
non-spore-forming bacteria and produced a product with acceptable taste.
Supplementing mango juice with an agueous extract of ginger (15%, vol/vol) or
nutmeg (20%, vol/vol) inhibited the growth of challenge microorganisms, but
produced a product with unacceptable taste. Heating the mango juice at 55
degrees C for 15 min and supplementing with nutmeg (4%, vol/vol) markedly
inhibited microbial growth and produced a product with acceptable taste.
Tropical spices may prove useful in preservation of fruit juices by hurdle

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 9709257 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

176: J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jun;61(2):167-71.

The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in
cholesterol fed rabbits.

Bhandari U, Sharma JN, Zafar R.

Division of Pharmacology, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India.

The effects of ethanolic extract of ginger (200 mg/kg, p.o.) were studied in
cholesterol fed rabbits. The marked rise in serum and tissue cholesterol, serum
triglycerides, serum lipoproteins and phospholipids that followed 10 weeks of
cholesterol feeding, was significantly reduced by the ethanolic ginger extract
and results were compared with gemfibrozil, a standard orally effective
hypolipidaemic drug. The severity of aortic atherosclerosis as judged by gross
grading was more marked in pathogenic, i.e. the hypercholesterolemic group,
while animals receiving ginger extract along with cholesterol showed a lower
degree of atherosclerosis. The results indicate that ginger is definitely an
antihyperlipidaemic agent.

PMID: 9683348 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

177: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Feb;59(2):527-35.

Dissociation between anxiolytic and hypomnestic effects for combined extracts of
zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba, as opposed to diazepam.

Hasenohrl RU, Topic B, Frisch C, Hacker R, Mattern CM, Huston JP.

Institute of Physiological Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-University of Dusseldorf,

Previous work has shown that Zingicomb (ZC), a combination preparation of
zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba, exerts anxiolytic-like effects in the
elevated plus-maze (EPM), possibly related to 5-HT antagonistic properties of
its components. The first experiment of this study was performed to gauge the
specificity of the anxiolytic action of ZC with respect to the mixture ratio of
the single components in the combination preparation. Two different combinations
of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba extracts (ratio of components: 1:1 or
1:2.5) were compared with the standard ratio adjusted for ZC (2.5:1). Each
combination was administered intragastrically (I.G.) in five doses (0.01 to 10
mg/kg) before the rats were tested on the EPM. Zingicomb at 1 mg/kg elevated the
time spent on the open arms, scanning of the open arms and excursions into the
ends of the open arms, whereas the two other combinations (1:1 and 1:2.5) did
not influence rats' behavior on the EPM in the entire dose range tested. With
regard to the memory-disrupting effects of anxiolytics, particularly of diazepam
(DZP), a second experiment was performed to compare the effects of ZC (0.5, 1,
10 mg/kg, I.G.) and DZP (1 or 5 mg/kg, I.P.) on the performance of rats in two
different learning tasks. Rats were treated with DZP or ZC prior to the learning
trial of a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Retention testing
24 h later showed impaired retention for rats injected with DZP at 5 mg/kg but
not for animals that had received ZC prior to training. In a further experiment,
rats were treated once daily with DZP or ZC prior to the training trials in a
water maze. Injections of DZP at 5 mg/kg impaired place and cue learning,
whereas the treatment with ZC did not influence the navigation performance in
the maze. The present results indicate that the anxiolytic-like effects of ZC
are specific in that only the mixture ratio of zingiber officinale and ginkgo
biloba adjusted for the phytopharmacon was active in the EPM. Furthermore, ZC
did not interfere negatively with the performance on an inhibitory avoidance and
a water maze task, as opposed to DZP. This finding is interesting with regard to
other studies that have revealed a similar dissociation between anxiolytic and
memory-disrupting effects for chemically defined 5-HT antagonists, especially
for those acting at 5-HT3 receptors.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9477004 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

178: Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Aug;35(8):841-3.

Biochemical studies on combined effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and
ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) in albino rats.

Ahmed RS, Sharma SB.

Biochemistry Department, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi, India.

Adult male rats of wistar strain were fed diets containing (w/w) 2% garlic
(group II), 0.5% ginger (group III) and a combination of garlic plus ginger
(group IV) for 4 weeks to study their effects on serum biochemical parameters. A
significant increase in body weight was observed in all groups except that fed
ginger (group III). A significant decrease in blood glucose, serum total
cholesterol and serum alkaline phosphatase were found in all groups, whereas
serum triglycerides were decreased significantly only in group IV. Serum
HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased only in groups III and IV. However,
HDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index were significantly
decreased in animals fed with combination of the two, compared to garlic/ginger
alone. Hence, a combination of garlic and ginger is much more effective in
reducing blood glucose and serum lipids.

PMID: 9475058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

179: J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Jul;57(2):93-6.

Antiemetic efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against cisplatin-induced
emesis in dogs.

Sharma SS, Kochupillai V, Gupta SK, Seth SD, Gupta YK.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) extracts (acetone,
50% ethanolic and aqueous) were investigated for antiemetic activity against
emesis induced by 3 mg/kg cisplatin (the 100% emetic dose i.v.) in-healthy
mongrel dogs. The acetone and 50% ethanolic extract at the doses of 25, 50, 100
and 200 mg/kg p.o. exhibited significant protection while aqueous extract at
these doses was ineffective against cisplatin emesis. The acetone extract was
more effective than ethanolic extract. However, both were less effective when
compared to 5-HT3 receptors antagonist-granisetron. Neither of the ginger
extract was effective against apomorphine-induced emesis. The findings suggest
that ginger could be an effective and cheap antiemetic adjunct to cancer

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9254112 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

180: Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 May;56(5):379-84.

Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella
foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in
patients with coronary artery disease.

Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC.

Department of Medicine, R.N.T. Medical College, Udaipur, India.

In a placebo-controlled study the effect of ginger and fenugreek was examined on
blood lipids, blood sugar, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic
activity. The subjects included in this study were healthy individuals, patients
with coronary artery disease (CAD), and patients with non-insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who either had CAD or were without CAD. In patients
with CAD powdered ginger administered in a dose of 4 g daily for 3 months did
not affect ADP- and epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation. Also, no change in
the fibrinolytic activity and fibrinogen level was observed. However, a single
dose of 10 g powdered ginger administered to CAD patients produced a significant
reduction in platelet aggregation induced by the two agonists. Ginger did not
affect the blood lipids and blood sugar. Fenugreek given in a dose of 2.5 g
twice daily for 3 months to healthy individuals did not affect the blood lipids
and blood sugar (fasting and post prandial). However, administered in the same
daily dose for the same duration to CAD patients also with NIDDM, fenugreek
decreased significantly the blood lipids (total cholesterol and triglycerides)
without affecting the HDL-c. When administered in the same daily dose to NIDDM
(non-CAD) patients (mild cases), fenugreek reduced significantly the blood sugar
(fasting and post prandial). In severe NIDDM cases, blood sugar (both fasting
and post prandial) was only slightly reduced. The changes were not significant.
Fenugreek administration did not affect platelet aggregation, fibrinolytic
activity and fibrinogen.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Controlled Clinical Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 9175175 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

181: J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Nov;54(2-3):119-24.

Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and
in immunomodulation studies.

Sohni YR, Bhatt RM.

Department of Biology, Alabama A&M University, Normal 35762, USA.

The activity of a crude extract formulation was evaluated in experimental
amoebic liver abscess in golden hamsters and in immunomodulation studies. The
formulation comprises the following five plants-Boerhavia diffusa, Tinospora
cordifolia, Berberis aristata, Terminalia chebula and Zingiber officinale. The
formulation had a maximum cure rate of 73% at a dose of 800 mg/kg/day in hepatic
amoebiasis reducing the average degree of infection (ADI) to 1.3 as compared to
4.2 for sham-treated controls. In immunomodulation studies humoral immunity was
enhanced as evidenced by the haemagglutination titre. The T-cell counts remained
unaffected in the animals treated with the formulation but cell-mediated immune
response was stimulated as observed in the leukocyte migration inhibition (LMI)

PMID: 8953425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

182: Eur J Clin Nutr. 1996 Nov;50(11):772-4.

Consumption of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) does not affect ex vivo
platelet thromboxane production in humans.

Janssen PL, Meyboom S, van Staveren WA, de Vegt F, Katan MB.

Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, The

OBJECTIVES: Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) has been claimed to exert an
anti-thrombotic effect in humans as ginger extracts inhibit cyclo-oxygenase
activity of platelets in vitro. Effects of ginger consumption on ex vivo
platelet function, however, are contradictory. We therefore investigated whether
daily consumption of raw or cooked ginger decreases platelet cyclo-oxygenase
activity as assessed by ex vivo maximally stimulated platelet thromboxane B2
production. DESIGN: We carried out a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over
study of 3 x 2 weeks. SUBJECTS: Eighteen healthy volunteers aged 22 +/- 3 y
(mean +/- s.d.) participated in the study; there were no dropouts.
INTERVENTIONS: Subjects consumed 15 g of raw ginger root, 40 g of cooked stem
ginger, or placebo daily for two weeks. We took fasted venous blood samples and
measured thromboxane B2 production in maximally stimulated platelet-rich plasma
at days 12 and 14 of each treatment period. RESULTS: Mean decrease in
thromboxane production relative to placebo was 1 +/- 9% for ginger root, and -1
+/- 8% for stem ginger, with no effect of treatment order (P = 0.984).
CONCLUSIONS: We cannot confirm the putative anti-thrombotic activity of ginger
in humans.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8933126 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

183: J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Jul 5;52(3):123-7.

Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in
Aspergillus nidulans.

Ramos Ruiz A, De la Torre RA, Alonso N, Villaescusa A, Betancourt J, Vizoso A.

Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Medicamentos, Cludad de La Habana, Cuba.

Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional
medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in
aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as
folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L.
and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha
x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.)
Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora
incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper
auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and
Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with
Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as
a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic
effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive
mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct
visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result,
only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia)
a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per
colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

PMID: 8771452 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

184: Cancer Res. 1996 Mar 1;56(5):1023-30.

Inhibition of tumor promotion in SENCAR mouse skin by ethanol extract of
Zingiber officinale rhizome.

Katiyar SK, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H.

Department of Dermatology, Skin Diseases Research Center, University Hospitals
of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio 44106, USA.

There is considerable emphasis on identifying potential chemopreventive agents
present in food consumed by the human population. Ginger rhizome (Zingiber
officinale), known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a
spice and a flavoring agent. In prior in vitro studies, it has been shown that
the water or organic solvent extract of ginger possesses antioxidative and
antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we evaluated whether ethanol extract
of ginger (GE) possesses anti-tumor-promoting effects in a mouse skin
tumorigenesis model. Because skin tumor promoters induced epidermal ornithine
decarboxylase (ODC), cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase activities, and edema and
hyperplasia are conventionally used markers of skin tumor promotion, first, we
assessed the effect of GE on these parameters. Preapplication of GE onto the
skin of SENCAR mice resulted in significant inhibition of
12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-caused induction of epidermal ODC,
cyclooxygenase, and lipoxygenase activities and ODC mRNA expression in a
does-dependent manner. Preapplication of GE to mouse skin also afforded
significant inhibition of TPA-caused epidermal edema (56%) and hyperplasia
(44%). In long-term tumor studies, topical application of GE 30 min prior to
that of each TPA application to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated SENCAR
mice resulted in a highly significant protection against skin tumor incidence
and its subsequent multiplicity. The animals pretreated with GE showed
substantially lower tumor body burdens compared with non-GE-treated controls.
The results of our study, for the first time, provide clear evidence that GE
possesses anti-skin tumor-promoting effects, and that the mechanism of such
effects may involve inhibition of tumor promoter-caused cellular, biochemical,
and molecular changes in mouse skin.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

PMID: 8640756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

185: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996 Feb;53(2):271-5.

Anxiolytic-like effect of combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo
biloba in the elevated plus-maze.

Hasenohrl RU, Nichau CH, Frisch CH, De Souza Silva MA, Huston JP, Mattern CM,
Hacker R.

Institute of Physiological Psychology I, Heinrich-Heine-University of
Dusseldorf, Germany.

The effects of the known anxiolytic compound diazepam (DZ) on the behavior of
rats in the elevated plus-maze were compared with those of zingicomb (ZC)
(registered trademark of Mattern et Partner), a combination preparation of
standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba and Zingiber officinale. DZ was
administered intraperitoneally (IP) in a reference dosage of 1 mg/kg 30 min
before the rats were tested on the elevated plus-maze for 5 min. The treatment
with DZ elevated the time spent on the open arms and excursions into the end of
the open arms, increased scanning over the edge of an open arm, and decreased
risk-assessment from an enclosed arm. ZC was administered intragastrically (IG)
in four doses ranging between 0.5 and 100 mg/kg 60 min prior to plus-maze
testing. The treatment with 0.5 mg/kg ZC elevated the time spent on the open
arms and excursions into the end of the open arms; at the high dosage of 100
mg/kg, ZC led to fewer excursions to and less scanning of the open arms.
Injection of 1 or 10 mg/kg ZC had no significant effect on the behavior in the
maze. These data provide evidence that ZC has anxiolytic effects in the elevated
plus-maze comparable to those of DZ, but that in high dosage the phytopharmacon
may also have anxiogenic properties. The anxiolytic-like effects of ZC are
discussed with regard to the known antiserotonergic action of ginger and Ginkgo

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 8808131 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

186: Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1995 Oct;52(2):321-7.

Blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion as a test for
antiemetic agents: comparison of metoclopramide with combined extracts of
Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba.

Frisch C, Hasenohrl RU, Mattern CM, Hacker R, Huston JP.

Institute of Physiological Psychology I, Heinrich-Heine-University of
Dusseldorf, Germany.

The present study tests the hypothesis that the blockade of lithium
chloride-induced conditioned place aversion might be a suitable model to assess
antiemetic properties of drugs, especially in species that do not vomit, like
rats. The effects of the known antiemetic compound metoclopramide were compared
with those of zingicomb, a combination preparation of extracts of Ginkgo biloba
and Zingiber officinale, also presumed to have antiemetic properties. Place
conditioning was performed using a conventional three-compartment test
procedure. On three successive conditioning trials, rats received an
intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lithium chloride (125 mg/kg) and were placed
into the compartment that they had preferred over three baseline trials. During
the test, rats treated with lithium chloride (LiCl) spent less time in the
treatment compartment, indicative of a conditioned place aversion (CPA). In the
first experiment, metoclopramide (MCP) was administered intragastrically (IG) in
doses of 2 or 10 mg/kg 60 min prior to LiCl injection. The pretreatment with 50
and 100 mg/kg zingicomb attenuated the LiCl-produced CPA, whereas a dosage of 10
mg/kg had no effect. These findings suggest that LiCl-induced CPA is a viable
procedure with which to assess the antiemetic properties of metoclopramide.
Furthermore, the data confirm the hypothesis that the phytopharmacon zingicomb
might have antiemetic properties that are comparable to those of metoclopramide.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 8577797 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

187: Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1995 Sep;201(3):283-8.

Effect of irradiation on the microbiological status and flavouring materials of
selected spices.

Farag SE, Aziz NH, Attia ES.

National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

Spices from Egyptian local markets were irradiated with different recommended
doses (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy). The spices tested included dried leaves of
marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale
Roscoe) and powdered hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.). The study included the
isolation and identification of micro-organisms in spices following their
irradiation, as well as gas chromatographic (GLC) chemical analysis for the
presence and structure of volatile oils, pungent and pigment materials. The
results showed that hot pepper was contaminated more (9.2 x 10(5)/g) than
marjoram (4.2 x 10(3)/g) and ginger (14.3 x 10(3)/g) with respect to total
aerobic bacterial content. The total contents of moulds were 4.8 x 10(3)/g, 5.7
x 10(3)/g and 19 x 10(3)/g in the same spices, respectively, but the pathogenic
moulds and bacterial strains differed according to the type of spice.
Irradiation at 10, 20 and 30 kGy caused complete elimination of micro-organisms,
whereas 5 kGy was less effective. With the GLC method chosen 18 and 50 compounds
could be detected in the extracts of marjoram and ginger, respectively;
gamma-terpinen and zingiberen being the major compounds in marjoram and ginger,
respectively. A noticeable reduction was observed in the amount of terpenes
present in irradiated marjoram; they were converted to monoterpenesalcohols.
Ginger was more sensitive to irradiation, especially at high doses, but moderate
changes were detected at low doses (5 and 10 kGy). A slight, but significant
effect on the capsaicin (pungent compound) in hot-pepper was observed following
irradiation, whereas no changes in total pigments resulted at any dose. These
results prove that 10 kGy is a sufficiently high dose to eliminate the
micro-organisms in spices, causing only slight changes in the flavouring

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 7483863 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

188: J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Aug 11;48(1):13-9.

The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Zingiberis rhizoma extract on cytokine
secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Chang CP, Chang JY, Wang FY, Chang JG.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Chinese Medicine, Taipei Municipal Jen-Ai
Hospital, Taiwan.

The ethanolic extract of the Chinese medicinal herb Zingiberis rhizoma, the
rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), was found to show
biphasic effects on secretion of cytokines by human peripheral blood mononuclear
cells in vitro. In this study, the augmentative effect of Zingiberis rhizoma
extract on cytokine secretion was shown to be time dependent. No significant
secretion of cytokine was noted when the reaction time was 1 or 3 h. Secretion
of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by the mononuclear
cells was markedly increased in the presence of a low concentration of
Zingiberis rhizoma extract, varying from 10-30 mg/ml, when the reaction time was
18 or 24 h. A higher concentration of the herbal extract did not show similar or
stronger augmentative effect as did low concentration of the herbal extract.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 8569242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

189: Dermatol Nurs. 1995 Aug;7(4):242-4.

Zingiber officinale (ginger) used to prevent 8-Mop associated nausea.

Meyer K, Schwartz J, Crater D, Keyes B.

Patients undergoing photopheresis are required to ingest the drug 8-MOP as part
of their treatment. This drug causes nausea as a side effect. Ginger taken prior
to 8-MOP may substantially reduce this side effect. This study compared
patients' nausea when taking 8-MOP with and without ginger.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial

PMID: 7646942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

190: J Pharm Pharmacol. 1995 Apr;47(4):329-32.

Antiplatelet effect of gingerol isolated from Zingiber officinale.

Guh JH, Ko FN, Jong TT, Teng CM.

Pharmacological Institute, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University,
Taipei, Taiwan.

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the antiplatelet mechanism of
gingerol. Gingerol concentration-dependently (0.5-20 microM) inhibited the
aggregation and release reaction of rabbit washed platelets induced by
arachidonic acid and collagen, but not those induced by platelet-activating
factor (PAF), U46619 (9,11-dideoxy-9 alpha,11 alpha-methano-epoxy-PGF2 alpha)
and thrombin. Gingerol also concentration-dependently (0.5-10 microM) inhibited
thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin D2 formation caused by arachidonic acid, and
completely abolished phosphoinositide breakdown induced by arachidonic acid but
had no effect on that of collagen, PAF or thrombin even at concentrations as
high as 300 microM. In human platelet-rich plasma, gingerol and indomethacin
prevented the secondary aggregation and blocked ATP release from platelets
induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP, 5 microM) and adrenaline (5 microM)
but had no influence on the primary aggregation. The maximal antiplatelet effect
was obtained when platelets were incubated with gingerol for 30 min and this
inhibition was reversible. It is concluded that the antiplatelet action of
gingerol is mainly due to the inhibition of thromboxane formation.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 7791032 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

191: Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Feb 23;1243(2):181-4.

Purification of ginger proteases by DEAE-Sepharose and isoelectric focusing.

Ohtsuki K, Taguchi K, Sato K, Kawabata M.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyoto Prefectural University, Japan.

Ginger proteases in ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale roscoe) were extracted
from the ginger acetone powder and purified on DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-75
columns. Before the purification, excess p-chloromercuribenzoate was added to
the enzymes to prevent their autodigestion. The mercuribenzoate-proteases were
further purified and fractionated by isoelectric focusing in Ampholine of pH
3-10 or pH 4-6. The proteases were fractionated into three components by the
isoelectric focusing, having pI value of 4.5, 4.6 and 4.8 respectively. All
these proteases had a molecular mass of 29,000 as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide
gel electrophoresis and by TSK G2000SW XL gel chromatography. The Ampholine in
the purified enzymes can quickly be removed by the gel chromatography of TSK
G2000SW. Some divalent metal ions, such as Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+, strongly
inhibited these purified enzymes.

PMID: 7873561 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

192: J Ethnopharmacol. 1995 Jan;45(1):43-52.

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against
Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

Sohni YR, Kaimal P, Bhatt RM.

Microbiology Department, CHM College, University of Bombay, India.

The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation against Entamoeba histolytica
was studied. In the traditional system of medicine in India, the formulation has
been prescribed for intestinal disorders. It comprises of five medicinal herbs,
namely, Boerhavia diffusa, Berberis aristata, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia
chebula and Zingiber officinale. The dried and pulverized plants were extracted
in ethanol together and individually. In vitro amoebicidal activity was studied
to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of all the
constituent extracts as well as the whole formulation. The formulation had a MIC
of 1000 micrograms/ml as compared with 10 micrograms/ml for metronidazole. In
experimental caecal amoebiasis in rats the formulation had a curative rate of
89% with the average degree of infection (ADI) reduced to 0.4 in a group dosed
with 500 mg/kg per day as compared with ADI of 3.8 for the sham-treated control
group of rats. Metronidazole had a cure rate of 89% (ADI = 0.4) at a dose of 100
mg/kg per day and cured the infection completely (ADI = 0) when the dosage was
doubled to 200 mg/kg per day. There were varying degrees of inhibition of the
following enzyme activities of crude extracts of axenically cultured amoebae:
DNase, RNase, aldolase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alpha-amylase
and protease.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study

PMID: 7739226 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

193: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1994 Jun;42(6):1226-30.

Stomachic principles in ginger. III. An anti-ulcer principle, 6-gingesulfonic
acid, and three monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, gingerglycolipids A, B, and C,
from Zingiberis Rhizoma originating in Taiwan.

Yoshikawa M, Yamaguchi S, Kunimi K, Matsuda H, Okuno Y, Yamahara J, Murakami N.

Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

An anti-ulcer constituent, 6-gingesulfonic acid, and three
monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, gingerglycolipids A, B, and C, were isolated from
Zingiberis Rhizoma, the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe which was
cultivated in Taiwan, together with
(+)-angelicoidenol-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Based on chemical reactions and
physicochemical evidence, the structures of 6-gingesulfonic acid,
gingerglycolipids A, B, and C have been determined. In addition, the absolute
stereostructure of (+)-angelicoidenol-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside was clarified
on the basis of its synthesis from d-borneol. 6-Ginesulfonic acid showed weaker
pungency and more potent anti-ulcer activity than 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol.

PMID: 8069973 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

194: J Nat Prod. 1994 May;57(5):658-62.

Isolation of antirhinoviral sesquiterpenes from ginger (Zingiber officinale).

Denyer CV, Jackson P, Loakes DM, Ellis MR, Young DA.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham,
Kent, UK.

The dried rhizomes of Indonesian ginger, Zingiber officinale, were investigated
for antirhinoviral activity in the plaque reduction test. Fractionation by
solvent extraction, solvent partition, and repeated chromatography guided by
bioassay, allowed the isolation of several sesquiterpenes with antirhinoviral
activity. The most active of these was beta-sesquiphellandrene [2] with an IC50
of 0.44 microM vs. rhinovirus IB in vitro.

PMID: 8064299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

195: Planta Med. 1994 Feb;60(1):17-20.

Anti-emetic principles of Magnolia obovata bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome.

Kawai T, Kinoshita K, Koyama K, Takahashi K.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Meiji College of Pharmacy,
Tokyo, Japan.

Magnolol and honokiol, biphenyl compounds, were isolated as anti-emetic
principles from the methanolic extract of Magnolia obovata bark. [6]-, [8]-, and
[10]-shogaols and [6]-, [8]-, and [10]-gingerols were isolated from the
methanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome as anti-emetic principles.
Some phenyl-propanoids with allyl side-chains were found to show the same
activity. They inhibited the emetic action induced by the oral administration of
copper sulfate pentahydrate to leopard and ranid frogs.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8134409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

196: Life Sci. 1994;55(5):389-97.

Resiniferatoxin and piperine: capsaicin-like stimulators of oxygen uptake in the
perfused rat hindlimb.

Eldershaw TP, Colquhoun EQ, Bennett KL, Dora KA, Clark MG.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

The naturally occurring capsaicin-like molecules, resiniferatoxin (RTX,
Euphorbia spp.) and piperine (Piper nigrum), each stimulated oxygen uptake (VO2)
in association with increased vascular resistance in a concentration-dependent
manner when infused into the perfused rat hindlimb. 5 microM glyceryl trinitrate
(GTN, a nitrovasodilator) significantly blocked the oxygen and pressure
responses to both RTX and piperine, indicating a close relationship between
changes in VO2 and the vasoconstriction. Concentrations greater than those
required for maximal VO2 resulted in an inhibition of VO2, although perfusion
pressure continued to increase. Time course studies showed that both RTX and
piperine at high doses resulted in a tri-phasic response. An initial phase of
transient VO2 stimulation was followed by a second phase of inhibition. A third
phase involving an often larger but transient stimulation of VO2 followed
removal of the agents and continued after the pressure returned to basal. The
actions of RTX and piperine were similar to those of other active capsaicin-like
molecules tested previously in this system, including capsaicinoids (Capsicum
spp.), gingerols (Zingiber officinale), and shogoals (Zingiber officinale). RTX
was the most potent, and piperine the least potent of this series. Although
receptor involvement has yet to be unequivocally established, the data are
consistent with the presence of a functional capsaicin-like (vanilloid) receptor
in the vasculature of the rat hindlimb that mediates vasoconstriction and oxygen
uptake. These findings may have implications for the future development of
thermogenic agents.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 8035653 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

197: Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1993 Sep;44(2):137-48.

Common Indian spices: nutrient composition, consumption and contribution to
dietary value.

Uma Pradeep K, Geervani P, Eggum BO.

Foods and Nutrition Department, Postgraduate & Research Centre (Home Sicence)
A.P. Agricultural University, Hyderabad, India.

Nutrient composition of eight commonly consumed spices of South India was
analysed. Spices analysed were red chillies (Capsicum annum), black pepper
(Piper nigrum), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum), cumin seeds (Cuminum
cyminum), garlic (Allium sativum), asafoetida (Ferula foetida), dry ginger
(Zingiber officinale) and ajowan (Carum copticum). The nutrients analysed were
proximate principles, minerals, starch, sugars, dietary fibre components,
tannins, phytic acid, enzyme inhibitors and amino acids. Dry ginger, ajowan and
asafoetida had high calcium (1.0-1.5%) and iron (54-62 mg/100 g) levels. The
tannin content of spices was also high (0.9-1.3% DM). Dietary fibre ranged from
14-53%. Spices had appreciable amounts of essential amino acids like lysine and
threonine. A survey revealed the average per capita consumption of spices to be
9.54 g and at that level, the nutrient contribution from spices ranged from 1.2
to 7.9% of an average adult Indian male's requirement for different nutrients.

PMID: 8397396 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

198: Anaesthesia. 1993 Aug;48(8):715-7.

Comment in:
Anaesthesia. 1993 Dec;48(12):1118.

Zingiber officinale (ginger)--an antiemetic for day case surgery.

Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE.

Department of Anaesthetics, Kingston Hospital, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey.

The effect of powdered ginger root was compared with metoclopramide and placebo.
In a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial the incidence of postoperative
nausea and vomiting was measured in 120 women presenting for elective
laparoscopic gynaecological surgery on a day stay basis. The incidence of nausea
and vomiting was similar in patients given metoclopramide and ginger (27% and
21%) and less than in those who received placebo (41%). The requirement for
postoperative antiemetics was lower in those patients receiving ginger. The
requirements for postoperative analgesia, recovery time and time until discharge
were the same in all groups. There was no difference in the incidence of
possible side effects such as sedation, abnormal movement, itch and visual
disturbance between the three groups. Zingiber officinale is an effective and
promising prophylactic antiemetic, which may be especially useful for day case

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8214465 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

199: Anaesthesia. 1993 May;48(5):393-5.

Comment in:
Anaesthesia. 1993 Dec;48(12):1118.

Zingiber officinale does not affect gastric emptying rate. A randomised,
placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Ruggier R.

Kingston Hospital, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey.

The effect of the powdered rhizome of Zingiber officinale (ginger root) on the
gastric emptying rate was investigated. In a double-blind crossover trial, 16
healthy volunteers were randomly allocated to receive either 1 g of ginger or
placebo. Gastric emptying was measured using the oral paracetamol absorption
model. Ingestion of ginger did not effect gastric emptying. The antiemetic
effect of ginger is not associated with an effect on gastric emptying. No
adverse effects were noted.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 8317647 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

200: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1993 Apr;41(4):710-3.

Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Tanabe M, Chen YD, Saito K, Kano Y.

Nagakura Pharmaceutical Company Ltd., Osaka, Japan.

We previously reported on the isolation and identification of (E)-8
beta,17-epoxylabd-12-ene-15,16-dial (ZT) from ginger (rhizome of Zingiber
officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae). In this paper, the pharmacological effects of
ZT are reported. The experimental mouse hypercholesterolemia induced by Triton
WR-1339 was treated after oral administration of ZT. In homogenated rat liver
with ZT, cholesterol biosynthesis was decreased. In addition, the same activity
was observed in the homogenated rat liver which was resected after the oral
administration of ZT. According to the results of general pharmacological
screening, no remarkable activity of ZT was observed except for an inhibitory
effect on the cholesterol biosynthesis.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 8508473 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

201: Med Hypotheses. 1992 Dec;39(4):342-8.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders.

Srivastava KC, Mustafa T.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University, Denmark.

One of the features of inflammation is increased oxygenation of arachidonic acid
which is metabolized by two enzymic pathways--the cyclooxygenase (CO) and the
5-lipoxygenase (5-LO)--leading to the production of prostaglandins and
leukotrienes respectively. Amongst the CO products, PGE2 and amongst the 5-LO
products, LTB4 are considered important mediators of inflammation. More than 200
potential drugs ranging from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,
corticosteroids, gold salts, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs,
methotrexate, cyclosporine are being tested. None of the drugs has been found
safe; all are known to produce from mild to serious side-effects. Ginger is
described in Ayurvedic and Tibb systems of medicine to be useful in inflammation
and rheumatism. In all 56 patients (28 with rheumatoid arthritis, 18 with
osteoarthritis and 10 with muscular discomfort) used powdered ginger against
their afflictions. Amongst the arthritis patients more than three-quarters
experienced, to varying degrees, relief in pain and swelling. All the patients
with muscular discomfort experienced relief in pain. None of the patients
reported adverse effects during the period of ginger consumption which ranged
from 3 months to 2.5 years. It is suggested that at least one of the mechanisms
by which ginger shows its ameliorative effects could be related to inhibition of
prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis, i.e. it works as a dual inhibitor of
eicosanoid biosynthesis.

PMID: 1494322 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

202: Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1992 Oct;16(10):755-63.

Pungent principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale) are thermogenic in the
perfused rat hindlimb.

Eldershaw TP, Colquhoun EQ, Dora KA, Peng ZC, Clark MG.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart,

Crude extracts of both fresh and dry ginger induced the perfused rat hindlimb to
consume oxygen in association with increases in perfusion pressure and lactate
production. The principles responsible for these observations, the gingerols and
shogaols, were isolated and tested for relative thermogenic activity. The
gingerol homologues possessed greater molar potency than their shogaol
counterparts. (6)-Gingerol was the most potent principle isolated, causing a
mean maximal increase in oxygen consumption of 1.4 +/- 0.1 mumol/g/h (21%), an
increase in lactate efflux of 4.7 +/- 0.6 mumol/g/h (87%) with a perfusion
pressure increase of 7.7 +/- 0.7 mmHg (30%). Increases in alkyl chain length
within each homologous series led to decreased molar potency. Specific
nitro-vasodilation using glyceryl trinitrate demonstrated that thermogenesis was
at least partly associated with vasoconstriction. Concurrent infusion of alpha
or beta antagonists showed that neither adrenergic receptors nor secondary
catecholamine release were responsible for the observed effects. Increasing
doses of the ginger principles ultimately led to inhibition of steady state
oxygen consumption, although perfusion pressure continued to increase. Removal
of high ginger principle doses was followed by apparent increases in oxygen
uptake unaccompanied by elevated perfusion pressure. As a consequence, the
effective concentration ranges of the ginger principles were relatively narrow.
The cause of high dose effects is as yet undetermined but may have been due in
part to disruption of mitochondrial function.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1330955 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

203: Yakugaku Zasshi. 1992 Sep;112(9):645-55.

[Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar
constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of Zingiber officinale
Roscoe cultivated in Taiwan. The absolute stereostructure of a new

[Article in Japanese]

Yamahara J, Hatakeyama S, Taniguchi K, Kawamura M, Yoshikawa M.

Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

By using the effects on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats,
beta-sesquiphellandrene (2), beta-bisabolene (3), ar-curcumene (4) and 6-shogaol
(5) were isolated as anti-ulcer active principles in ginger, the dried rhizoma
of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Shokyo in Japanese) which was cultivated in
Taiwan, together with nine known compounds and a new diarylheptanoid. The
absolute stereostructure of the diarylheptanoid was characterized as
(3S,5S)-dihydroxy 1-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-(4''-hydrox
y-3''-methoxyphenyl)heptane (15) on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic
evidence which included the application of the benzoate chirality method. The
pungent effects of several constituents isolated from ginger were examined.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 1469612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

204: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Aug;17(8):481-3, 511.

[Stability examination of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound of Zingiber
officinale volatile oil]

[Article in Chinese]

Li S, Guan S.

Institute of Basic Theory of TCM, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine,

Based on different storage time and different methods, examination has been
conducted of the appearance, properties contents and main constituents in the
beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound of Zingiber officinale volatile oil. The
result shows that the oil with inclusion proves considerably more stable than
that without inclusion.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 1482534 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

205: J Nat Prod. 1992 Aug;55(8):1044-56.

A bioassay for inhibition of serotonin release from bovine platelets.

Marles RJ, Kaminski J, Arnason JT, Pazos-Sanou L, Heptinstall S, Fischer NH,
Crompton CW, Kindack DG, Awang DV.

Ottawa-Carleton Institutes of Biology and Chemistry, University of Ottawa,
Ontario, Canada.

A bioassay was developed to study agents capable of inhibiting the release of
serotonin from bovine blood platelets. It is a simple, inexpensive, and
reproducible high-throughput bioassay suitable for quality control of feverfew,
Tanacetum parthenium, a crude drug with proven migraine prophylactic activity
that is being considered for governmental registration and regulation. The
bioassay, which requires no experimental animals or human subjects, was used to
assess the in vitro activity of T. parthenium samples grown from seed obtained
from 10 different regions of Europe. The activity was found to vary
significantly within and between samples, with no geographical correlation.
Serotonin release inhibition was shown to be significantly correlated with the
content of the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone, parthenolide, although
other sesquiterpene lactones from this plant and other members of the Asteraceae
were also shown to be active. The activities of six other species of Tanacetum,
as well as of Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) and Zingiber officinale (ginger),
and two commercial drugs for migraine prophylaxis, verapamil hydrochloride and
propranolol hydrochloride, were also assessed. The relevance of the bovine
platelet serotonin release inhibition bioassay to antimigraine research is

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1431933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

206: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Aug;40(8):2239-41.

6-Gingesulfonic acid, a new anti-ulcer principle, and gingerglycolipids A, B,
and C, three new monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, from zingiberis rhizoma
originating in Taiwan.

Yoshikawa M, Hatakeyama S, Taniguchi K, Matuda H, Yamahara J.

Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

By monitoring the effects on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats, a new
antiulcer principle named 6-gingesulfonic acid was isolated from Zingiberis
Rhizoma, the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (cultivated and
processed in Taiwan) together with three new monoacyldigalactosylglycerols named
gingerglycolipids A, B and C. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the
basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. 6-Gingesulfonic acid showed more
potent anti-ulcer activity than 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol.

PMID: 1423791 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

207: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Jun;17(6):370-3.

[Pharmacological study of Zingiber officinale (Willd.) Rosc. and its clinical

[Article in Chinese]

Peng P.

Publication Types:

PMID: 1418588 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

208: Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Jun;17(6):368-9, 373 inside backcover.

[Antioxidative effect of Chinese drugs]

[Article in Chinese]

Zhou Y, Xu R.

Capital Institute of Medicine, Beijing.

The antioxidative effect of more than 50 ethanol extracts of Chinese drugs were
studied on the air oxidation of linoleic acid. Several ethanol extracts such as
Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Magnolia officinalis and Zingiber officinale etc., were
found having stronger antioxidative effect.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 1418587 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

209: Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Feb;40(2):387-91.

Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and

Kiuchi F, Iwakami S, Shibuya M, Hanaoka F, Sankawa U.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Japan.

The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Alpinia officinarum contain
potent inhibitors against prostaglandin biosynthesizing enzyme (PG synthetase).
Gingerols and diarylhepatanoids were identified as active compounds. Their
possible mechanism of action which was deduced from the structures of active
compounds indicated that the inhibitors would also be active against
arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme of leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. This
was verified by testing their inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase prepared from
RBL-1 cells. A diarylheptanoid with catechol group was the most active compound
against 5-lipoxygenase, while yakuchinone A was the most active against PG

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 1606634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

210: Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1992 Feb;12(2):95-8, 70.

[Pharmacologic studies of antimotion sickness actions of ginger]

[Article in Chinese]

Qian DS, Liu ZS.

Dept. of Pharmacology, Nantong Medical College.

The pharmacologic actions related to antimotion sickness effects of ginger
(Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) were studied. There was no significant effect on
parameters of rotatory movement-induced electronystagmogram of rabbit after
intravenous (i.v.) infection of ginger juice. The low amplitude fast wave
pattern of electrocorticogram of rabbit changed to high amplitude slow wave
pattern after i.v. injection of ginger juice. Rabbit gastric contraction in situ
was shortly suppressed after ginger juice i.v. administration. In the isolated
rat fundus strip preparations, however, ginger juice reduced the spontaneous
contractile frequency, and enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude, which
was followed by inhibition. Ginger juice produced longitudinal contraction of
the guinea-pig isolated ileum, which was followed by rapid tachyphylaxis. This
contraction effect was not affected by hexamethonium and 5-HT, but could be
inhibited by cold storage, hyoscine, morphine, diphenhydramine, promethazine and
substance P desensitization. Naloxone could eliminate this inhibition produced
by morphine. By using dose-response relationship plot, non-competitive
antagonisms were observed between ginger juice and Ach and between ginger juice
and histamine in isolated guinea-pig ileum. It is suggested that the pungent
constituents of ginger release substance P from sensory fibres. The released
substance P in turn either stimulates cholinergic and histaminic neurons to
release Ach and histamine, respectively, or produces direct muscle contraction
by activating M and H1 receptors correspondingly. It is proposed that after
being excited by substance P, M and H1 receptors are inactive temporarily and
unable to be excited by agonists, therefore, ginger juice exhibits
anticholinergic and antihistaminic action. Ginger juice produces antimotion
sickness action possibly by central and peripheral anticholinergic and
antihistaminic effects.

Publication Types:
English Abstract
In Vitro

PMID: 1498536 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

211: Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1991 Jul;41(3):269-76.

Influence of spices on utilization of sorghum and chickpea protein.

Pradeep KU, Geervani P, Eggum BO.

Post Graduate and Research Centre, Home Science Faculty, A.P. Agricultural
University, Hyderabad, India.

Influence of eight common Indian spices on the protein quality of sorghum and
chickpea was studied. Spices used include red chillies (Capsicum annum), black
pepper (piper nigrum), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) cumin seeds (Cuminum
cyminum), garlic (Allium sativum), asafoetida (Ferula foetida), dry ginger
(Zingiber officinale) and ajowan (Carum copticum). Addition of spices did not
affect protein digestibility (TD) of sorghum. The BV of all sorghum diets with
spices was higher than that of control diet. However, it was significant only in
case of diets combined with red chilli + coriander (1:1) mix, black pepper +
cumin (1:1) mix, coriander and cumin. Addition of spices did not have any effect
on TD or BV of chickpea diets.

PMID: 1924191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

212: Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991 Jan 4;38(1):19-24.

Comment in:
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991 Nov 26;42(2):163-4.

Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum.

Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital, University of
Copenhagen, Denmark.

Thirty women participated in a double-blind randomized cross-over trial of the
efficacy of a natural product, the powdered root of ginger (Zingiber
officinale), and placebo in hyperemesis gravidarum. Three patients had to be
withdrawn. Each woman swallowed capsules containing either 250 mg ginger or
lactose q.i.d. during the first 4 days of the treatment period. Interrupted by a
2 days wash-out period the alternative medication was given in the second 4-day
period. The severity and relief of symptoms before and after each period were
evaluated by two scoring systems. The scores were used for statistical analyses
of possible differences. Subjectively assessed, 19 women (70.4%) stated
preference to the period in which ginger, as was later disclosed, had been given
(P = 0.003). More objectively assessed by relief scores a significantly greater
relief of the symptoms was found after ginger treatment compared to placebo (P =
0.035). No side effects were observed. The possible mutagenic and antimutagenic
characters of ginger reported in a study of E. coli have not been evaluated with
respect to any significance in humans. Powdered root of ginger in daily doses of
1 g during 4 days was better than placebo in diminishing or eliminating the
symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 1988321 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

213: Pharmacology. 1991;42(2):111-20.

Effects of ginger on motion sickness susceptibility and gastric function.

Stewart JJ, Wood MJ, Wood CD, Mims ME.

Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport.

This study was designed to evaluate the antimotion sickness activity of ginger
root (Zingiber officinale) and to characterize the effects of ginger on gastric
function. Twenty-eight human volunteers participated in the project. Subjects
made timed head movements in a rotating chair until they reached an endpoint of
motion sickness short of vomiting (malaise III or M-III). Each subject was
tested with either ginger or scopolamine and a placebo. A substance was judged
to possess antimotion sickness activity if it allowed a greater number of head
movements compared to placebo control. Gastric emptying of a liquid was measured
by nuclear medicine techniques in normal and motion sick subjects. Gastric
electrical activity was monitored by cutaneous (surface) electrodes positioned
over the abdominal area. Powder ginger (whole root, 500 or 1,000 mg) or fresh
ginger root (1,000 mg) provided no protection against motion sickness. In
contrast, subjects performed an average of 147.5 more head movements (p less
than 0.01) after scopolamine (0.6 mg p.o.) than after placebo. The rate of
gastric emptying was significantly (p less than 0.05) slowed when tested
immediately after M-III but was inhibited less when tested 15 min after M-III.
Powdered ginger (500 mg) had no effect on gastric emptying in normal or
motion-sick subjects. Gastric motility was also changed during motion sickness.
The frequency of the electrogastrogram (EGG) was increased after M-III
(tachygastria) and the normal increase in EGG amplitude after liquid ingestion
was reduced in motion sick subjects. Although powdered ginger (500 mg) partially
inhibited tachygastria in motion sickness, it did not enhance the EGG amplitude
in motion sick subjects. We conclude that ginger does not possess antimotion
sickness activity, nor does it significantly alter gastric function during
motion sickness.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Controlled Clinical Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

PMID: 2062873 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

214: Nahrung. 1991;35(1):47-51.

Effect of cumin, cinnamon, ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced
hypercholesterolemic rats.

Sambaiah K, Srinivasan K.

Department of Food Chemistry, Central Food Technological Research Institute,
Mysore, India.

The effect of a few common spices--cumin (Cuminum cyminum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum
zeylanicum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), mustard (Brassica nigra) and tamarind
(Tamarindus indica)--added to normal and hypercholesterolemia inducing diet on
serum and liver cholesterol levels in rats was studied. These spices did not
show any cholesterol lowering effect when included in the diet at about 5-fold
the normal human intake level.

PMID: 1865890 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

215: Planta Med. 1990 Aug;56(4):374-6.

Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of Zingiber officinale.

Adewunmi CO, Oguntimein BO, Furu P.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Experiments were conducted to study the major constituents of Zingiber
officinale responsible for its molluscicidal activity and the effect of the
active component on different stages of Schistosoma mansoni. Gingerol and
shogaol exhibited potent molluscicidal activity on Biomphalaria glabrata.
Gingerol (5.0 ppm) completely abolished the infectivity of Schistosoma mansoni
miracidia and cercariae in B. glabrata and mice, respectively, indicating that
the molluscicide is capable of interrupting schistosome transmission at a
concentration lower than its molluscicidal concentrations.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2236291 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

216: Anaesthesia. 1990 Aug;45(8):669-71.

Comment in:
Anaesthesia. 1990 Dec;45(12):1085.
Anaesthesia. 1991 Aug;46(8):705-6.

Ginger root--a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea
and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery.

Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, McNeil J, Charlton S.

Department of Anaesthesia, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London.

The effectiveness of ginger (Zingiber officinale) as an antiemetic agent was
compared with placebo and metoclopramide in 60 women who had major
gynaecological surgery in a double-blind, randomised study. There were
statistically significantly fewer recorded incidences of nausea in the group
that received ginger root compared with placebo (p less than 0.05). The number
of incidences of nausea in the groups that received either ginger root or
metoclopramide were similar. The administration of antiemetic after operation
was significantly greater in the placebo group compared to the other two groups
(p less than 0.05).

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 2205121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

217: J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Jul;29(3):267-73.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in migraine headache.

Mustafa T, Srivastava KC.

Institute of Biology, Odense University, Denmark.

Migraine is considered as a neurological disorder with little convincing
evidence of the involvement of some vascular phenomenon. Recent understanding of
the mechanisms behind migraine pain generation and perception have considerably
helped the development of modern migraine drugs. Most migraine drugs in use,
i.e., ergotamine and dihydroergotamine, iprazochrome, pizotifen and diazepam;
and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (i.e. aspirin, paracetamol, persantin,
etc.) have side-effects and are prescribed with caution for a limited duration.
Ginger is reported in Ayurvedic and Tibb systems of medicine to be useful in
neurological disorders. It is proposed that administration of ginger may exert
abortive and prophylactic effects in migraine headache without any side-effects.

Publication Types:
Case Reports

PMID: 2214812 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

218: Parasitol Res. 1990;76(8):653-6.

Lethal efficacy of extract from Zingiber officinale (traditional Chinese
medicine) or [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol in Anisakis larvae in vitro.

Goto C, Kasuya S, Koga K, Ohtomo H, Kagei N.

Department of Parasitology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan.

The authors previously reported that an extract from Zingiber officinale,
traditionally eaten along with raw fish and used in traditional Chinese
medicine, effectively destroyed Anisakis larvae in vitro. In this study, we
analyzed the effective components of ginger rhizomes. Methanol extracts were
fractionated after first being treated with HCl at pH 3, then with NaHCO3 at pH
10, and, finally, with NaOH at pH 13 (fraction 1). In general, this fraction is
rich in neutral substances. [6]-Shogaol and [6]-gingerol, known neutral
components of ginger rhizomes, were detected using gas chromatography and were
found to be the most prevalent components in the fraction, occurring in
quantities that resulted in a dose-dependent killing efficacy. Authentic
[6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol could kill Anisakis larvae at a minimal effective
dose of 62.5 and 250 micrograms/ml, respectively. However, the concentration of
[6]-gingerol in fraction 1 was greater than 20 times that of [6]-shogaol, making
the former the most active component in the fraction. Furthermore, synergistic
effects between [6]-gingerol and a small amount of [6]-shogaol were observed.
Pyrantel pamoate, an available antinematodal drug, had no lethal effect, even at
a concentration of 1 mg/ml. In saline solution containing [6]-shogaol (62.5
micrograms/ml), greater than 90% of larvae lost spontaneous movement within 4 h
and were destroyed completely within 16 h. Microscopical examinations showed
destruction of the digestive tract and disturbances of culticulae.

PMID: 2251240 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

219: J Ethnopharmacol. 1989 Nov;27(1-2):129-40.

Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale).

Mascolo N, Jain R, Jain SC, Capasso F.

Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples, Italy.

An ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated for
anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial and hypoglycaemic
activities. In rats, the extract reduced carrageenan-induced paw swelling and
yeast-induced fever but was ineffective in suppressing the writhing induced by
intraperitoneal acetic acid. The extract produced blood glucose lowering in
rabbits. The growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was
significantly inhibited. A dose-dependent inhibition of prostaglandin release
effect was observed using rat peritoneal leucocytes.

Publication Types:
In Vitro
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2615416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

220: Acta Otolaryngol. 1989 Sep-Oct;108(3-4):168-74.

The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo
and dimenhydrinate.

Holtmann S, Clarke AH, Scherer H, Hohn M.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Grosshadern Medical Center,
Ludwig-Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Germany.

A controlled, double-blind study was carried out to determine whether nystagmus
response to optokinetic or vestibular stimuli might be altered by some agent
contained in powdered ginger root (Zingiber officinale). For comparative
purposes, the test subjects were examined after medication with ginger root,
placebo and with dimenhydrinate. Eye movements were recorded using standard ENG
equipment and evaluation was performed by automatic nystagmus analysis. It could
be demonstrated that the effect of ginger root did not differ from that found at
baseline, or with placebo, i.e. it had no influence on the experimentally
induced nystagmus. Dimenhydrinate, on the other hand, was found to cause a
reduction in the nystagmus response to caloric, rotatory and optokinetic
stimuli. From the present study it can be concluded that neither the vestibular
nor the oculomotor system, both of which are of decisive importance in the
occurrence of motion sickness, are influenced by ginger. A CNS mechanism, which
is characteristic of the conventional anti-motion sickness drugs, can thus be
excluded as regards ginger root. It is more likely that any reduction of
motion-sickness symptoms derives from the influence of the ginger root agents on
the gastric system.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 2683568 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

221: Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1989 May;9(5):272-3, 260.

[A clinical study on the treatment of acute upper digestive tract hemorrhage
with wen-she decoction]

[Article in Chinese]

Gong QM, Wang SL, Gan C.

This paper deals with the prospective clinical study on treatment of acute upper
digestive tract hemorrhage with Wen-She decoction (WSD). An opened sequential
controlled trial method of simple orientation quality reaction was adopted in
this study. 7 cases were treated and all of them were cured. It was concluded
that WSD was an excellent therapy to treat the middle or small amount hemorrhage
of acute upper digestive tract. The effective rate of WSD of the stool OB (+)
becoming (-) within 5 days was more than 95%. WSD consists of Codonopsis
pilosulae, Atractylodes macrocephala, Poria cocos, Glycyrrhiza uralensis,
Zingiber officinale, Os sepiae Halloysitum rubrum and Astragalus membranaceus.
It is effective in stopping bleeding by warming the Spleen and tonifying Qi.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 2766422 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

222: Med Hypotheses. 1989 May;29(1):25-8.

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders.

Srivastava KC, Mustafa T.

Department of Environmental Medicine, Odense University, Denmark.

Oxygenation of arachidonic acid is increased in inflamed tissues. In this
condition products of two enzymic pathways--the cyclooxygenase and the
5-lipoxygenase producing respectively prostaglandins and leukotrienes--are
elevated. Of the cyclooxygenase products, PGE2 and of the lipoxygenase products,
LTB4 are the strongest candidates for mediating inflammation. Non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs which inhibit the cyclooxygenase, and corticosteroids
are used to treat such disorders. Both types of drugs produce adverse
side-effects on prolonged use. Ginger is reported in Ayurvedic and Tibb systems
of medicine to be useful in rheumatic disorders. Seven patients suffering from
such disorders reported relief in pain and associated symptoms on ginger

PMID: 2501634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

223: Am J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):57-63.

Studies on herbal aphrodisiacs used in Arab system of medicine.

Qureshi S, Shah AH, Tariq M, Ageel AM.

Research Centre, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi

Toxicity studies were conducted on Brassica rapa, Prunus amygdalus and Zingiber
officinale, used as aphrodisiacs in Arab Medicine. During acute toxicity test
observations were made for 24 h where all these plants showed no toxicity. The
animals were treated for 3 months in chronic treatment. External morphological
changes, visceral toxicity, haematological changes, effects on average body
weight, vital organ weight, sperm contents, sperm motility and sperm
abnormalities were recorded. The average body weight increase was significant in
B. rapa and P. amygdalus treated animals. Haematological studies revealed
reduction in WBC level in these groups. These changes were not significant in Z.
officinale treated animals. In all three groups the visceral condition was
normal and the percent lethality was insignificant as compared to the control.
All these plant extracts significantly increased the sperm motility and sperm
contents in the epididymides and vas deferens without producing any
spermatotoxic effect.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2589237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

224: Am J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):51-6.

Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats.

al-Yahya MA, Rafatullah S, Mossa JS, Ageel AM, Parmar NS, Tariq M.

Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy,
King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The cytoprotective and gastric anti-ulcer studies of ginger have been carried
out in albino rats. Cytodestruction was produced by 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M
NaOH and 25% NaCl. Whereas gastric ulcers were produced by ulcerogenic agents
including indomethacin, aspirin and reserpine, beside hypothermic restraint
stress and by pylorus ligated Shay rat technique. The results of this study
demonstrate that the extract in the dose of 500 mg/kg orally exert highly
significant cytoprotection against 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl
induced gastric lesions. The extract also prevented the occurrence of gastric
ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hypothermic
restraint stress. These observations suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic
effect of the ginger.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 2589236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

225: J Ethnopharmacol. 1988 May-Jun;23(1):91-8.

Effects of certain herbal medicines on the biotransformation of arachidonic
acid: a new pharmacological testing method using serum.

Umeda M, Amagaya S, Ogihara Y.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City
University, Japan.

Two in vitro experimental systems were compared to evaluate the pharmacological
effects of some herbal medicines on the biotransformation of arachidonic acid
(AA) using the microsomal fraction of sheep vesicular glands as an enzyme
source. The first system involved the addition of serum obtained from rats
treated orally with the herbal medicines, while the second system involved the
direct addition of herbal medicine extracts to the enzyme medium. Both systems
were performed in parallel. Indomethacin, used as a reference drug, inhibited AA
biotransformation in a dose-dependent manner in both experimental systems. The
serum of rats orally pretreated for 1 h with Coptis japonica rhizome and Paeonia
lactiflora root also inhibited AA biotransformation. Direct addition of hot
water extracts of Rheum officinale rhizome, Scutellaria baicalensis root,
Paeonia moutan bark and Zingiber officinale rhizome also inhibited AA
biotransformation, while the extracts of Coptis japonica rhizome and Paeonia
lactiflora root showed no effects.

Publication Types:
Comparative Study
In Vitro

PMID: 3138504 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

226: Acta Otolaryngol. 1988 Jan-Feb;105(1-2):45-9.

Ginger root against seasickness. A controlled trial on the open sea.

Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E.

Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Svendborg Hospital, Denmark.

In a double-blind randomized placebo trial, the effect of the powdered rhizome
of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was tested on seasickness. Eighty naval cadets,
unaccustomed to sailing in heavy seas reported during voyages on the high seas,
symptoms of seasickness every hour for 4 consecutive hours after ingestion of 1
g of the drug or placebo. Ginger root reduced the tendency to vomiting and cold
sweating significantly better than placebo did (p less than 0.05). With regard
to vomiting, a modified Protection Index (PI) = 72% was calculated. Remarkably
fewer symptoms of nausea and vertigo were reported after ginger root ingestion,
but the difference was not statistically significant. For all symptom
categories, PI = 38% was calculated.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3277342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

227: J Helminthol. 1987 Sep;61(3):268-70.

Antifilarial effect of Zingiber officinale on Dirofilaria immitis.

Datta A, Sukul NC.

Department of Zoology, Visva-Bharati University, West Bengal, India.

Dogs, naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis, were treated with the
residues of the alcoholic extracts of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale
(ginger). Twelve subcutaneous injections of the extract given at 100 mg/kg
reduced microfilarial concentration in blood by a maximum of 98%. Fifty five
days after the last injection there was 83% reduction in microfilarial
concentration suggesting partial destruction of adult worms. Half of the treated
dogs showed some lethargy at the beginning of treatment possibly due to the mass
annihilation of microfilariae in blood.

Publication Types:
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3668217 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

228: ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 1986;48(5):282-6.

Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root. A controlled clinical study.

Grontved A, Hentzer E.

The effect of powdered ginger root (Zingiber officinale) upon vertigo and
nystagmus following caloric stimulation of the vestibular system was studied in
8 healthy volunteers in a double-blind crossover placebo trial. The results
reported are based upon 48 vertigo scores and 48 electronystagmograms. Ginger
root reduced the induced vertigo significantly better than did placebo. There
was no statistically significant action upon the duration or the maximum slow
phase velocity of nystagmus.

Publication Types:
Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

PMID: 3537898 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

229: J Pharmacobiodyn. 1984 Nov;7(11):836-48.

Pharmacological studies on ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent
constitutents, (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol.

Suekawa M, Ishige A, Yuasa K, Sudo K, Aburada M, Hosoya E.

General pharmacological studies were performed on (6)-gingerol and (6)-shogaol
which are the pungent constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).
Intravenous (i.v.) administration of (6)-gingerol (at 1.75-3.5 mg/kg) or
(6)-shogaol (at 1.75-3.5 mg/kg) and oral administration of them (at 70-140
mg/kg) produced an inhibition of spontaneous motor activity, an antipyretic and
analgesic effects, prolonged hexobarbital-induced sleeping time, and these
effects of (6)-shogaol were mostly more intensive than that of (6)-gingerol.
(6)-Shogaol showed an intense antitussive effect in comparison with
dihydrocodeine phosphate. In the electro-encephalogram of cortex, the low
amplitude fast wave pattern was observed for 5 min after i.v. administration of
(6)-shogaol, and then changed to the drowsy pattern, which was restored after 60
min. In the gastro-intestinal system, (6)-shogaol intensively inhibited the
traverse of charcoal meal through the intestine in contrast with (6)-gingerol
after i.v. administration of 3.5 mg/kg, but (6)-shogaol facilitated such an
intestinal function after oral administration of 35 mg/kg. Both (6)-shogaol and
(6)-gingerol suppressed gastric contraction in situ, and the suppression by the
former was more intensive than that by the latter. In the cardiovascular system,
both (6)-shogaol and (6)-gingerol produced depressor response at lower doses on
the blood pressure. At high doses, both drugs produced three phase pattern.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 6335723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

230: Mutat Res. 1983 Nov;122(2):87-94.

The active part of the [6]-gingerol molecule in mutagenesis.

Nakamura H, Yamamoto T.

A study was performed to discover the active part in mutagenesis of
[6]-gingerol, a mutagen contained in ginger Zingiber officinale (Nakamura and
Yamamoto, 1982). [6]-Shogaol was isolated from the ginger by column
chromatography on silica gel. [6]-Shogaol was much less mutagenic (1 X 10(3)
revertants/10(8) viable cells/700 microM) than [6]-gingerol (1 X 10(7) of the
same units). Mutation frequencies of their related compounds were 4 X 10(1) for
zingerone, 1 X 10(7) for 3-hydroxymyristic acid and 3 X 10(2) for
12-hydroxystearic acid. Curcumin, and myristic, stearic and oleic acids had no
mutagenicity; and diacetone alcohol and butyroin were suppressible for mutation.
It was inferred from these results that the active part of [6]-gingerol was the
aliphatic chain moiety containing a hydroxy group.

PMID: 6361533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

231: J Pharm Sci. 1982 Oct;71(10):1174-5.

Cardiotonic principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

Shoji N, Iwasa A, Takemoto T, Ishida Y, Ohizumi Y.

Publication Types:
In Vitro

PMID: 7143220 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

232: Mutat Res. 1982 Feb;103(2):119-26.

Mutagen and anti-mutagen in ginger, Zingiber officinale.

Nakamura H, Yamamoto T.

When rhizome juice of ginger, zingiber officinale, was added to a solution of
2(2-furyl)-3(5-nitro-2-fury)acryl amide (AF2) or
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG), mutagenesis by these chemicals was
markedly increased. As a result of the component fractionation of the ginger
juice, it was found that [6]-gingerol was a potent mutagen. However, the ginger
juice also contained anti-mutagenic component(s) against [6]-gingerol (CAS No.
58253-27-3) (present study) and tryptophan pyrolysates (Kada et al., 1978;
Morita et al., 1978). It is suggested, therefore, that the [6]-gingerol
component may be mutagenically activated by the presence of AF2 and NTG.

PMID: 7035917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

233: J Chromatogr. 1974 Jun 26;93(2):421-8.

Contribution to the knowledge of Nigerian medicinal plants. 3. Chromatographic
studies on Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Kucera M, Kucerova H.

PMID: 4844344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

234: Yakugaku Zasshi. 1974 Jun;94(6):735-8.

[Studies on the constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by GC-MS
(author's transl)]

[Article in Japanese]

Masada Y, Inoue T, Hashimoto K, Fujioka M, Uchino C.

Publication Types:
English Abstract

PMID: 4472636 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

235: Yakugaku Zasshi. 1973 Mar;93(3):318-21.

[Studies on the pungent principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by

[Article in Japanese]

Masada Y, Inoue T, Hashimoto K, Fujioka M, Shiraki K.

PMID: 4737590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]